Seed Production And Seed Sources Of Organic Vegetables1-Books Pdf

Seed Production and Seed Sources of Organic Vegetables1
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Archival copy for current recommendations see http edis ifas ufl edu or your local extension office. Seed Production and Seed Sources of Organic Vegetables 2. watermelon and some other cucurbits were produced the field twice as long as a conventional crop. using traditional methods in the past Hawthorn et al harvested for fruit and also for increased monitoring. 1954 Commercial peanut seed production also to ensure high seed quality and purity. continues to thrive in Florida There are areas of, Florida that have the potential to produce organic Standard production of vegetable seeds requires. vegetable seeds such as watermelon muskmelon chemical herbicides insecticides fungicides and. and other cucurbits Conditions in Florida are not fertilizers An increase in the amount of chemical. conducive for growing longer season crops such as products used on seed crops may occur due to the. lettuce and carrots due to prolonged high length of time the crops remain in the field As a. temperatures and other environmental conditions result plant diseases and insects have more time to. attack the crop during seed maturation George, Many organic growers want to grow 1993 With these factors playing a role in. open pollinated as well as hybrid cultivars To be conventional seed production the challenges for. considered a hybrid the seed must be the offspring of organic seed production are increased. two parents that differ in one or more heritable, characteristics For example a green bean cultivar The USDA Guidelines for Organic. that has excellent flavor but is susceptible to a certain Produce and Seeds. pest and a different cultivar that is tolerant of the. same pest could be crossed and the new hybrid Organic farming practices began on small farms. might have both excellent flavor and be resistant to in the United States during the 1940s As the. the pest provided the parents are homozygous Seeds diversity of crops labeled organic increased a need. collected from a grown hybrid cultivar will not be arose for certification standards and regulations to. true to type when replanted and thus cannot be saved ensure proper guidelines for growing organic crops. to plant next year s crop Kirschenbaum 2000 By the 1980s the organic industry had increased. dramatically resulting in the establishment of the. One of the alternatives to hybrids is Organic Certification Board which issued the. open pollinated cultivars These are produced by Organic Foods Production Act OFPA identifying. selfing or outcrossing to the same parental type organic produce New laws now stipulate that as of. Other open pollinated cultivars are referred to as October 2002 all producers and handlers must be. heirloom cultivars because they have been grown for certified by a USDA certification agent to label or. many decades There is no standard length of time sell a crop as organically grown The new. that a cultivar has to be grown in order to be regulations also include new standards for seed. considered an heirloom cultivar but generally 40 sources when producing organic crops. years is minimum Kirschenbaum 2000, 205 204 The producer must use organically. Since hybrid production requires obtaining the grown seeds annual seedlings and planting stock. two inbred parents for crossing hybrids are mostly Except That 1 Nonorganically produced untreated. produced by commercial seed companies who own or seeds and planting stock may be used to produce an. develop the parental stocks Thus for smaller organic crop when an equivalent organically. commercial seed companies and producers who grow produced variety is not commercially available. their own organic seeds only open pollinated Except That organically produced seed must be used. cultivars are produced for the production of edible sprouts. Conventional vs Organic Seed Though the guidelines do not require that all. Production seeds be organically produced at present if seeds are. not available by January 2004 a new regulation will. Vegetable crops are produced for two distinct require producers of organic crops to use organically. markets fresh and processed Conventional cultural produced seeds for all crops. practices are fairly similar Growing crops for seed. requires a longer season since the crop must stay in. Archival copy for current recommendations see http edis ifas ufl edu or your local extension office. Seed Production and Seed Sources of Organic Vegetables 3. 5 3 1 Recommended Practices Organically way to deliver water to the crop without wetting. produced seeds seedlings scions and rootstocks vegetative plant parts thereby reducing potential. Other forms of non toxic seed treatments such as hot disease problems. water legume inoculants pelletization when not, involving fungicides Assorted plant and or animal It is important that the fertility of the soil is.
preparations biodynamic preparations microbial improved when producing organically since chemical. activators bacterial inoculants and mycorhizea etc fertilizers cannot be used To ensure good soil fertility. All products must be naturally occurring not the and fewer soil diseases crop rotation use of a cover. result of genetic engineering 5 3 2 Restricted crop green manure crops mulch animal compost. Practices Untreated conventionally produced seed and plant material compost can all be used Florida s. may be used if organically produced seed is soils are generally sandy which provides good. unavailable until 2003 Thereafter organically drainage and ease of tillage yet nutrients are leached. produced seed must be used the extent to which readily during heavy rains Simone et al 2001. producers rely on non plant materials should be, Organic or natural fertilizers are generally made. clearly documented, from bone meal blood meal horse and chicken. Guidelines for Organic Seed manure mushroom compost ash from sunflower. seed hulls and many other substances White 2001, Production. Considerations and modifications must be made, Land Selection depending on the specific land selection and soil. conditions There are many commercial organic, Good farming practices are especially important fertilizers available for organic crops the major ones.
when growing vegetable crops for seed Proper are listed below See Organic Vegetable Production at. selection of land is critical to ensure maximum the UF IFAS Extension publications Web site for a. quality and economic yield Crops should be rotated more extensive list. to reduce pest problems and any potential for seed. contamination by open pollination with similar Composted manure mushroom compost is. species types mostly manure or blood meal or feather meal. used to increase nitrogen content Dried blood is, The seed production field should not have known also a useful nitrogen source when used with. weed problems that are too difficult to control wood chip mulching which is high in carbon and. through organic means as weeds will compete low in nitrogen. significantly with the crop resulting in seed yield and. purity problems Weed management is a major Wood ashes or potash for increased. problem with organic crop production potassium, Land Preparation and Soil Fertilization Rock phosphate often crushed rock that. contains elevated levels of phosphate, Soil should be tilled to ensure a fine seed bed. which is critical for germination particularly with Seaweed extract which is not a fertilizer but. small seeded crops The soil should have good aids plant growth and resistance to pests and. water holding capacity to allow for uniform disease. germination and continued vegetative growth In, Inoculates used with bean and pea seeds provide. Florida the beds should be raised and shaped, beneficial fungi which work with the plant s roots to.
depending on rainfall Uniformity of seedbeds is, help them fix nitrogen from the air Cover crops used. especially important because the seeds are often, between seasons as green manure may increase soil. precision planted and uniform emergence and organic matter for the growing season Simone et al. seedling development are required for optimum, management Proper irrigation is necessary to ensure. growth during droughts Drip irrigation is an effective. Archival copy for current recommendations see http edis ifas ufl edu or your local extension office. Seed Production and Seed Sources of Organic Vegetables 4. Planting Techniques tomato squash and pumpkin making harvesting. difficult McDonald et al 1997 They also spread, Seeds are generally planted directly by drilling in diseases especially viruses which are difficult to. the field or transplanting from a greenhouse grown control conventionally and even more challenging for. seedling These seeds should be organically produced an organic grower. and all transplants must be organically produced The. seeds must be planted in such a way that proper Because the seed crop is in the field for a long. vegetative development occurs that will support fruit period of time there are many opportunities for. and seed development with proper spacing and depth multiple pathogens to interact with a single crop. in the bed Vegetable seeds are greatly influenced by There are also cases where pathogens target the seed. temperature at planting pea lettuce radish beets directly and affect the entire seed population To. onion and spinach grow best at cool temperatures for control these pathogens organically is complex and. optimum emergence Other crops including squash requires proper growing conditions such as suitable. melon tomato pepper and eggplant grow well at temperature and humidity to minimize the incidence. warmer soil temperatures In general the best of such pathogens as powdery mildew which thrives. germination temperature for all these crops is around in high temperature and humidity. Seed producing fields should not be located near, Row spacing and plant densities must allow for commercial vegetable fields Eliminating weeds will.
maximum plant development of the flower and help decrease insect habitats and pathogen spread. unrestricted access to inflorescences for pollinators to from host plants likely to infect the seed crop. ensure proper fruit and seed set Proper spacing will. also allow for improved air movement reducing There are effective pest control methods that. pathogens and providing space for harvest operations control some of the major insect pests and diseases. at the end of the season McDonald et al 1997 organically Visit the following Web sites. http www extremelygreen com, Pollination of crops for seed is also affected by pestcontrolguide cfm and. row spacing and planting densities using larger http www cals ncsu edu sustainable peet IPM. spacing allows for better wind movement and more diseases org cert html to order products used in. room for insect pollinators Crops that are wind organic pest control and see Table 2 for an extensive. pollinated include sweet corn and spinach and those list of suppliers. that are insect pollinated include carrot onion and. broccoli Biological Pest Control, Weed Insect and Fungal Management Another viable pest control method is through. biological control This practice is highly compatible. Management of weeds and pests is critical to with organic seed production and it does not involve. ensure that organically produced seeds have high the use of chemicals Biological control is defined as. yield and quality After harvest of the primary host the decline of pest populations by natural enemies. crop it is common for insect pests to move to another Hoffman et al 1993 Biological control utilizes. crop in a neighboring field This is the case for the three sources of natural enemies that can be used to. Lygus bug which will feed on legume crops until control harmful pests and reduce the use of organic. they are harvested when it will move to umbiliferous pesticides The first group includes parasitoid insects. crops such as carrots Other insects such as cabbage which lay their eggs inside another insect An. looper infest crops in the Brassica family and cause example of a parasitoid insect is the wasp Aphidius. loss of vegetative parts effectively reducing seed colemani which lays its eggs in aphid adults The. yield and quality wasp matures inside the aphid egg killing the aphid. and continuing the wasps life cycle The second, Aphids are a problem especially at harvest group of beneficial insects is predators which eat. because they secrete honeydew on crops including other insects A common predator is the lady beetle. Archival copy for current recommendations see http edis ifas ufl edu or your local extension office. Seed Production and Seed Sources of Organic Vegetables 5. which preys on insects and mites The third group mature red fruit compared to the green fruit In any. includes the weed feeders which feed on weed case wet seeded fruits can be harvested the pulp. populations Insects such as a weevil Hylobius processed and the seeds removed The seeds must. transversovittatus feed on certain weeds including then be washed in water and then dried either in the. purple loosestrife Pathogens such as fungi viruses sun or by rotating in a large drum before oven drying. bacteria and nematodes are also capable of Modifications must be made with certain crops such. destroying weed populations and are called as melons to remove the mucilaginous coating. bioherbicides Reducing weed populations is highly around the seed When the seeds are removed from. See Organic Vegetable Production at the UF IFAS Extension publications Web site for a more extensive list Composted manure mushroom compost is mostly manure or blood meal or feather meal used to increase nitrogen content Dried blood is also a useful nitrogen source when used with wood chip mulching which is high in carbon and low in nitrogen Wood ashes or potash for increased

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