Security Analysis Of Consumer Grade Anti Theft Solutions-Books Pdf

Security Analysis of Consumer Grade Anti Theft Solutions
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The first is the data partition that hosts apps private exploited at scale The authors found that certain phones do. directories it is generally mounted on data An app s not logically sanitise the data partition the internal SD card. private directory cannot be read or written to by other apps and or the external one This may affect devices running. so it is commonly used to store sensitive information such Android from Froyo v2 2 x to KitKat v4 4. as login credentials On older phones with a small data For a fair comparison we take the same approach as. partition one can also install apps on an external SD card Simon and Anderson in that we consider a remote wipe. but this is usually not the default behaviour to be secure or proper if it provides logical sanitisation. The second partition storing user data is the internal. C Bootloader Recovery and Safe Modes, primary SD card Despite its name it is not an SD card. per se but a partition physically stored on the same chip Besides partitions storing personal user data phones also. The internal SD card is mainly used to store multimedia store binary executable files in dedicated partitions Fig 1. files made with the camera and microphone it is generally These contain binaries to boot in normal mode i e Android. exposed to a computer connected via USB via Mass and other less known special modes of operation Android. Storage Media Transfer Protocol MTP or Picture Transfer smartphones generally have three extra modes of operation. Protocol PTP that are useful to our discussion the Bootloader mode the. The last partition containing user data is the external Recovery mode and the Safe mode A user can boot into. removable SD card It offers similar functionality to the them by pressing a combination of hardware keys on the. internal SD card but can be physically inserted and removed device There exist subtle variations between vendors so. by the user If there is no internal SD card on the device the we try to keep the description general. external one becomes the primary SD card otherwise it The Recovery mode is generally a headless Android OS. is called the secondary SD card in this case the primary used for performing updates and backups to the current. SD card is the internal one The primary and secondary installation updates may be stored in external storage or. SD cards are sometimes referred to as external storage sent in band from a computer connected via USB The. Some devices also have hardware key storage When Bootloader is not based on Android and it allows flashing. supported it is used principally by the default Account new software and partitions to a device generally via USB. Manager app To achieve their functionalities both the Recovery and. Bootloader mode must run with high privileges Typically. Code partitions Data partitions this means unrestricted access to both the Android OS. binaries and partitions storing user data There are three. Recovery Bootloader boot sdcard data, kinds of Bootloader and Recovery protections we have found. on devices open protected and locked,private dir app0. private dir app1, Open Bootloaders Recoveries let anyone with physical. access to a device install custom updates We found this. Fig 1 Common Android partitions Each rectangle represents a partition to be true for most Samsung and LG devices in our sample. on the same flash storage Locked Bootloaders attempt to lock devices to a certain. carrier or vendor by enforcing signature verification on. software updates This is true of most HTC devices we. B Level of Sanitisation Factory Resets, encountered To disable the signature verification a locked.
In Section VII we compare the reliability of Android bootloader needs to be unlocked This may be possible. built in Factory Resets with the remote wipe functions of via OS or bootloader exploits HTC also lets users unlock. MAVs For comparison we need to agree on a level of their Bootloader through their website but voids the war. sanitisation The following three levels of data sanitisation ranty of the device thereafter Upon unlock the Bootloader. exist 2 is supposed to wipe all data on the device so as to prevent. The highest level of sanitisation is analog sanitisation thieves from recovering users data after installing forensics. this degrades the analog signal that encodes information software We note that a locked Bootloader Recovery is. so that its reconstruction is impossible even with the most not a panacea as the key used to sign a software update. advanced sensing equipment and expertise is owned by the vendor an insider or a server or CA. The second level is digital sanitisation Data in digitally compromise could leak it to attackers We stress that this. sanitised storage cannot be recovered via any digital means is not a hypothetical scenario for one phone in our sample. including the bypass or compromise of the device s con we found an implementation of Recovery that passed the. troller or firmware or via undocumented drive commands signature verification and let us root the device In practice. The third level is logical sanitisation Data in logically a locked Bootloader Recovery may provide enough security. sanitised storage cannot be recovered via standard hardware for average users but not for firms with high assurance. interfaces like standard eMMC commands requirements. Simon and Anderson 1 studied the reliability of built in Protected Bootloaders Recoveries genuinely try to protect. Factory Resets in the context of logical sanitisation because users the lock does not serve any business purpose Users. it is the only one that is cheap and may be profitable if are empowered to unlock their Bootloader to install custom. software without voiding the warranty This is mostly true wipeData int flag function to perform a wipe It cur. of Google phones Unlike open and locked Bootloaders rently supports wiping the data partition only flag 0. a protected one can be re locked If a thief wants to or with the additional wiping of the primary SD card. install forensic software on the device he can unlock the flag WIPE EXTERNAL STORAGE The API does not. Bootloader but this will also wipe the device s data support wiping the secondary external SD card Internally. The Safe Mode boots the main Android OS but disables wipeData uses the device s built in Factory Reset so its. all user installed apps This is primarily used for users to reliability varies across devices as detailed in Section II B. un install misbehaving apps for example malware that may An admin app with the force lock policy can also use. lock the screen and render the phone unusable Even though the built in PIN screen to lock the phone screen e g by. apps are disabled in the user interface they can still be invoking the lockNow function One additional security. launched via a shell Obtaining a shell can be achieved by protection is that an admin MAV cannot be un installed. first enabling the Android Debug Bridge adb developer unless its admin privileges are first removed in the default. option in the default phone Settings and then plugging the Android Settings Nevertheless even an admin MAV has. device into a computer via USB By design this gives a limitations it cannot access other apps private directories. shell prompt on the computer to interact with the device in the data partition nor can it bypass the file system to. read write arbitrary content from to storage,D Mobile Anti Virus MAV Apps and Device Admin API. If a user forgets to enable the admin permission for a. Mobile Anti Virus MAV apps have already been down MAV the app can neither use built in wipe and lock features. loaded hundreds of millions of times from the Google Play nor overwrite partitions reliably bit by bit to sanitise data. store They generally achieve their remote anti theft pro storage Therefore it must resort to less reliable ad hoc. tections with an app installed on the device in combination mechanisms For example it may use public Android APIs. with an online web interface accessible from a standard web with the traditional permissions granted at installation time. browser A user who loses his phone can log in the web like contact APIs to remove contacts from the Phonebook. interface and remotely instruct the phone app to wipe or app However this generally results in the deletion of. lock the device An exception amongst the apps we studied records in the associated SQLite file which does not provide. was Dr web instead of using a web interface it requires logical sanitisation For external storage a non admin app. users to define trusted phone numbers from which a user may fill existing files with random bytes unlink them create. can send remote commands to his lost phone via SMS new ones in the hope of overwriting unallocated file system. A simple attack against anti theft solutions is the use of space or format the partition User installed apps generally. Faraday bags to block all radio frequency communications do not expose sanitisation APIs on the phone so their data. between a stolen device and its cloud service thereby would typically remain intact As for the screen lock a MAV. preventing any remote action from a device s owner We could detect when it loses screen focus and subsequently. leave this problem aside for the moment and discuss possible launch one of its views a k a Android Activities to. countermeasures in Section VIII In the following sections foreground. we highlight other important issues which we believe are. relevant to improve the reliability of current anti theft solu. tions in general AndroidManifest xml, All MAVs make use of a special set of functions ac receiver android permission BIND DEVICE ADMIN. intent filter, cessible via Android s Device Administration API that action android name DEVICE ADMIN ENABLED. provides administration features at the system level Once intent filter. intent filter, an application is granted access to this API it becomes a action android name DEVICE DISABLE REQUESTED. device admin and gains access to security policies like intent filter. the password policy e g to enforce password strength. or the encryption policy Each policy within the admin device admin xml. device admin, set must be explicitly requested in an app s manifest uses policies.
Fig 2 shows the relevant code for requesting access to reset password. force lock, the force lock wipe data reset password and wipe data. disable camera policies Unlike traditional Android disable camera. uses policies, permissions the admin permission and policies are not device admin. granted at installation time they must be approved all at. once by a user in the Android default Settings When not Fig 2 Device admin request example Permission and action names are. granted an app can still run but without admin privi purposely shortened for readability Two broadcast receivers are declared. one to receive a notification when the user has accepted the admin. leges The two admin policies relevant to our study are permission another when the user is trying to disable it in the default. the wipe and screen lock policies that can be used to Android Settings Four policies are requested. protect users data when devices are lost At runtime an. admin app with the wipe data policy can invoke the. III M ETHODOLOGY Nevertheless there is no valid reason for MAVs to limit the. length of passwords for more paranoid users, We restricted ourselves to the 10 most downloaded MAVs. Online rate limiting is a natural defensive measure against. on Google Play the Google Device Admin app was not in. online guessing attacks At the time of our study we. the top 10 We downloaded them from a Samsung Galaxy S. found that three products implemented it McAfee Norton. Plus phone between Nov 2013 and Apr 2014 Our Samsung. and Lookout column online rate limiting in Table I. Galaxy S Plus runs Gingerbread v2 3 5 has a primary SD. For Norton the lockout period did not work when we. card formatted in FAT and we inserted a secondary 2GB. tested Since our study finished more MAV solutions have. removable SD card in its slot We conducted a review of. implemented rate limiting in their web interface but many. apps code using apktool5 and simple run time analysis to. still fail to enforce it in within the app It is important. confirm our findings We report our findings on the general. to realise that while account locking might thwart an all. security of MAV solutions in the following sections and. out targeted online guessing a slower distributed throttled. specifically focus on anti theft functions in Section VI and. attack might still succeed 4 Rate limiting and account. Section VII We also report on the discussions we had. locking also interact poorly with targeted smartphone theft. with MAV developers after the responsible disclosure of our. if prior to stealing a device an attacker can lock her victim s. account or render its access slower she can prevent him. IV ACCOUNT AUTHENTICATION from remotely locking or wiping the stolen device. Response from MAVs MAVs that responded acknowl, MAVs are sensitive permission hungry and their web edged these findings They generally pointed out that usable. interface is a proxy to the rich functionalities they offer authentication is challenging Therefore we think this is an. Through the web interface MAVs offer sensitive functions area worth investigation for future research. such as access to personal data backups remotely taking.

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