Screening And Vaccination As Determined By The Social-Books Pdf

Screening and vaccination as determined by the Social
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Nyambe et al BMC Public Health 2016 16 1166 Page 2 of 15. Background The Theory of Triadic Influence, Prevention refers to the efforts of society to promote The TTI was developed by Flay Snyder and Petraitis. protect and sustain the health of the population This in 1994 as an integrative theory for health related be. paper focuses on vaccination and screening as primary haviors 7 It borrows from and builds of the ideas. and secondary prevention measures respectively The of Bronfenbrenner and Bandura 8 The TTI assumes. aim of vaccination is to actively limit the incidence of that the trail of a behavior is determined by one s decisions. disease by protecting the population from attack before or intentions It is organized in a 3 3 framework with. being affected 1 2 whereas screening tests identify three levels influence causation and three streams of. asymptomatic individuals who may have the disease influence 7. from those who probably do not 2 The levels of causation include ultimate distal and. All parts of the health system have an important role proximal Proximal or immediate variables are those that. in the prevention of health problems 1 Elder Lytle have direct effects on behavior and are under the control. Sallis et al 3 concluded that socio ecological frame of an individual although still influenced by the distal. works are essential in programs or studies that employ and ultimate factors Distal level variables are divided. multi level interventions and measurement strategies into first level influences social personal nexus and. Two key concepts of the ecological perspective help to second level evaluations and expectancies and are. identify intervention points for promoting health 1 composed of variables that individuals are likely to have. behavior both affects and is affected by multiple levels some control over but not as much as proximal influ. of influence 2 individual behavior both shapes and is ences Ultimate variables represent the underlying causes. shaped by the social environment causation 4 of behavior that are broad and relatively stable which. Accordingly a number of multi level models have individuals have little or no control over 7. been developed which incorporate all the different social The types or streams of influence include Intraper. and ecological factors that can affect health behavior in sonal influences which are characteristics that contribute. one single model such as the Social Ecological Model to self efficacy regarding specific behaviors Interper. and the Theory of Triadic Influence Both provide a sonal Social Influences which are the social situation. multilevel framework that can be used to study health context or micro environment that contribute to social. behavior and the social environment normative beliefs about specific behaviors and the. Cultural Environmental Influences which are multiple. socio cultural macro environmental factors that contrib. The Social Ecological Model ute to attitudes toward specific behaviors Within each. The SEM was developed out of the work of a number of stream of influence are two sub streams cognitive. eminent researchers including Bronfenbrenner s Ecological rational and affective emotional 7 The TTI not only. Systems Theory 1979 McLeroy Bibeau Steckler et al considers major influences of behavior as those within. Ecological Model of Health Behaviors 5 and Daniel the three streams but it also considers the interactions. Stokols Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion between stream paths and behavioral experience feed. 1992 2003 4 6 back loops An additional file shows Figure S2 Theory. The below systematic review considers all versions of of Triadic Influence see Additional file 2. the SEM However focus is on the SEM conceived by, McLeroy et al 5 because it is one of the more com Relevance of a systematic review of SEM and TTI. mon utilized versions The SEM targets five levels rings The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the. of influence for health related behaviors and conditions main differences and similarities of SEM and TTI re. which are Intrapersonal individual factors for individual garding screening and vaccination in order to prepare. characteristics such as developmental history knowledge potentially successful prevention programs for practice. attitudes behavior self concept and skills Interpersonal in general and cervical cancer prevention in Zambia in. processes primary groups these are social networks and particular By default this systematic review benefits. support systems Institutional organizational factors for researchers who consider application of these models by. social institutions with organizational characteristics and compiling the work of those authors who have had an. rules and regulations for operation community factors for opportunity to utilize them. relationships among organizations institutions and net The SEM and TTI were selected for review because. works and finally Public policy factors for local state and both models allow for the integration of multiple levels of. national laws and policies 5 The assumption is that influence to establish an overall view of health behavior. people both influence and are influenced by those around change in this case the uptake of vaccines and medical. them 4 An additional file shows Figure S1 Social screening Changing individual s behavior by providing. Ecological Model see Additional file 1 them with the necessary skills and motivation is only. Nyambe et al BMC Public Health 2016 16 1166 Page 3 of 15. possible if environments and contexts are also considered Outcome Set of optimal preventive measures by. Both models target mechanisms of change at several dif SEM and TTI. ferent levels of influence involving both individual level Language Include only studies that are in English. and environmental policy level interventions language. The SEM compared to TTI is a more commonly uti, lized ecological model and has been applied for develop All types of study designs were included in this review. ing for example screening interventions For this reason as long as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria This is due. the SEM is an appropriate model to discuss in this to the fact that there are few studies that utilize the SEM. review In contrast the TTI was selected because com and even less studies the TTI Studies were considered. pared to other multi level models it appears to greatly eligible for the review if they involved human partici. differ in structure and complexity with the SEM Flay et pants and followed the SEM or the TTI i e the full. al 7 indicated that the TTI was used to conduct a conceptual frameworks or modified versions of the. screening study suggesting this model is appropriate for frameworks. studies focusing on screening and vaccination The ques The focus was on all diseases or conditions that can. tion is therefore justified which of these models would be vaccinated and or screened Special interest was given. be most effective in designing an effective screening and to cancer because of future research plans Substance. vaccination program abuse risk behavior studies were included if the study il. Summarizing this review addresses the research ques lustrated the use of the TTI regardless of whether there. tion What are the main differences and similarities of was a primary or secondary prevention intervention. the SEM and TTI regarding screening and vaccination This was due to the fact that very few studies that utilize. programs the TTI address screening and or vaccination The TTI. was initially developed for substance abuse studies. Methods therefore inclusion of studies that focus on substance. Criteria for selecting studies for this review abuse was relevant to illustrate the use of the TTI The. The systematic review protocol was based on guidelines geographic location was not a factor in this review. from the Cochrane Reviewer s Handbook 9 to deter We also took into account the types of outcome mea. mine the extent that screening and vaccination as pro sures that is the factors that predict health behavior. posed by the SEM and TTI are different The inclusion choices such as knowledge access to health care facil. criteria for articles in the systematic review were the ities and personal beliefs The SEM and the TTI frame. following works state that health behavior choices are influenced. by a number of factors When these factors are consid. Geography Include any country Priority given to ered they should therefore be able to predict whether a. Sub Saharan African countries health behavior is practiced in this case screening and. Time Include studies starting from the year 2000 vaccination For the review it was expanded to include. to date the acquisition and cessation of risk behavior and. Participants Includes all people with health substance abuse as mentioned earlier for the sake of the. behavior affected from intrapersonal interpersonal TTI which has relatively few studies that address screen. organizational community and policy level in ing and vaccination. accordance with the SEM For the TTI from Literature searches were performed using Medline. ultimate distal and proximal levels as well as Ovid Proquest PubMed University of Antwerp Discovery. intrapersonal interpersonal social and socio cultural Service and Web of Science Searches were conducted. environment streams during January and February of the year 2015 The. Disease Priority is given to cancers and diseases searches were generated for a time span from 2000 to the. that can be screened or vaccinated against Also present Other criteria specified were English language. include substance abuse risk behavior if they academic journal articles and for databases where it was. illustrate the use of the TTI possible human participants was specified. Exposure Intervention Primary and secondary The SEM produced a vast number of results compared. prevention procedures including vaccination to the TTI It was therefore decided to narrow down the. screening methods and control of risk behavior search for SEM studies to include only screening and. Comparison May not be applicable in this study vaccination while for TTI all studies were searched for. but will include people who do not practice primary due to the low number of results produced Therefore. and secondary prevention measures the search terms for the SEM studies were Social. Study Model Include Social Ecological Model and Ecological Model AND Screening Social Ecological. Theory of Triadic Influence Model AND Vaccination Social Ecological Model AND. Nyambe et al BMC Public Health 2016 16 1166 Page 4 of 15. Vaccine Social Ecological Model AND Immunisation i General Study Details For information on aims. Social Ecological Model AND immunization The Boolean research questions hypothesis study setting units of. search term was the word AND For TTI studies the observation level of analysis target disease and. search term was Theory of Triadic Influence The full category of treatment investigated. search strategies for each database are summarized in ii Evaluation Design Focused on indicating the type. Table 1 below of study design independent variables and the. extent of use of the study model whether it is, completely used or modified in some way. Data collection and analysis iii Data Sources 1 Facilitators This was filled in only. Prior to commencing the review a Data Extraction Form for studies that used facilitators to assist in obtaining. was developed to assist with data extraction The form data from participants If more than one type of. was divided into two sections Only studies that had facilitator was used then this part was repeated to. adequate inclusion criteria were fully evaluated by the cover all facilitators It included information on. Data Extraction Form All studies had to have the first source sample size sampling design and. section completed and it had two parts recruitment method. iv Data Sources 2 Actual Participants This was, i General Information This included date of data information on actual participants of the study such.
extraction general publication information such as as the target population sample size basic. the title of the publication the type of publication demographic characteristics sampling strategy data. and source of the publication collection methods and finally main outcome. ii Inclusion Exclusion Criteria These were questions measures that were assessed This part was also. based on the criteria for including studies such as repeated if more than one type of study participant. indicating the study model that is used whether SEM was assessed in the study. or TTI type of participants and setting whether it v Analysis and Evaluation This part focused on. was a primary or secondary prevention study the indicating the analysis plan be it for qualitative or. presence of conclusions and finally the decision to quantitative study plans If bias was noticed in the. include the study or not If the study was not induced study it was indicated here. then the reason for exclusion would be stated vi Results and Evaluation This part illustrated the. positive and negative outcome measures assessed the. If the article fulfilled the inclusion criteria then it will overview of the effectiveness of the SEM TTI and. further be analyzed under the Characteristics of Included whether effect size and power calculation was. Studies section This section was divided into seven parts considered in the study<. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Screening and vaccination as determined by the Social Ecological Model and the Theory of Triadic Influence a systematic

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