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Schema Theory MIT
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Major Researchers, F C Bartlett in Remembering 1932 was the first to write extensively about schemas. as they applied to procedural memory though the distinction between declarative and. procedural had not been made yet at that time, o Movement e g driving a car or playing a sport is not simply a matter of. stimulus response We do not produce an exact copy of a previous movement. nor do we create something entirely new, o Past experiences help us make sense of new experiences by supplying us with. expectations and frameworks for action, o Bartlett first wrote in the early 20th century when the prevailing theory was. behaviorism which was largely concerned with observable stimuli and behavior. Jean Piaget 1896 1980 credited as first to create a cognitive development theory. which included schemas, o New information is added or assimilated into current schemas.
o Cognitive dissonance is caused by new information which cannot be easily. integrated, o Schemas are forced to change or accommodate this new information. o Three factors cause cognitive development biological development which. progresses in stages interaction with the world of nature and objects and. interaction with others, David Rumelhart 1975 Posed that there is an underlying grammar of stories and that. experience with this grammar would help in the understanding of new stories. Roger Schank and Abelson 1977 Proposed that humans develop a grammar for. procedural knowledge in the form of a script for all common events in our lives. o They wrote a computer program which was able to answer questions about. events in a restaurant based on scripts for what typically takes place in. restaurants, o In 1982 Schank proposed that there are deeper levels in how scripts are. organized which account for scripts which share attributes e g waiting on line. at a restaurant and waiting on line at a Post Office. Brewer and Treyens 1981 conducted an experiment where subjects were asked to wait. in an office for 30 seconds When removed and asked what they saw in the office many. reported seeing things which were not present for example books The presumption is. that most people s schemas of office includes books. Alba and Hasher 1983 suggested four ways schema might affect memory. 1 Guide attention to relevant information for encoding. 2 Allow specific stimuli to be encoded as abstractions to be stored as meaning. without details, 3 Assist in interpreting new information by providing the relevant prior knowledge. 4 Provide the means to integrate the previous three steps into a single memory. and provide the framework for reconstruction of that memory when required. John R Anderson 1983 formulated a model of cognition know as ACT R Adaptive. Control of Thought Rational which describes the process of encoding and using. schemas particularly in mathematics and problem solving He was the first to employ. the use of both declarative and procedural schema in his theory His work is based in. neuroscience and computer artificial intelligence ACT R is actually published as. computer code and is made available to researchers. Perspectives, Historical Context and Schema Research.
In the latter half of 20th century psychologists began to focus more on human cognition. and less on behaviorism, The widespread use of computers also had an effect on the theories of how we store. and use information in our brain Many models of cognition were based largely on how. computers function, In the last 40 years cognitive science has shifted its study from small scale knowledge. structures e g encoding words and simple concepts to the study of large scale. knowledge structures and how they interact Hampson Morris 1996. Self Schema and Adult Development, Self schema is a term used to describe knowledge we accumulate about ourselves by. interacting with the natural world and with other human beings which in turn influences. our behavior towards others and our motivations, The self schema continues to develop throughout life supporting the life span. developmental perspective, Because information about the self is continually coming into the system as a.
result of experience and social interaction the self schema will be constantly. evolving over the life span Lemme 2006, Schema and Adult Learning and Development. Schema continue to develop over the course of adulthood as our microsystem. mesosystem and exosystem change Even as adults retire and age they are placed in. new situations requiring the accommodation and assimilation of new knowledge and. experience, Late life in particular is full of many complex events which require. learning new or modifying old behaviors particularly for health. compensation and adaptability For example changing living. arrangements from one s home to an assisted living facility is. complex and stressful and challenges existing coping strategies and. requires adaptive compensation Thornton 2003, Schema theory reinforces the importance of prior knowledge to learning and the use of. tools such as advance organizers and memory aids to bridge new knowledge to older. knowledge stored in schema Merriam Caffarella Baumgartner 2007. In post formal thought we are better able to balance two contradicting schema by. preserving both separately until the ability to maintain a relativistic outlook decreases. Schema and Gender, Gender schema theory states that children develop gender schema based on their. experiences and the gender attributes of their culture An individual s self schema is. merged with the culturally determined schema for their gender Bern 1983. the phenomenon of sex typing derives in part from gender schematic. processing Specifically the theory proposes that sex typing results in. part from the assimilation of the self concept itself to the gender. schema As children learn the contents of their society s gender schema. they learn which attributes are to be linked with their own sex and. hence with themselves Bern 1983, Schema and Culture.
There are two aspects to schema and culture First we develop schemas for our own. and other cultures We then may develop a schema for cultural understanding. Cultural information and experiences are stored in schemas and support cultural. The nature of schemas work to support one s own cultural identity Once a schema is. formed it focuses our attention on aspects of the culture as experienced and by. assimilating accommodating or rejecting aspects which don t conform. A schema for understanding culture is culture general that is it reflects knowledge. that applies to all cultures Renstch Mot Abbe 2009. A schema for cultural understanding contrasts with the rigid structure of a stereotype. A schema for cultural understanding is more than just a stereotype. about the members of a culture Whereas stereotypes tend to be rigid. a schema is dynamic and subject to revision Whereas stereotypes tend. to simplify and ignore group differences a schema can be quite. complex Renstch Mot Abbe 2009, References, Anderson J R 2000 Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications 5th ed New York NY Worth Publishers. Bern S L 1983 Gender Schema Theory and Its Implications for Child Development Raising Gender Aschematic. Children in a Gender Schematic Society Signs 8 4 598 616. Hampson P J Morris P E 1996 Understanding Cognition Cambridge MA Blackwell Publishers Inc. Lemme B H 2006 Development in Adulthood Boston MA Pearson Education Inc. Merriam S B Caffarella R S Baumgartner L M 2007 Learning in Adulthood San Francisco CA Jossey Bass. Rentsch J R Mot I Abbe A 2009 Identifying the Core Content and Structure of a Schema for Cultural. Understanding Technical Report 1251 Arlington VA United States Army Research Institute. Thornton J E 2003 Life span learning A developmental perspective International Journal of Aging and Human. 1 Schema Theory Jeff Pankin Fall 2013 Basic Concepts Definition Schema theory is a branch of cognitive science concerned with how the brain structures knowledge

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