Regional Agricultural Policy RAP,Country Summary Agricultural. Policy Review Reports,January 2011, Directorate of Food Agriculture and Natural Resources. SADC Secretariat,P Bag 0095 Gaborone,Copyright SADC 2010 All Rights Reserved. The information contained in this publication may be freely used and copied for non. commercial purposes provided that any information reproduced elsewhere be accompanied. by an acknowledgement of SADC as the source, The SADC name and emblem are the exclusive property of Southern African Development. Community They are protected under international law Unauthorized use is prohibited They. may not be copied or reproduced in any way without the prior written permission of SADC. Requests for permission should be sent to the Executive Secretary of the SADC Secretariat. Further usage for details of this publication may be sourced from the SADC Secretariat. SADC Secretariat,SADC Headquarters,Plot No 54385 CBD Square. Private Bag 0095,Gaborone Botswana,Tel 267 3951863. Fax 267 3972848,Email registry sadc int,Web site www sadc int. MEMBER STATES OF THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN,DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY SADC. SADC Member States Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of Congo. Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique,Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland United. Republic of Tanzania Zambia and Zimbabwe, SADC Headquarters SADC Secretariat Gaborone Botswana. COUNTRY SUMMARY AGRICULTURAL,POLICY REVIEW REPORTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS,1 FOREWORD 1,2 INTRODUCTION 2,3 The Republic Of Angola 6. 4 The Republic Of Botswana 30,5 The Democratic Republic Of Congo DRC 59. 6 The Kingdom Of Lesotho 80,7 The Republic Of Madagascar 104. 8 The Republic Of Malawi 125,9 The Republic Of Mauritius 156. 10 The Republic Of Mozambique 195,11 The Republic Of Namibia 208. 12 The Republic Of Seychelles 243,13 The Republic Of South Africa 261. 14 The Kingdom Of Swaziland 294,15 The United Republic Of Tanzania 330. 16 The Republic Of Zambia 351,17 The Republic Of Zimbabwe 366. In the Declaration on Productivity of 1999 SADC Member States noted that the region continued to. record low levels of economic growth low levels of investment high levels of unemployment and poverty. lack of competitiveness of regional economies and intra regional and inter regional economic disparities. all of which negatively impact on the SADC region s development integration and competitiveness. In 2003 the same trends were noted in the SADC Regional Indicative Strategic Plan RISDP In an. effort to reverse this trend the RISDP suggested a roadmap for the agriculture sector that emphasized. focus on improved food availability access to food and improved nutritional value of food while. minimizing food losses improving forecasting prevention mitigation and recovery from adverse effects of. natural disasters and improving the institutional framework The RISDP further noted that the absence. of a binding legal instrument on food security and agricultural development is a major weakness in the. food security strategy, In the 2004 SADC Dar es Salaam Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security Heads of State and. Government noted that inappropriate national agricultural and food policies and inadequate access by. farmers to key agricultural inputs and markets are still among the major underlying reasons for the. prevalence of hunger in the region In order to address these anomalies the SADC Heads of State and. Government in support of the RISDP called for the implementation of a series of short and long term. measures aimed at strengthening sectoral cooperation between SADC Member States through the. development of coherent regional policies and programmes related to crop development protection. storage processing utilisation and trade, Informed by the above in August 2007 the SADC Council approved the revised priorities of the SADC. Secretariat Under the FANR Directorate Food Security and Management of Transboundary Natural. Resources and Environment were considered priority Elements within this priority area included Food. Availability in particular review and harmonisation of the policy for agriculture and natural resources and. access to food As SADC progressively deepens regional integration among Member States there is. need to adapt the agriculture and food security policy environment so as to take full advantage of related. opportunities arising from deeper regional integration. Through the proposed Regional Agricultural Policy RAP SADC therefore intends to develop a legally. binding instrument to stimulate sustainable agricultural development and food security in the SADC. region The RAP will therefore define common agreed objectives and measures to guide promote and. support actions at regional and national levels in the agricultural sector in support of regional integration. and in contribution to the attainment of the SADC Customs Union and Common Market The RAP is. intended to give real effect to pragmatically implement existing declarations and frameworks. The SADC Secretariat wishes to thank all those whose efforts have aided in the success recorded in this. scoping phase in the formulation of the RAP In particular the Secretariat wishes to acknowledge and. thank the FAO and the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs for their technical and financial. support thus far in the formulation of the RAP In addition the Secretariat appreciates and acknowledges. the contribution of Mr Martin T Muchero who coordinated the scoping phase of the RAP and compiled. this report,Margaret Nyirenda, Food Agriculture and Natural Resources Directorate. SADC Secretariat,SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY. In partnership with, The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Southern African Regional Strategic,Ministry of Foreign Analysis and Knowledge. Confederation of Agricultural,European Affairs Support System. INTRODUCTION,SADC Regional Agricultural Policy,1 Background. The agriculture sector features prominently in the SADC regional economy contributing in the different. Member States between 4 and 27 of Gross Domestic Product GDP About 70 of the population. depend on agriculture for food income and employment Agriculture is also a major source of exports in. several countries contributing on average about 13 to total export earnings and about 66 to the value. of intra regional trade For these reasons the performance of agriculture has a strong influence on the. rate of economic growth the level of employment demand for other goods economic stability food. security and overall poverty eradication Most governments of the SADC Member States are however. fully aware that in recent decades food production donor aid flows government budgetary allocations to. agriculture and rural development have declined while food imports food aid and population have. substantially increased, The need for macroeconomic and sectoral policy convergence and harmonization have been fully. recognized as prerequisites for accelerated shared growth and regional economic integration in the. Declaration Treaty and Protocol of SADC signed in 1992 Article 5 1 e and Article 5 2 a state under. Objectives that SADC shall, achieve complementarity between national and regional strategies and harmonize. political and economic policies and plans of Member States while Article 21 2 states. under Areas of Cooperation that Member States shall though appropriate institutions. of SADC coordinate rationalize and harmonize their overall macroeconomic and. sectoral policies strategies programmes and projects in the areas of cooperation a. food security land and agriculture, Article 29 of the SADC Protocol on Trade provides for the Coordination of Trade Policies. Member States shall to their best endeavour coordinate their trade policies and. negotiating positions in respect of relations with third countries or groups of third. countries and international organizations as provided for in Article 24 of the Treaty to. facilitate and accelerate the achievement of the objectives of this Protocol. In the Declaration on Productivity of 1999 SADC Member States noted that the region continued to. record low levels of economic growth low levels of investment high levels of unemployment and poverty. lack of competitiveness of regional economies and intra regional and inter regional economic disparities. all which negatively impact on the SADC region s development integration and competitiveness. In 2003 the same trends were noted in the SADC Regional Indicative Strategic Plan RISDP In an. effort to reverse this trend the RISDP suggested a roadmap for the agriculture sector that emphasized. focus on improved food availability access to food and improved nutritional value of food while. minimizing food losses improving forecasting prevention mitigation and recovery from adverse effects of. natural disasters and improving the institutional framework The RISDP further noted that the absence. of a binding legal instrument on food security and agricultural development is a major weakness in the. food security strategy, The SADC Dar es Salaam Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security signed by SADC Heads of State. in May 2004 further noted that inappropriate national agricultural and food policies and inadequate access. by farmers to key agricultural inputs and markets are still major underlying reasons for the prevalence of. SADC Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan August 2003. INTRODUCTION 2, hunger in the region The Heads of State called for a series of short and long term measures to address. the regional food crisis with emphasis on actions needed to strengthen sectoral cooperation between. Members States through the development of coherent regional policies and programmes related to crop. and livestock production protection storage processing utilization and trade. Food security and agriculture have been given very high priority in the Africa Union AU New Partnership. for Africa s Development NEPAD vision and a Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development. Programme CAADP has been prepared to realize this priority At the initiative of FAO and with the. collaboration of the NEPAD Steering Committee and the African Development Bank a high level meeting. organized in Abuja 7 12 December 2002 took a number of decisions chief among which included. harmonization of policies programmes and initiatives of Regional Economic Communities RECs in the. The SADC Donor Consultative Conference held in Windhoek Namibia in April 2006 also noted the. absence of coherent policies to support agricultural development at both national and regional level as. one of the major impediments to agricultural growth in general and food security in particular. Consequently the conference recommended the development of a harmonized regional agricultural. policy aligned to national policies that is consistent with the SADC Regional Indicative Strategic. Development Plan RISDP and the SADC Dar es Salaam Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security. 2 SADC Food Agriculture and Natural Resource FANR Directorate. The Food Agriculture and Natural Resources FANR Directorate of the SADC Secretariat is mandated to. develop promote coordinate and facilitate the harmonisation of policies and programmes in order to. increase agricultural and natural resources production and promote trade and ensure food security and. economic development in the region on a sustainable basis To this end SADC FANR has in recent. years achieved significant progress in furthering policy convergence with respect to seed policy. harmonization the control of animal and plant pests and diseases GMOs and Bio safety Efforts are also. underway to formulate common standards for production handling and disposal of fertilizer However as. indicated in the RISDP several strategically important gaps remain and one such gap is the development. of a binding legal instrument on food security and agricultural development. Following SADC Council approval in August 2007 of the revised priorities of the SADC Secretariat the. FANR Directorate with technical and financial support from the FAO funded by the French Ministry of. Foreign and European Affairs embarked on the preliminary processes in March 2008 in the formulation. of the SADC Regional Agricultural Policy, A common agricultural policy for SADC would i create a framework for harmonizing and integrating. policy objectives strategies and programmes of the Member States ii provide opportunities to capitalize. on the trade benefits of improved resource allocation and greater competition iii permit a wider range of. projects to be implemented under the RISDP iv provide improved market access to other countries v. promote the objectives of multilateralism facilitate implementation of politically difficult domestic policies. and vi strengthen multilateral bargaining power in international fora A common agricultural policy would. also facilitate the preparation of requests and serve as a catalyst to attract and channel urgently needed. additional external assistance and investment for agriculture in a more prioritized and coherent manner. Depending on the degree of integration and policy convergence agreed to by Member States other. potential trade related advantages could also be attained. 3 SADC RAP Formulation Processes, It was envisioned that the regional agricultural policy would be formulated on the basis of a series of. preparatory and interim country and regional analytical reviews and studies as well as the. SADC Donor Conference Namibia April 2006 Report of Group Session on Food Security. INTRODUCTION 3, recommendations of national and regional workshop reports The formulation steps therefore envisaged. a Country Level Reviews where national Consultants would undertake a review of the macro. socio economic and agricultural situation and policies in each SADC Member State covering. inter alia the following, Priorities objectives assets constraints and incentives of the different stakeholders in the. agricultural sector and, Collection and collation of secondary data and information on selected issues of relevance. to a common agricultural policy with reference to intraregional trade recent and ongoing. initiatives programmes and activities This would cover inter alia. o The management of natural resources and protection of the environment. o Consideration of the long term sustainability of agriculture especially in the context of. land degradation, o Impact of agricultural expansion on deforestation. o Management of information at national level on supplies and utilization of stocks of. essential commodities and trade in them and, o Technology use and transfer seed and livestock security and supply and the cost and. impact of existing trade and finance policies, b National Validation Workshops would then be conducted one in each SADC Member State to. review the assessment report of the National Consultant determine areas having regional. dimensions for promoting common policy orientations in agriculture and agree on specific. recommendations for the SADC RAP, c A preliminary draft framework of the RAP would then be prepared based on the validated. findings and recommendations of the country level consultations as well as the advice and. guidance of regional partners and SADC s International Cooperating Partners ICPs This draft. framework would aim to collate areas of convergence arising from the national reports and. propose methods and means of ensuring agreement on areas of divergence and the legal. instruments required to ensure compliance with its protocols. The draft framework would draw on past and current processes and related reports of studies on. harmonization of policies and economic integration in other regions in Africa It would take fully. into account the RISDP and the Dar es Salaam Declaration It would assess the global and. regional economic outlook for agricultural commodities and the implications for the SADC RAP. particularly the prospects and challenges for trade within the region and between SADC and the. rest of the world It will also take into account the CAADP framework and the steps necessary to. ensure consistent regional approaches for its implementation It will also assess the current. status in removing barriers to intraregional agricultural trade in the SADC region and identify. priorities and measures needed to accelerate implementation of existing agreements and. protocols This draft RAP framework would be reviewed at a high level regional workshop. attended by representatives from all SADC Member States. The draft RAP framework would also draw on a number of specialized studies designed to help. realistically assess the advantages and disadvantages of a RAP the desirable degree of. agricultural integration the pace at which countries could be feasibly expected to move towards. integration and the possible phases in that process the expected financial and social implications. of implementing the RAP and other technical and cross cutting issues of regional importance. d A second draft Policy Statement of the RAP would then be prepared on the basis of the. recommendations of the high level regional workshop and input from specialised studies before. submission to the SADC approval process,INTRODUCTION 4. 4 Country Level Review Reports, In line with the above outlined proposed formulation processes national agricultural policy reviews were. undertaken during the last half of 2009 into 2010 Resulting from these reviews is this document which. summarizes SADC Member States agricultural policy review reports. The country review reports were varied in terms of content extent and depth of review as well as. structure In an effort to standardise these reports for purposes of ensuring comparability across the. countries a structured summary template was developed which now forms the basis of this document. Considerable effort was taken to ensure that all issues and the essence of same raised in the original. country reports are contained in these summaries, 5 Synthesis Report of Key Agricultural Policy Issues and Policy Directions. In pursuance of developing a preliminary draft framework for the RAP step c as per section 2 above. a separate document has been produced and published This document entitled Synthesis Report of. Key Agricultural Policy Issues and Policy Directions draws from validated country reports and the. high level regional workshop review by Senior Government Officials of SADC Member States and SADC. Farmer Organisation representatives held in Gaborone Botswana in April 2010. 6 Structure of the Document, This document is structured in such a manner that presents a summary of the review of agricultural. policies undertaken for each SADC Member State country by country The three key segments of each. summary report are, First segment mainly deals with the national assessment comprising general country information. on its geography population farming systems economic and socio economic structures. including public sector involvement in agriculture and private sector involvement in agriculture. Second segment deals with national agricultural and related policies for each country as well as. coverage of regional agricultural policies and, Third segments outlines identified and prioritised key agricultural policy issues each country. would want to have considered in the formulation of the RAP. THE REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA,MAP OF THE REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA. THE REPUBLIC OF ANGOLA,SUMMARY COUNTRY REPORT ON AGRICULTURAL. AND RELATED POLICY REVIEW 20093,TABLE OF CONTENTS,ABBREVIATIONS 7. 1 GENERAL INFORMATION 8,1 1 Geography and Demographics 8. 1 2 Farming Systems and the Importance of Agriculture 8. 1 3 Key Agricultural Commodities and Farming Practices 10. 1 4 Key Economic and Financial Statistics 11,2 PUBLIC SECTOR IN AGRICULTURE 12. 2 1 Principle Government Agencies Involved in Agriculture 12. 2 2 Parastatals and Statutory Bodies 12,3 PRIVATE SECTOR IN AGRICULTURE 13. 3 1 Crop Livestock Fishing and Game Farming Activities 13. 3 2 Trade in the Food Sector 14, 3 3 Professional Organisations involved in Agriculture 14. 4 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND RELATED POLICIES 15,4 1 General Overarching Framework Documents 15. 4 2 Agricultural Policies and Strategies 17,4 3 Support Services for Farmers 22. 4 4 Support to Investment 24,4 5 Emergency and Disaster Preparedness 25. 4 6 Trade Related Issues 25,4 7 Other Related Policies 27. 5 EXISTING REGIONAL POLICIES 27, 6 PRIORITY AREAS FOR CONVERGENCE HARMONISATION AND COMMON POLICY 28. Original Country Report was authored by MR TARCISIO SABINO JOAO BAPTISTA and submitted to SADC in. March 2010 The original document is in Portuguese which was then translated into the English version from. which this summary is derived,ABBREVIATIONS,ADPP People To People Aid For Development. ADRA Environmental And Rural Development Action,AIA Angolan Industrial Association. BDA Development Bank Of Angola,CCIA Angolan Chamber Of Commerce And Industry. CONSAN National Council For Food Security And Nutrition. CSO Civil Society Organization, DNAPF Department Of Agriculture Livestock And Forestry. DNGTA Department Of Agriculture And Land Management. DNHAER Department Of Hydraulics And Rural Engineering. FADA Land Development Fund, FAO Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. FCA School Of Agriculture Sciencies,FDC Coffee Development Fund. FTA Free Trade Area, GAPMEA Small And Medium Enterprise Assistance Bureau. GEPE Bureau Of Statistics Planning And Research,GSA Food Security Bureau. IDA Land Development Institute,IIA Agriculture Research Institute. IIV Veterinary Research Institute,INE National Bureau Of Statistics. INEA Angolan National Road Institute, PDMPSA Medium Term Development Plan For The Agriculture Sector. PDPR Master Plan For Small Scale Irrigation Schemes. PEDR Rural Extension Development Programme,PEN National Strategic Plan. RISDP Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan. SADC Southern African Development Community,SNIA Agriculture Research System. UNACA National Union Of Angolan Peasant s Associations. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT,1 GENERAL INFORMATION,1 1 Geography and Demographics. Angola is situated on the west coast of Africa and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo. DRC to the north Zambia to the east Namibia to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the west It has a. total area of 1 246 700 km just over half the size of its northern neighbour DRC Its climate is. characterised as semi arid in the south and along the coastal regions up to Luanda Further north the. temperatures are generally mild and dry from May to October and hot and rainy from November to. April With respect to altitude the lowest altitude is at the Atlantic Ocean level at 0 m and the highest. altitude is at Morro de Moco in Huambo Province which is 2 620 m above sea level. Angola s population comprises 17 029 000 inhabitants with a population growth rate of 2 136 2008. and a life expectancy of 37 92 years The literacy rate in 2001 was pegged at 54 2 The largest threat. to Angola s population are the main infectious diseases that are mainly water borne or caused by. inadequate implementation of food safety measures which include bacterial and protozoan virus. diarrhoea hepatitis A typhoid vector borne diseases such as malaria and trypanosomiases and. schistosomiases 2008, Angola is endowed with vast reserves of oil diamond iron ore phosphates copper felspar gold. bauxite uranium and other minerals soil climate abundant water resources fauna and flora just to. mention few After the oil sector the rural sector comprising agriculture forestry and livestock. development is the second most productive sector in the country Its contribution to the GDP and its. economic potential have increased over the last few years as a growing number of people depend directly. on agriculture for survival Thus any effort towards attaining food security and poverty reduction would be. meaningless if it were to ignore this stark reality that over 60 of the people live in rural areas and. depend on agriculture for survival Most of the active population however is employed in agriculture. Table 1 depicts the population breakdown by rural and urban constituencies. Table 1 Total of Rural and Urban Population,Population 1990 2000 2015 1990 2000 2000 2015. Growth Growth, Rural Population in millions 6 931 8 642 11 622 2 2 1 3. Urban Population in millions 2 639 4 492 9 174 5 2 3 3. Total Population in millions 9 570 13 134 20 795 3 1 2 0. Rural Pop of the Total Pop 72 4 65 8 55 9 1 0 0 7,Source FAO 2002. 1 2 Farming Systems and the Importance of Agriculture. Angola is potentially one of the richest countries in Sub Saharan Africa with climate conditions conducive. for agro pastoral activities throughout the year Angola boasts of excellent hydrographical basins. represented by seven major rivers and two smaller groups of rivers Agricultural production and. productivity in the country is generally low due mainly to the insignificant use of available technology By. resorting to simple technologies such as the use of fertilizers phytosanitary treatment and the use of. improved seeds it would be possible to substantially increase and diversify crop production and income. in the country However only 3 5 million of the 35 million hectares of the vast agricultural potential in the. country is being utilized, The major production systems existing in Angola can be summarised as shown in Table 2.
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