Russia In Revolution 1905 1924-Books Pdf

RUSSIA IN REVOLUTION 1905 1924
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QUESTION 1, Question Level How to Answer Mark, Use Source A and 1 Generalised answer 1. your own Good use of the source OR reasonable use of the source with some own knowledge 2. knowledge to, describe 3 Places source in historical context AND provides background detail 3. Explain 6 1 A description only 1, One reason provided 2. 2 Two reasons provided 3, Three reasons provided 4. 3 A range of reasons are provided which are explained in detail 5 6. Why do sources B 1 1 2, and C have different, views 8 2 Explain why the sources have different views based on their CONTENT Use the word whereas 3 4.
3 Explain why the sources have different views based on their CONTENT and ORIGIN Use the word whereas 5 6. 4 Explain why the sources have different views based on their CONTENT ORIGIN and PURPOSE Use the words whereas 7 8. and hindsight, QUESTION 2, Describe 4 1 Generalised answer which makes weak points 1 2. 2 Detailed and accurate description 3 4, Why 6 1 A description only 1. One reason provided 2, 2 Two reasons provided 3, Three reasons provided 4. 3 A range of reasons are provided which are explained in detail 5 6. How successful How 1 Generalised answer based on weak knowledge 1 2. important 8 A weak analysis 3 4, 3 A detailed analysis 5 6. 4 A detailed analysis with a reasoned evaluation 7 8. QUESTION 3, Outline 4 1 Generalised answer which makes weak points 1 2.
2 Detailed and accurate description 3 4, Essay question 12 3 1 One sided answer little evidence 1 3. 2 One sided answer some evidence OR weak two sided answer little evidence 4. One sided answer good evidence OR weak two sided answer some evidence 5 6. 3 One sided answer detailed evidence OR unbalanced two sided answer good evidence 7. Unbalanced two sided answer detailed evidence may be a lack of detail in places starts to make links between 8 9. 4 Reasoned and balanced two sided answer detailed evidence may be a few inaccuracies reaches a conclusion 10. good links between factors, Reasoned and balanced two sided answer detailed evidence fully accurate detailed conclusion good links 11 12. between factors, UNIT 1 1905 1917, Describe what Russia was like in 1905. Difficult to govern Russian Empire covered 1 6th of the worlds land surface. Population of 125 million, Many different nationalities. Tsar was an autocrat He could make laws and govern as he wished. No parliament and political parties were banned, He took advice from a Committee of Ministers which he.
chose from the rich nobles, No opposition to the Tsar Newspapers and books were censored. The Okhrana secret police removed all opposition, Opposition groups were sent to prison camps in Siberia. The Nobles and Middle Class The nobles formed 0 1 of the population but owned. over 25 of the land, A middle class bourgeoisie began to emerge following. industrialisation, They demanded a say in how the country was run. Peasants 80 of the population were peasants, Primitive farming methods and poor crops meant that.
food shortages were common, Living conditions were terrible many families lived in a. single room, Industrial Workers Conditions for industrial workers were poor. Many houses had no running water or sewage system, Workers were employed for long hours and wages were. Trade unions were banned and strikes were illegal, Explain why the rule of Tsar Nicholas II faced problems. Problems with autocracy The autocratic system needed a forceful and charismatic. leader but Nicholas was weak, He was a family man and preferred to spend time with his.
wife the Tsarina and their five children, He knew little about the people he governed. Son suffered from haemophilia Alexis suffered from a blood disorder. He was not expected to reach adulthood, Religion Nicholas believed that he had been chosen by God to rule. Therefore he thought that no one had the right to, challenge him. He rejected all reform, Describe the opposition to the Tsar. 1 Liberals Made up of Middle class people wanted a parliament Duma. 2 Social Revolutionaries Wanted to seize power by revolution Wanted the land to be taken from. the nobility and given to the peasants, 3 Social Democrats Followed the teachings of Karl Marx Wanted a revolution to bring about a.
communist government The Mensheviks wanted a big party so that power was spread amongst. many The Bolsheviks led by Lenin believed that power should lay with a core elite. Explain why the 1905 revolution broke out, 1 PEASANTS Growing discontent due to living conditions and were now also badly hit by poor. 2 INDUSTRIAL WORKERS Growing discontent due to working and living conditions Industrial. slump caused workers to be laid off This led to strikes and demonstrations. 3 MIDDELE CLASS Wanted a say in how the country was run democracy. 4 Russo Japanese war, 5 Bloody Sunday, Describe the events of the Russo Japanese War. 1 Russia wanted a quick victory in war to raise morale. 2 Both sides fought for control of a place called Manchuria. 3 The Russian army was destroyed, 4 Defeat was humiliating and Russia lost lots of land. 5 The war made conditions worse in Russia It disrupted food supplies which caused prices to rise. Describe the events of Bloody Sunday, 1 Father Gapon led a crowd of 200 000 workers through the streets of St Petersburg to the Tsar s. Winter Palace, 2 They intended to deliver a petition listing their grievances.
3 The Tsar was not in his palace, 4 The troops panicked and opened fire on the crowd. 5 Close to 1000 people died, Describe the events of the 1905 Revolution. 1 Bloody Sunday led to a wave of protests across Russia 400 000 workers were on strike by the end. of January, 2 In some cities workers elected Soviets Councils to take over control. 3 During June and July peasant uprisings became widespread they seized land and murdered. 4 In October a general strike paralysed the city On the 26 October the St Petersburg Soviet was. formed to co ordinate the strikes It soon established itself as the real source of power and was led. by Leon Trotsky, How successful was the 1905 revolution. Successful Not Successful, Sergei White convinced the Tsar that the only By December most of the troops had returned to.
way to end the crisis was to grant concessions to Russia after the war with Japan and this gave the. the Liberals in order to win back their support Tsar the necessary power to win back control. On 30 October Nicholas issued the October The Tsar used force to shut down the St. Manifesto which set up an elected parliament Petersburg Soviet and arrested its leaders. Duma This action regained the support of the, middle classes. The Tsar announced an end to redemption An armed uprising by the Moscow Soviet was. payments These were unpopular payments that severely put down by the army 1000 people. peasants had to pay for the land they had were killed. previously received, Election for the first Duma resulted in a left wing. majority critical of the Tsar s regime Therefore, the Tsar passed the Fundamental Laws which. restored his autocratic power, After the Fundamental Laws the Duma. demanded a greater say in government, Therefore the Tsar sent in troops to dissolve it.
The second Duma was also dissolved after the, SR s and SD s gained their first seats. Before the third Duma the Tsar changed the, voting system The richest 1 of Russians would. vote for 2 3 s of the representatives Therefore, the Duma became full of conservatives who. generally supported the Tsar, Did life for Russian workers and peasants improve by 1914. The Tsar appointed a new Prime Minister called Stolypin introduced a series of agricultural. Peter Stolypin In 1906 the SR s started acts of reforms in order to secure the loyalty of the. terrorism Therefore Stolypin started a policy of peasants. severe repression, Field Courts for Civilians were set up for those Peasants were allowed to buy land from the.
who were obviously guilty mir This meant that they were able to buy. several neighbouring strips of land to create a, small farm This new class of farmers were called. During 1906 1008 people were arrested tried A Peasants bank was set up to help farmers. and executed for their part in the revolution become Kulaks 15 of farmers took this. 21 000 were sent to prison camps in Siberia opportunity but the rest were too poor to do so. Between 1907 and 1911 a further 1800 were Measures were introduced to improve education. hanged The hangman s noose became, nicknamed Stolypin s necktie. Conditions in the armed forces were improved to, prevent mutinies. Between 1906 and 1914 Russia experienced an, industrial boom but little was done to improve. the living and working conditions Between 1910, and 1914 the number of strikes rose to 8000.
Explain why WWI was so unpopular amongst the Russian people. Military defeats In 1914 there were two military defeats at the battles of Tannenburg and the. Masurin Lakes Over 250 000 troops were killed wounded or taken prisoner. In 1915 the Germans advanced 300 miles into Russia 1 millions died in a failed. counter attack, Poor Preparation The Russian troops were badly led and had insufficient weapons Nearly a. million soldiers were without rifles and many had no boots. Conditions in Fifteen million men were drafted into the army which meant that there were. Russia not enough left to run the factories or farm the land 600 factories had to close. Transport system There were not enough trains to keep the towns and army supplied with food. Food supplies dried up and so prices rose but wages did not. Inflation To pay for the war the government printed more money which caused the. rouble to lose its value Between 1914 and 1917 there was a 400 rise in. inflation This caused strikes and demonstrations, The Tsar takes In August 1915 the Tsar took personal charge of the army This was a mistake. charge because he was a weak and incompetent commander He now made himself. personally responsible for Russia s military failures. The Tsarina In the absence of the Tsar the Tsarina Alexandra was left in charge of the. government Her German nationality caused people to mistrust her. Describe the influence of Rasputin, 1 The Tsarina heavily relied upon Rasputin particularly in the selection of ministers. 2 There were rumours that the pair were German agents seeking to undermine the war effort. 3 The Tsar and Tsarina following Rasputin s control of their son s haemophilia refused to listen to. the stories of his wild lifestyle, 4 This weakened the reputation of the Tsar and Tsarina and shocked the nobles. 5 In December 1916 a small group led by Prince Yusupov assassinated Rasputin. Explain the causes of the February 1917 Revolution Abdication of the Tsar. 1 Russia was difficult to govern, 2 Problems with Tsar Nicholas autocratic rule.
3 Bloody Sunday, 4 Failure of the 1905 Revolution to bring about change. 5 Impact of WWI, 6 Rasputin, 7 Short term causes, Describe the short term causes that led to the February Revolution. 1 By February 1917 Russia was in chaos, 2 Food and fuel shortages together with temperatures of 35 degrees below freezing led to growing. discontent, 3 Strikes became common as workers demanded higher wages and better conditions. Describe the events of the February 1917 Revolution. 1 23rd February International Women s Day Group of women marched through the streets of. Petrograd to protest about the queues for food, 2 They were joined by 90 000 strikers and protestors.
3 26 February 250 000 workers went on strike, 4 The Tsar ordered the army to clear the protestors from the streets. 5 27 February The army refused and mutinied Instead the army joined the protestors and. demanded that the Duma take control of the government. 6 12 members of the Duma met to take control of the government They called themselves the. Provisional Government They intended to rule until elections could take place for a new Duma. 7 At the same time representatives of the workers and soldiers met and re formed the Petrograd. 8 The Tsar tried to return to Petrograd but soldiers stopped the train he was travelling on. 9 The Tsar realised that he had no supporters and signed a decree of abdication. 10 The throne passed to his brother Grand Duke Michael but he abdicated 24 hours later. Describe the main features and actions of the period of Dual Power. Provisional Government led by Prince Lvov Petrograd Soviet. Political prisoners were released In reality this was the real source of power in. Revolutionary exiles were allowed to return to They had 3000 elected members and the. Russia Provisional Government could not rule without. its support, Free speech was announced and newspapers Alexander Kerensky an SR was a member of. were allowed to print what they liked both and so acted as a bridge between them. An 8 hour day was introduced for industrial One of their first actions was to issue Order. workers Number One which gave them control of the, Russian armed forces. The Tsar s secret police the Okhrana was They announced that they would accept the. abolished rulings of the Provisional Government but only if. they thought that they were appropriate, Equality for all was announced irrespective of. class religion or nationality, The new Duma was to be elected by all.
Explain why the Provisional Government became increasingly unpopular. WWI The PG wanted to support the allies and fight In June 1917 Russia launched a. Social Revolutionaries Wanted to seize power by revolution Wanted the land to be taken from the nobility and given to the peasants 3 Social Democrats Followed the teachings of Karl Marx Wanted a revolution to bring about a communist government The Mensheviks wanted a big party so that power was spread amongst many The Bolsheviks led by Lenin believed that power should lay with a

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