Runway Global Exec Aviation Bombardier Learjet 60 N999lj-Books Pdf

Runway Global Exec Aviation Bombardier Learjet 60 N999LJ
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NTSB AAR 10 02, PB2010 910402, Notation 8061B, Adopted April 6 2010. Aircraft Accident Report, Runway Overrun During Rejected Takeoff. Global Exec Aviation, Bombardier Learjet 60 N999LJ. Columbia South Carolina, September 19 2008, Transportation. Safety Board, 490 L Enfant Plaza S W, Washington D C 20594.
National Transportation Safety Board 2010 Runway Overrun During Rejected Takeoff Global Exec. Aviation Bombardier Learjet 60 N999LJ Columbia South Carolina September 19 2008 Aircraft. Accident Report NTSB AAR 10 02 Washington DC, Abstract This report describes the September 19 2008 accident involving a Bombardier Learjet. Model 60 Learjet 60 N999LJ which overran runway 11 during a rejected takeoff at Columbia. Metropolitan Airport Columbia South Carolina while operating as a 14 Code of Federal Regulations. Part 135 unscheduled passenger flight The captain the first officer and two passengers were killed two. other passengers were seriously injured, The safety issues discussed in this report include the criticality of proper aircraft tire. inflation maintenance requirements and manual revisions for tire pressure check intervals tire. pressure monitoring systems airplane thrust reverser system design deficiencies inadequate. system safety analyses by the Federal Aviation Administration FAA and Learjet inadequate. level of safety in the certification of changed aeronautical products flight crew training for tire. failure events flight crew performance including the captain s action to initiate an rejected. takeoff after V1 the captain s experience and crew resource management techniques and. considerations for tire certification criteria Safety recommendations concerning these issues are. addressed to the FAA, The National Transportation Safety Board NTSB is an independent federal agency dedicated to promoting. aviation railroad highway marine pipeline and hazardous materials safety Established in 1967 the agency is. mandated by Congress through the Independent Safety Board Act of 1974 to investigate transportation accidents. determine the probable causes of the accidents issue safety recommendations study transportation safety issues and. evaluate the safety effectiveness of government agencies involved in transportation The NTSB makes public its. actions and decisions through accident reports safety studies special investigation reports safety recommendations. and statistical reviews, Recent publications are available in their entirety on the Internet at http www ntsb gov Other information about. available publications also may be obtained from the website or by contacting. National Transportation Safety Board, Records Management Division CIO 40.
490 L Enfant Plaza SW, Washington DC 20594, 800 877 6799 or 202 314 6551. NTSB publications may be purchased by individual copy or by subscription from the National Technical. Information Service To purchase this publication order report number PB2010 910402 from. National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road. Springfield Virginia 22161, 800 553 6847 or 703 605 6000. The Independent Safety Board Act as codified at 49 U S C Section 1154 b precludes the admission into evidence. or use of NTSB reports related to an incident or accident in a civil action for damages resulting from a matter. mentioned in the report, NTSB Aircraft Accident Report. Contents i, Figures iv, Acronyms and Abbreviations v.
Executive Summary viii, 1 Factual Information 1, 1 1 History of Flight 1. 1 2 Injuries to Persons 3, 1 3 Damage to Airplane 3. 1 4 Other Damage 3, 1 5 Personnel Information 3, 1 5 1 Captain 4. 1 5 2 First Officer 5, 1 5 3 Flight Crew s 72 Hour History 6. 1 6 Airplane Information 7, 1 6 1 Main Landing Gear Tires 7.
1 6 2 Engine Power Control and Thrust Reverser System Control 9. 1 6 2 1 Commanding Forward Thrust 11, 1 6 2 2 Commanding Reverse Thrust 11. 1 6 2 3 Thrust Reverser System Logic Criteria 12, 1 7 Meteorological Information 12. 1 8 Aids to Navigation 12, 1 9 Communications 13, 1 10 Airport Information 13. 1 11 Flight Recorders 13, 1 12 Wreckage and Impact Information 14. 1 13 Medical and Pathological Information 14, 1 14 Fire 15.
1 15 Survival Aspects 15, 1 15 1 Survivors Descriptions of Crew Provided Safety Information 16. 1 15 2 Survivors Descriptions of Exiting the Airplane 16. 1 15 3 Postaccident Examination of Airplane Exits 17. 1 16 Tests and Research 17, 1 16 1 Sound Spectrum Study 17. 1 16 1 1 Engine N1 17, 1 16 1 2 Airplane Ground Speed 18. 1 16 2 Airplane Performance Study and Map Overlay 19. 1 16 3 Main Landing Gear Tires 21, 1 16 3 1 Basic Design and Function 21. NTSB Aircraft Accident Report, 1 16 3 2 Reconstruction and Examination of Accident Airplane s Main Landing Gear.
Tires and Wheels 21, 1 16 3 3 Tire Pressure Data Collected from In Service Airplanes 23. 1 16 4 Thrust Reverser System 24, 1 16 4 1 Ground Tests and Engineering Review 24. 1 16 4 2 Accidents and Incident Involving Thrust Reverser System Anomalies 25. 1 16 4 3 Approved Modifications After 2001 Landing Accident 26. 1 16 5 Certification of the Learjet 60 as a Changed Aeronautical Product 27. 1 16 5 1 Thrust Reverser Control Design 28, 1 16 5 2 Protection of Equipment in Wheel Wells 29. 1 16 6 Comparison of Certification Criteria for Learjet 45 and Learjet 60 29. 1 16 6 1 Thrust Reverser System Design 30, 1 16 6 2 Protection of Equipment in Wheel Wells 30. 1 17 Organizational and Management Information 30, 1 17 1 Main Landing Gear Tire Maintenance and Checks 31.
1 17 2 Pilot Training and Standard Operating Procedures 31. 1 17 2 1 Rejected Takeoff 32, 1 17 2 2 Pretakeoff Passenger Briefing 33. 1 17 2 3 Airplane Weight and Balance Calculations 34. 1 17 3 Federal Aviation Administration Oversight 34. 1 18 Additional Information 35, 1 18 1 Takeoff Safety Training Aid 35. 1 18 2 Postaccident Safety Action 36, 1 18 2 1 Learjet Tire Servicing Advisory Wire 36. 1 18 2 2 Federal Aviation Administration Safety Alert for Operators 36. 1 18 2 3 Learjet Revisions to Flight and Maintenance Manuals 37. 1 18 2 3 1 Temporary Flight Manual Change Revised Procedures 37. 1 18 2 3 2 Temporary Revision to Maintenance Manual 37. 1 18 2 4 Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretation That Learjet 60 Tire. Pressure Checks Are Preventive Maintenance 38, 1 18 3 Previously Issued Safety Recommendations 38. 1 18 3 1 Learjet 60 Thrust Reverser System Recommendations Resulting From This. Accident Investigation 38, 1 18 3 2 Ongoing Assessment of Safety Critical Systems 40.
1 18 3 3 Crew Resource Management 41, 1 18 3 4 Onboard Flight Recorder Systems 42. 1 18 4 Current Airworthiness Requirements and Guidance for the Certification of Changed. Aeronautical Products 43, 1 18 5 Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems in Aircraft Applications 43. 1 18 6 Tire Load Certification Requirements 44, 1 18 6 1 Learjet 60 Tire Selection 45. 1 18 6 2 Effect of Tire Camber Angle on Tire Sidewall Loads 45. 1 18 7 Takeoff Accident and Incident Data 46, 1 18 7 1 High Speed Rejected Takeoffs 46. 1 18 7 2 Airplane Types Involved in Tire Related Events 46. 1 18 7 3 Pilot Accounts of Real and Simulated Tire Failure Events 46. NTSB Aircraft Accident Report, 2 Analysis 48, 2 1 General 48.
2 2 Accident Sequence 49, 2 2 1 Captain s Initiation of Rejected Takeoff After V1 49. 2 2 2 Uncommanded Forward Thrust Emergency 51, 2 3 Airplane Issues 53. 2 3 1 Tire Failures 53, 2 3 1 1 Operator s Tire Maintenance Practices 54. 2 3 1 2 Maintenance Manual References to Tire Pressure Check Intervals 54. 2 3 1 3 Lack of Tire Pressure Information for Flight Crews 56. 2 3 2 Thrust Reverser System Deficiencies 56, 2 3 3 Safety of Changed Aeronautical Products 60. 2 4 Flight Crew Performance 62, 2 4 1 Lack of Training for Tire Related Events 62.
2 4 2 Captain s Experience in the Learjet 60 and as Pilot in Command 63. 2 4 3 Crew Resource Management 65, 2 4 4 Medication Use and Rest Opportunities 66. 2 5 Occupant Survivability 67, 2 6 Other Safety Issues 68. 2 6 1 Tire Certification and Testing Considerations 68. 2 6 2 Flight Recorders 69, 3 Conclusions 71, 3 1 Findings 71. 3 2 Probable Cause 73, 4 Recommendations 74, 4 1 New Recommendations 74. 4 2 Previously Issued Recommendations Resulting From This Accident Investigation and. Classified in This Report 76, 5 Appendixes 78, Appendix A Investigation and Hearing 78.
Appendix B Cockpit Voice Recorder Transcript 79, NTSB Aircraft Accident Report. Figure 1 Learjet factory technician checking inboard tire pressure left image and outboard tire. pressure right image 9, Figure 2 Captain s side view of Learjet 60 thrust levers at idle and thrust reverser piggyback. levers To illustrate lever movement one thrust reverser lever is in the stowed position and the. other is lifted to command reverse thrust arrow shows direction lever moves when lifted from. the stowed position 9, Figure 3 Learjet 60 with thrust reversers deployed The dotted yellow lines show the stowed. position for the doors 10, Figure 4 Engine N1 calculated as a function of elapsed time into the takeoff roll time of the. start of the loud rumbling sound is shown 18, Figure 5 Airplane ground speed calculated as a function of elapsed time into the takeoff roll.
time of the start of the loud rumbling sound is shown 19. Figure 6 Map of Columbia Metropolitan Airport showing integrated sound spectrum data. cockpit voice recorder comments and wreckage locations plotted 20. Figure 7 Reconstruction of the right outboard main landing gear tire showing outboard sidewall. damage Arrows depict the generally uniform location of the damage 22. Figure 8 Inboard aft corner of the left main landing gear wheel well for the Learjet 45 left and. the inboard after corner of the right main landing gear wheel well for the Learjet 60 right 30. NTSB Aircraft Accident Report, Acronyms and Abbreviations. AC advisory circular, AFM airplane flight manual, AMM aircraft maintenance manual. ARFF aircraft rescue and firefighting, ARP aerospace recommended practice. ASRS Aviation Safety Reporting System, ATIS automatic terminal information service. ATP airline transport pilot, AW advisory wire, CAE Columbia Metropolitan Airport.
CAM cockpit area microphone, CFR Code of Federal Regulations. CRM crew resource management, CSN cycles since new. CVR cockpit voice recorder, DER designated engineering representative. EEC electronic engine control, EUROCAE European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment. FAA Federal Aviation Administration, NTSB Aircraft Accident Report.
FADEC full authority digital electronic control, FBO fixed base operator. FDR flight data recorder, FR Federal Register, FSI FlightSafety International. KIAS knots indicated airspeed, MLG main landing gear. msl mean sea level, N1 engine fan speed, NPRM notice of proposed rulemaking. NTSB National Transportation Safety Board, P N part number.
PIC pilot in command, POI principal operations inspector. psi pounds per square inch, QRH quick reference handbook. QTR qualification test report, RSA runway safety area. RTO rejected takeoff, NTSB Aircraft Accident Report. RVDT rotary variable differential transformer, S N serial number.
SAFO safety alert for operators, SB service bulletin. SIC second in command, SIR special investigation report. SMS safety management system, TC type certificate, TCDS type certificate data sheet. TEB Teterboro Airport, TFM temporary flight manual. TLA thrust lever angle, TPMS tire pressure monitoring system.
TR temporary revision, TSO technical standard order. V1 takeoff decision speed, V2 takeoff safety speed. Vr rotation speed, VOR very high frequency omnidirectional radio range. NTSB Aircraft Accident Report, Executive Summary, On September 19 2008 about 2353 eastern daylight time a Bombardier Learjet. Model 60 N999LJ owned by Inter Travel and Services Inc and operated by Global Exec. Aviation overran runway 11 during a rejected takeoff at Columbia Metropolitan Airport. Columbia South Carolina The captain the first officer and two passengers were killed two. other passengers were seriously injured The nonscheduled domestic passenger flight to Van. Nuys California was operated under 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 135 Visual. meteorological conditions prevailed and an instrument flight rules flight plan was filed. The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of this. accident was the operator s inadequate maintenance of the airplane s tires which resulted in. multiple tire failures during takeoff roll due to severe underinflation and the captain s execution. of a rejected takeoff RTO after V1 which was inconsistent with her training and standard. operating procedures, Contributing to the accident were 1 deficiencies in Learjet s design of and the Federal.
Aviation Administration s FAA certification of the Learjet Model 60 s thrust reverser system. which permitted the failure of critical systems in the wheel well area to result in uncommanded. forward thrust that increased the severity of the accident 2 the inadequacy of Learjet s safety. analysis and the FAA s review of it which failed to detect and correct the thrust reverser and. wheel well design deficiencies after a 2001 uncommanded . Global Exec Aviation Bombardier Learjet 60 N999LJ Aviation Bombardier Learjet 60 N999LJ Columbia South Carolina September 19 2008 Aircraft Accident Report NTSB AAR 10 02 Washington DC Abstract This report describes the September 19 2008 accident involving a Bombardier Learjet Model 60 Learjet 60 N999LJ which overran runway 11 during a rejected takeoff at Columbia

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