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Road Safety Audit Guidelines,developed by,University of New Brunswick. Transportation Group,Department of Civil Engineering. Fredericton New Brunswick,sponsored by,Maritime Road Development Corporation. National Research Council s Industrial Research Assistance Program. Dr Eric Hildebrand P Eng,Dr Frank Wilson P Eng,UNB Transportation Group 1999. Although practiced elsewhere for nearly two decades the concept of Road Safety Audits. has only recently gained acceptance in North America Originally developed in the United. Kingdom in the 1980s as part of Accident Investigation and Prevention techniques they. have evolved to the point where they are now an integral component of the road safety. The road safety audit process is best characterized as a proactive approach to road safety. by addressing issues before accidents occur This is a radically different approach to. traditional blackspot analyses used to identify problem areas based on frequency of accident. occurrence A fundamental trait of road safety audits is that they are most effective when. undertaken during the early stages of project development and design Despite this much. of the promotion of road safety audits within North America seems to focus on existing or. in service facilities where the potential influence is usually less than if applied during a. design stage, This document was developed to provide a reference containing a local perspective of the.
road safety audit process It provides a synthesis of existing documentation and is tempered. to suit Canadian conditions standards and practices The guide provides an overview of. practices and suggests issues to be considered for audits undertaken at different stages. Experience discretion and good judgement must complement the use of a manual. Although road safety audit procedures will continue to evolve the main spirit of the. approach is captured by this document, Diverse opinions and views currently exist regarding the scope role and application of. safety audits It is hoped that a common document will help focus the development and. harmonize the application of road safety audits among Canadian authorities Expected. users of the manual include federal provincial and municipal authorities involved in road. design operation Consultants and road safety experts should find the manual a useful. reference when contracted to undertake an audit,ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. Special thanks must be extended to a number of people who contributed to the development. of these guidelines The University of New Brunswick Transportation Group would like. to first thank graduate students Tammy Dow Stephen Ellsworth Jennifer Mehan and. Jeannette Montufar for their research written material and editing work Without their. help this project would not have materialized The initiative taken by Mr Robert Nairn. P Eng formerly with the Maritime Road Development Corporation MRDC to encourage. the project and the manual is acknowledged, Many members of the transportation community generously contributed their time and. advice during the final stages of development In particular the comments and opinions. provided by the New Brunswick Department of Transportation and the City of Fredericton. enhanced the quality of materials provided in this report. Finally the authors wish to thank MRDC and the National Research Council s Industrial. Research Assistance Program IRAP for their financial assistance throughout this project. Their support has enabled this project to develop from concept to reality. TABLE OF CONTENTS,Foreword i,Acknowledgments ii,Table of Contents iii. List of Tables Figures vi,1 0 INTRODUCTION 1 1,1 1 Purpose 1 1.
1 2 Background 1 1,1 2 1 Road Safety Audit Concept 1 1. 1 2 2 What is a Road Safety Audit 1 1,1 2 3 Why Road Safety Audits 1 2. 1 2 4 Why Canadian Guidelines 1 3,1 3 Structure of Manual 1 4. 2 0 REVIEW OF EXISTING PRACTICES REGARDING ROAD SAFETY AUDITS 2 1. 2 1 United Kingdom 2 1,2 2 Australia 2 1,2 3 New Zealand 2 2. 2 4 United States 2 2,2 5 Canada 2 3,2 5 1 British Columbia 2 3.
2 5 2 Alberta 2 3,2 5 3 Ontario 2 3,2 5 4 Quebec 2 5. 2 5 5 New Brunswick 2 5,2 5 6 Nova Scotia 2 5,2 5 7 Prince Edward Island 2 5. 3 0 PRINCIPLES OF ROAD SAFETY AUDITS 3 1,3 1 Defining Road Safety Audit 3 1. 3 2 Audit Stages 3 3,3 2 1 Feasibility Planning Stage 3 3. 3 2 2 Draft Preliminary Layout Design Stage 3 4,3 2 3 Detailed Design Stage 3 4.
3 2 4 Pre Opening Stage 3 4,3 2 5 Post Opening and Existing Stage 3 4. 3 3 Types of Projects to Audit 3 5,3 4 The Audit Team 3 6. 3 4 1 Independence 3 6,3 4 2 Qualifications 3 6,3 4 3 Experience 3 6. 3 4 4 Audit Team Size 3 7,3 4 5 Composition by Audit Stage 3 7. 3 4 5 1 Feasibility and Preliminary Design Stages 1 and 2 3 7. 3 4 5 2 Detailed Design Stage 3 3 8,3 4 5 3 Pre Opening Stage 4 3 8.
3 4 5 4 Post Opening and In Service Stage 5 3 8,3 4 5 5 Existing Road Audits 3 8. 3 4 5 6 Municipal Audits 3 9, 3 5 Roles and Responsibilities of Participants 3 9. 3 5 1 Client Highway Authority 3 9,3 5 2 Design Team Project Manager 3 10. 3 5 3 Audit Team 3 10,3 6 Organization of Road Safety Audits 3 11. 3 6 1 Audits Conducted by a Specialist Auditor or Team 3 11. 3 6 1 1 Specialist Audit Team reporting to an Independent. Third Party 3 11, 3 6 1 2 Specialist Audit Team reporting to the Designer Project.
Manager 3 12, 3 6 2 Audits Conducted by Other Road Designers 3 12. 3 6 2 1 Second Design Team reporting to an Independent. Third Party 3 12, 3 6 2 2 Second Design Team Audit reporting to Designer Project. Manager 3 12,3 6 3 Design Team Self Audit 3 13,3 7 Training of Auditors 3 13. 3 8 Monitoring and Evaluation 3 14,4 0 ROAD SAFETY AUDIT PROCESS 4 1. 4 1 Selecting the Audit Team 4 2,4 2 Collection of Background Information 4 2.
4 3 Commencement Meeting 4 2,4 4 Methodology 4 2,4 4 1 Highway Audits 4 3. 4 4 1 1 Background Information 4 3,4 4 1 2 Assessment Analysis of Background. Information 4 4,4 4 1 3 Site Inspections 4 4,4 4 1 4 Audit Findings 4 5. 4 4 2 Audits of Isolated Facilities 4 5,4 4 3 Municipal Audits 4 6. 4 5 Documentation and Audit Report 4 7,4 6 Completion Meeting 4 9.
4 7 Follow Up 4 9, 5 0 OVERVIEW OF CHECKLISTS FOR ROAD SAFETY AUDITS 5 1. 5 1 Structure of Checklists 5 1,5 2 Use of Checklists 5 1. 6 0 ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF ROAD SAFETY AUDITS 6 1. 6 1 Costs of Conducting Road Safety Audits 6 1,6 2 Benefits of Conducting Road Safety Audits 6 1. 6 3 Benefit to Cost Ratios of Conducting Road Safety Audits 6 2. 7 0 LEGAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ROAD SAFETY AUDITS 7 1. 8 0 REFERENCES 8 1,Appendix A Checklists New Facilities Upgrades A 1. Master Checklist A 1,Master Template A 8,Detailed Checklist A 9.
Appendix B Checklists Municipal B 1,Master Checklist B 1. Detailed Checklist B 4,Appendix C Case Studies C 1. Route 1000 Audit C 1,Fredericton South Audit C 13,Detailed Design Example C 39. Pre Opening Audit C 51,Appendix D Glossary D 1,LIST OF TABLES FIGURES. List of Tables,Table Title Page,3 1 Recommended Stages for Various Projects 3 5.
4 1 Isolated Facility Projects and Recommended Design Stage. Audits 4 6,List of Figures,Figure Title Page,4 1 Process for Conducting Road Safety Audits 4 1. 1 0 INTRODUCTION,1 1 PURPOSE, These guidelines were developed to provide transportation agencies and independent. auditors with a sequence of effective techniques and instructions for the undertaking of a. road safety audit The document presents a composite of current practices from various. jurisdictions and tailors them to Canadian roads design practices and operating conditions. The guidelines explicitly addresses 1 different road classes 2 new construction versus. upgrading of existing facilities and 3 urban versus rural facilities. 1 2 BACKGROUND,1 2 1 Road Safety Audit Concept, The original objective of the road safety audit RSA process was geared toward the. reduction of road casualties through the incorporation of a more proactive approach. Traditional blackspot analysis is a reactive measure of addressing safety problems and can. be considered the end result of a failure on the part of the designers to recognize the full. safety implications of their work Jordan and Barton 1992 Despite adherence to. prevailing design standards roads are still being built with problematic locations resulting. in disproportionate rates of road collisions Introducing road safety audits early in the. design of a highway is a cost effective way of eliminating potential safety problems before. roads are built,1 2 2 What is a Road Safety Audit, AUSTROADS the national association of road transport and traffic authorities in Australia. defines a road safety audit as, a formal examination of an existing or future road or traffic project or.
any project which interacts with road users in which an independent. qualified examiner looks at the project s accident potential and safety. performance 1994, Although many other definitions exist most include the concept that a RSA is a formal. examination which applies safety principles from a multi disciplinary perspective In all. cases RSAs are concerned with the safety of all road users. The main objective of a RSA is to ensure a high level of safety from the onset of the project. development by removing or mitigating preventable accident producing elements. 1 1 Road Safety Audit Guidelines,1 2 3 Why Road Safety Audits. Over the years road safety has become a principal concern of many transportation agencies. The rapid growth of the highway network changing vehicle population mixes of vehicles. on the roads smaller vehicles sharing the road with larger trucks number and age of. drivers economic constraints in road construction and technological advances have. contributed to an environment of increased accident potential Furthermore the three. principal elements which contribute to highway accidents driver vehicle and road are. also affected by the social and political environment under which they interact. In an effort to increase highway safety some transportation agencies have introduced safety. programs specifically designed to address some of the more prevalent elements contributing. to highway accidents At the same time engineering design has greatly improved in terms. of incorporating safety into road building In earlier years engineers designed and built. stay between the lines highways which provided little means of protection to vehicles. colliding with infrastructure or roadside elements outside travel lanes In the 1960s and. 1970s engineers started building forgiving highways which incorporated critical design. elements that mitigated the consequence of colliding with elements beyond the travel lanes. More recently engineers have begun to develop caring highways by emphasizing the. need to prevent rather than mitigate collisions Nevertheless there is still an entrenched. practice of designing infrastructures to minimum standards using a cookbook approach. This practice is largely driven by the desire or need to keep initial construction costs to a. minimum At issue is the consequence that a roadway designed to a series of minimum. standards does not necessarily ensure a facility that is safe overall. While attempting to reduce costs engineers must also consider a number of factors during. the design process including capacity requirements right of way availability geotechnical. conditions archaeological considerations environmental constraints socio economical. impacts and budget constraints Hamilton Associates 1998 Designers therefore have a. substantial responsibility to balance the opposing pressures that are relevant to any modern. road design project This may often lead to compromises to reach as many project. objectives as possible sometimes at the expense of safety. Road safety audits help to ensure that issues associated with road safety are specifically. addressed and are given equal importance as the other factors in a design project In cases. where the facility is already in service a RSA can identify problems that if properly. addressed by the owner would improve the safety of that facility It should be emphasized. that this is perhaps the weakest application of the RSA procedure Mitigative measures to. compensate for poor design and potential safety problems are often disruptive and. expensive for in service roads and are consequently less cost effective However a. keystone to the RSA process is that prevention of a safety problem is more effective than. a cure Traffic accidents can be reduced by proactively addressing road safety issues at the. time the road is conceptualized designed constructed or in service. 1 2 Road Safety Audit Guidelines,1 2 4 Why Canadian Guidelines. Road safety audit manuals have been prepared by transportation agencies in Australia New. Zealand and the United Kingdom However these manuals often reflect local road systems. characteristics design standards and practices of the country in which the audit process is. implemented, Road safety audits are relatively new to the Canadian transportation sector As discussed in. Chapter 2 several provinces have introduced the concept of road safety audits though varying. in design and scope No generic document exists that formally presents a recommended sequence. of the most effective techniques and practices which accommodate Canadian roads design. practices and operating conditions The need for a Canadian manual results from the fact that. Canadian roads are unique in many ways such as, C Local climatic conditions Road users in Canada experience arduous driving conditions.
resulting from snow freezing rain and sleet during the winter months Road. maintenance issues such as snow plowing and storage are also important factors. to include within a Canadian manual, C Size of the country Due to its size most of Canada has large areas of sparsely. populated land and long highway segments connecting population centers Road. users traveling from one population center to the next drive for long periods of. time without encountering high levels of activity on the highway. C Fleet mixes There are a wide variety of special vehicles that use the roads and their mix. is constantly changing There are now more longer and heavier trucks sharing. the road with smaller vehicles There is also an increased use of snow mobiles. sport utility vehicles and all terrain vehicles that interact within the road. environment, C Traffic volumes Most Canadian highways experience low traffic volumes In some. provinces a small percentage of the highway mileage accounts for approximately. 90 percent of all traffic volume This requires careful consideration when. incorporating safety principles in the design of highways. C Types and characteristics of animals In most of Canada the migration of animals such. as deer and moose across highways poses a significant threat to motorists. The development of a Canadian manual is of benefit to transportation agencies road safety. professionals and other parties interested in conducting road safety audits to improve highway. safety in Canada,1 3 Road Safety Audit Guidelines, Perhaps the most significant contribution of this manual is the development of checklists. reflective of Canadian issues and practices However the manual also attempts to draw. together the best and most recent materials related to RSA procedures The synthesis. provided by this document draws on the following key documents. AUSTROADS Road Safety Audit United Kingdom Guidelines for the Safety. Audit of Highways TAC Geometric Design Guidelines for Canadian Roads. G D Hamilton Associates Consulting Ltd Introducing Road Safety Audits and. Design Safety Reviews Draft Discussion Paper FHWA Study Tour for Road. Safety Audits Part 1 and 2 Final Report ITE The Traffic Safety Toolbox TAC. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Canada Fourth Edition. Canadian Guide to Neighbourhood Traffic Calming and AASHTO Highway. Safety Design and Operations Guide 1997,1 3 STRUCTURE OF MANUAL. This manual is divided into seven chapters as follows. Chapter 2 presents a review of existing practices regarding road safety audits in the United. Kingdom Australia New Zealand and the United States A discussion about existing. practices in Canada is also presented The Canadian provinces that have introduced the. concept of road safety audits are British Columbia Alberta Ontario Quebec New. Brunswick Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Chapter 3 discusses the principles of road safety audits The chapter begins by providing.
an overview of the stages involved in an audit feasibility draft design detailed design. pre opening and post opening existing The chapter continues by discussing the types of. 1 4 Road Safety Audit Guidelines, projects which can be audited the composition and characteristics of the audit team the. roles and responsibilities of those involved in the audit process the organization of road. safety audits and the training of auditors The chapter concludes with a description. regarding the monitoring and evaluation of the audit process. Chapter 4 presents a discussion of the safety audit process This discussion describes the. complete process followed from the selection of the audit team to the completion meeting. and follow up The chapter also discusses the methodology used when conducting audits. at different project stages Finally there is a detailed discussion addressing municipal. Chapter 5 presents an overview of checklists for road safety audits The chapter discusses. the structure of the checklists as well as their use The master checklist and detailed. checklists are also presented in this chapter, Chapter 6 is a cursory evaluation of the economic implications of road safety audits The. chapter which is divided into three sections discusses 1 costs of conducting road safety. audits 2 benefits and 3 benefit to cost ratios associated with road safety audits. Chapter 7 provides a discussion of legal issues associated with road safety audits. Appendix A contains the checklists used for the conduct of safety audits of new facilities. and or upgrades Appendix B contains the checklists used for the conduct of safety audits. of municipal networks Appendix C presents illustrative examples of road safety audits. conducted in New Brunswick including highway audits and a municipal audit of a portion. of Fredericton Appendix D contains a glossary of key terms. 1 5 Road Safety Audit Guidelines,2 0 REVIEW OF EXISTING ROAD SAFETY AUDIT. This chapter presents a review of existing practices regarding road safety audits in the. United Kingdom Australia New Zealand and the United States A discussion of existing. practices in Canada is also presented The Canadian provinces that have initiated road. safety audit studies include British Columbia Alberta Ontario Quebec New Brunswick. Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island,2 1 UNITED KINGDOM. The concept of road safety audits originated in the United Kingdom during the 1980s In. 1987 the United Kingdom UK Department of Transport formulated strategies directed. toward achieving a one third reduction in the number of annual highway casualties by the. year 2000 In 1988 the UK passed legislation requiring all road authorities in mainland. Britain to take necessary steps to reduce crashes on new roads This requirement led to. the development of two key publications A Road Safety Code of Good Practice Local. Authorities Association 1989 and Guidelines for the Safety Audit of Highways Institution. of Highways and Transportation 1990 revised 1996, In 1991 the UK Department of Transport made road safety audits mandatory for all.
national trunk roads and freeways It currently remains the responsibility of the individual. highway organizations to determine what to audit and when as a function of their highway. programs design procedures and type of project,2 2 AUSTRALIA. In Australia the national association of road transport and traffic authorities is known as. AUSTROADS In 1994 AUSTROADS released a publication entitled Road Safety Audit This. publication establishes a broad set of guidelines for a national road safety audit program. It includes widely adopted checklists developed through close interaction with Transit New. Zealand which are used to ensure all areas of safety are considered when conducting a road. safety audit, Individual states are incorporating road safety audits at different rates throughout Australia. The state of Victoria s road agency Victoria Roads Corporation VicRoads considers the. road safety audit to be an integral component of the quality management process Road. safety audits are carried out from project conception to construction completion on all. projects costing in excess of A 5 million CDN 4 8 million Furthermore VicRoads. randomly audits 20 percent of other construction projects at one or more stages and 10. percent of maintenance work,2 1 Road Safety Audit Guidelines. The Roads and Traffic Authority RTA is responsible for road safety in New South Wales. RTA published a road safety audit manual as part of the New South Wales quality. management approach in 1991 Twenty percent of existing roadways within all regions are. to be audited to identify deficiencies in existing roads and identify priorities for action. Roads and Traffic Authority 1991 Furthermore twenty construction projects varying. in project size and stages are to be audited every year within each region. 2 3 NEW ZEALAND, Transit New Zealand TNZ is the national road agency responsible for the maintenance. and improvements to the New Zealand highway network In 1989 TNZ created an. Authority whose main objective is the provision of an integrated and safe highway network. After reviewing the practices and procedures of road safety audits developed by the UK and. Australia TNZ published a document entitled Safety Audit Policy and Procedures Transit. New Zealand 1993 This publication states that all projects costing more than NZ 5. million CDN 4 2 million would be audited from project conception to construction. completion TNZ mandated that road safety audits would be conducted on a 20 percent. sample of state highway projects however there are no guidelines for the identification of. projects to be included in the sample,2 4 UNITED STATES.
In 1996 the Federal Highway Administration FHWA dispatched a scanning team to. evaluate the road safety audit process in Australia and New Zealand The group consisted. of a multi disciplinary delegation of highway engineers safety specialists and educators. In a 1997 report entitled FHWA Study Tour for Road Safety Audits Parts 1 and 2. Trentacoste et al 1997 the scanning team concluded that road safety audits could. maximize safety of roadways design and operation The program participants. recommended that a United States pilot study be conducted The team provided the FHWA. with a nine goal implementation strategy These goals include Trentacoste et al 1997. Goal 1 Get the word out,Goal 2 Gain support and enlist pilot agencies. Goal 3 Pilot the RSA Process,Goal 4 Revise the RSA Process. Goal 5 Develop best practices guide,Goal 6 Train support group. Goal 7 Develop training course,Goal 8 Monitor implementation. Goal 9 Adopt guidelines, Subsequently the FHWA started a Road Safety Audit Pilot Project in 1998 to determine.
the feasibility of national implementation of road safety audits into the process of roadway.


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