Resistance Training For Children And Youth-Books Pdf

Resistance Training for Children and Youth
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ASCA Position Stand Resistance Training for Children and Youth 2. 1 0 INTRODUCTION TO RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH 3. 2 0 WHAT IS THE APPROPRIATE AGE TO COMMENCE RESISTANCE TRAINING 4. 2 1 How young is too young 4, 2 2 Position of the ASCA on appropriate training age 5. 3 0 TRAINING INTENSITY 5, 3 1 How heavy is too heavy 5. 3 1 1 Maximal lifts in youth athletes 6, 3 1 2 Training with maximal lifts Anecdotal experience 7. 3 2 Safely estimating maximal strength 8, 3 3 Position of the ASCA on training intensity 9. 4 0 PROGRAM DESIGN AND PROGRESSION 10, 4 1 Research studies 10.
4 2 Long term athlete Development LTAD 10, 4 3 Model programs 12. 4 3 1 Level 1 6 9 years 12, 4 3 2 Level 2 9 12 years 15. 4 3 3 Level 3 12 15 years 16, 4 3 4 Level 4 15 18 years 17. 4 4 Sample programs 18, 5 0 INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH RESISTANCE TRAINING 19. 5 1 Prevalence severity and types of injuries 19, 5 2 Appropriate lifting technique to minimise lower back injuries 24.
5 3 The use of resistance training to prevent sports related injuries 26. 5 4 Legal cases involving resistance training and children 26. 6 0 NUTRITION AND RECOVERY STRATEGIES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH 27. 6 1 Nutritional strategies 27, 6 1 1 Nutritional needs of children and youth 27. 6 1 2 Nutritional recommendations 28, 6 1 3 Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids 30. 6 2 Recovery strategies 35, 6 2 1 Common recovery techniques 35. 7 0 SUMMARY OF THE ASCA POSITION STAND 38, REFERENCE LIST 40. APPENDICES 45, www strengthandconditioning org, ASCA Position Stand Resistance Training for Children and Youth 3.
1 0 INTRODUCTION TO RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH. The use of resistance training by children 6 12 years and youth 13 18 years has been an area. of controversy for the past 30 years Much research has been directed to this area during this. time and a number of prestigious organisations such the American Academy of Pediatrics AAP. the US National Strength and Conditioning Association NSCA and the British Association of. Exercise and Sport Sciences BASES have developed Policy Documents or Position Stands to. summarise the research performed in the area and provide guidance for coaches parents and. teachers AAP 2001 NSCA 1996 BASES 2004 These Position Stands are remarkably. thorough scientific documents for example the NSCA Position Stand references 145. publications while the BASES Position Stand was developed by a group of experts consisting of. orthopaedic clinicians physical educators sociologists exercise physiologists psychologists and. biomechanists However the practical recommendations that were developed in these. documents are typically very general and do not provide a great deal of specific guidance for the. coach parent athlete or teacher For example in the AAP 2001 Policy Document one of the. main recommendations is, A general strengthening program should address all major muscle groups and exercise through. the complete range of motion AAP 2001 p 1471, While such advice is undoubtedly correct these types of general statements provide little real. clarity for the coach in developing a comprehensive resistance training program for children and. youth The purpose of the Australian Strength and Conditioning Association ASCA Position. Stand is to develop a document that provides for as much clarity and guidance as possible to. assist coaches in designing resistance training programs for children and youth at various stages. throughout their development Hence this document develops a number of age related sample. programs proposes age and function specific progressions in training and describes the actual. first hand experiences of highly trained athletes who have performed intense resistance training. during their youth The Position Stand is divided into 7 sections dealing with each aspect of the. training process including, 1 The appropriate age to commence training how young is too young. 2 Training intensity how heavy is too heavy, 3 Program design for the 6 9 9 12 12 15 and 15 18 years of age groups including model. programs and recommended muscular function prerequisites prior to progression to more. advanced programs, 4 Injuries how they are caused appropriate lifting technique and injury prevention.
strategies, 5 Legal cases involving weight training and children. 6 Nutrition and recovery strategies to enhance training effectiveness in children and youth. 7 Overall summary of the ASCA recommendations, Hence this Position Stand develops very specific recommendations to serve as examples. However it is acknowledged that all cases are individual and hence while very specific. recommendations are given individual variation for any specific individual will be required by the. strength and conditioning coach SCC who is dealing with that specific child The ASCA Position. Stand is largely based on the results of published research with the addition of the real world first. hand training experiences that have been reported by the ASCA membership and members of. the ASCA Advisory Panel and Board, www strengthandconditioning org. ASCA Position Stand Resistance Training for Children and Youth 4. 2 0 THE APPROPRIATE AGE TO COMMENCE RESISTANCE TRAINING. 2 1 How young is too young, One question that is often asked of the ASCA is how young can a boy or girl start performing. resistance training One of the most comprehensive long term research studies on children. performing resistance training was conducted in Israel by Sadres and colleagues 2001 These. researchers studied the effects of progressive resistance training on 27 boys aged between 9 and. 10 years mean 9 2 0 3 yrs over 2 school years 21 months including 18 months of supervised. training with 3 months of holidays in between the school years where no supervised training was. performed and compared the effects against a control group of 22 similar boys who did not. perform resistance training but participated in standard physical education classes including track. and field basic gymnastics and ball games e g soccer basketball etc Each group performed. their activities twice per week for approximately 1 hour per session The resistance training was. designed and instructed by a weightlifting coach and consisted of classic weight lifting exercises. such as clean pulls jerk clean squats dead lift snatch and snatch pulls as well as a few isolated. exercises involving leg and arm flexion and extensions in addition to abdominal exercises and. back extensions Each resistance training session consisted of 150 repetitions per session using. between 3 to 6 exercises for 5 to 30 repetitions of 1 to 4 sets per exercise In the first school year. 9 months the load varied from 30 to 70 of maximum with a mean of 50 while in the second. school year the intensity was increased from 50 to 70 of maximum with a mean of 60. maximum The resistance trained group recorded similar increases in body height and weight to. that achieved by the control group over the 21 month period however the increases achieved in. strength were significantly greater and were of the order of a about a 1 increase in strength per. Only one injury was reported during the 21 month study and was described as follows. on one occasion the bar slid and fell on the thighs of one of the subjects following a lift. clean The child complained of transient non specific pain in the anterior thigh and sat out for. about 5 min He returned to train within the same session when the pain was resolved and had. no further complications Therefore it was felt that no additional medical evaluation was. required The calculated injury rate was 0 055 100 participant hours Sadres et al 2002 p 363. An important feature of this study was the high degree of expert supervision and logical. progressions that were provided throughout the training period To commence the program the. initial load consisted of a broom stick for the first month followed by an 8 kg bar for the following. month in order to learn the proper technique and safety procedures The study clearly. demonstrated that advanced resistance training can be safely and effectively employed in 9 year. In specifically addressing the question of how young is too young researchers Falk and Mor. 1996 reported positive results from resistance and martial arts training in 6 8 year old boys. Faigenbaum et al 2003 conducted a study with 32 girls and 64 boys between the ages of 6 12. years that demonstrated that 1 RM repetition maximum testing using child sized weight. machines was safe and effective Avery Faigenbaum from the University of Massachusetts in. Boston is perhaps the most prolific researcher in this area In a review paper entitled. Resistance training for Adolescent Athletes he stated. Although there is no minimum age requirement for participation in a youth resistance training. program all participants should have the emotional maturity to accept and follow direction and. should genuinely appreciate the potential benefits and risks associated with youth strength. training Faigenbaum 2002 p 32, www strengthandconditioning org.
ASCA Position Stand Resistance Training for Children and Youth 5. To take an extreme example many readers may well have seen pictures and interviews with. child body building prodigy Richard Sandrak www richardsandrak com who commenced weight. training using light dumbbells under the supervision of his father at the tender age of 3 By the. age of 7 Richard was a well known celebrity within the bodybuilding community and regularly. performed guest posing routines at major competitions and was featured on a number of. television shows including Ripley s Believe it or Not and possessed an extremely lean muscular. body At this stage he was reportedly performing grueling multiple hour gym sessions on a daily. basis under his father s supervision and displayed remarkable determination and focus. 2 2 Position of the ASCA on appropriate training age. If a child is ready to participate in organised and structured sports such as cricket football rugby. basketball then they are generally ready to perform a supervised resistance training program As. children typically enter formal school at the age of 6 years they may be ready to participate in an. organised resistance training program at this time However the actual age will vary from child to. child and will be largely based on their capacity to follow clear directions Some children at this. stage of development may well see the weights area as a big playroom to run around and swing. off the equipment etc and do not have the focused attention span or commitment to apply to. training or follow clear directions and are simply not ready for resistance training One factor to. keep well in mind is that a standard gym is a very dangerous place for young children filled with. all sorts of weights plates and machines which are all potentially very hazardous for young. children As will be detailed in the injury section many injuries occur to children in gyms from. dropping weights on fingers or toes hitting their heads on bars Hence prior to commencement. of a resistance program the child will be required to be strictly supervised and able to follow clear. directions and understand basic safety considerations While the age that this occurs will vary. from child to child it is the position of the ASCA that the youngest a child should commence. resistance training is at 6 years of age, 3 0 TRAINING INTENSITY. 3 1 How heavy is too heavy, Perhaps the most controversial questions pertaining to resistance training for children are how. heavy is too heavy what is an appropriate training load and what type of exercises and loadings. are appropriate at various stages of childhood The Policy Statement from the AAP is quite clear. on this topic and recommends, Preadolescence and adolescence should avoid competitive weight lifting power lifting body. building and maximal lifts until they reach physical and skeletal maturity AAP 2001 p 1471. The policy statement goes on to suggest that, Progressive resistance exercise requires the successive completion of 8 to 15 repetitions in good. form before increasing weight or resistance AAP 2001 p 1471. The Position Stand from the NSCA is a little more tolerant to the performance of maximal lifts In. their Position Stand it is stated that, The examination of the relative safety of supervised 1 RM testing in laboratory settings.
performed only to evaluate training induced changes in muscular strength should be supported. philosophically Most of the forces that children are exposed to in sports and recreational. activities are likely to be greater in both duration and magnitude of exposure than competently. supervised and properly performed maximal strength tests Conversely under no circumstances. should children be subjected to unsupervised and poorly performed 1 RM testing e g. inadequate progression of loading and poor lifting technique or chronic maximum resistance. training e g weightlifting training without periodization due to the real risk of injury NSCA. 1996 p 65 66, www strengthandconditioning org, ASCA Position Stand Resistance Training for Children and Youth 6. Nevertheless the NSCA overall recommendations suggested that. Depending on the goal of the training program i e strength or local muscular endurance 1 to 3. sets of 6 to 15 reps performed on 2 or 3 nonconsecutive days a week is recommended NCSA. ASCA Position Stand Resistance Training for Children and Youth 1 Australian Strength and Conditioning Association Private Bag 71 Beenleigh QLD 4207 Telephone 07 3807 7119 Fax 07 3807 7445 ASCA Board Dr Dan Baker 1 2 President John Mitchel 3 David Boyle 4 Susan Currell Currell Peter ASCA Advisory Panel Dr Greg Wilson 5 6 Chair Dr Stephen P Bird 6 7 Dr Donna O Connor 8 Julian

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