Research Methodology Tools And Techniques-Books Pdf

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES, Dr Prabhat Pandey. Dr Meenu Mishra Pandey, Bridge Center 2015, BRIDGE CENTER. Buzau Al Marghiloman 245 bis 120082, Tel 0728394546. e mail editor euacademic org, Romania European Union. Printed in Romania, First published 2015, ISBN 978 606 93502 7 0.
All rights reserved No part of this publication may be. reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means . without permission Any person who does any unauthorised. act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal. prosecution and civil claims for damages , The publishers have applied for copyright permission for. those pieces that need copyright clearance and due. acknowledgement will be made at the first opportunity . The views and contents of this book are solely of the author . The author of the book has taken all reasonable care to ensure. that the contents of the book do not violate any existing. copyright or other intellectual property rights of any person. in any manner whatsoever In the event the author has been. unable to track any source and if any copyright has been. inadvertently infringed please notify the publisher in writing. for corrective action , 2, Dr Prabhat Pandey, Dr Meenu Mishra Pandey. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TOOLS, AND TECHNIQUES, Bridge Center. 2015, 3, 4, CONTENTS, Preface 6, Chapter 1 Research 7. Chapter 2 Research Process 13, Chapter 3 Research Design 18.
Chapter 4 Research Problem 23, Chapter 5 Variables and Their Types 29. Chapter 6 Formulation of Hypothesis 32, Chapter 7 Sampling 40. Chapter 8 Tools of Data Collection 57, Chapter 9 Data Analysis 70. Chapter 10 Interpretation of Data 75, Chapter 11 Research Methods 78. Chapter 12 Descriptive or Survey Method 84, Chapter 13 Experimental Method 89.
Chapter 14 Research Proposal 101, Chapter 15 Research Report 110. Bibliography 116, 5, PREFACE, The authors felt during their several years of teaching experience that. students fail to understand the books written on Research Methodology. because generally they are written in technical language Since this. course is not taught before the Master s degree the students are not. familiar with its vocabulary methodology and course contents . The authors have made an attempt to write it in very non . technical language It has been attempted that students who try to. understand the research methodology through self learning may also. find it easy The chapters are written with that approach Even those. students who intend to attain high level of knowledge of the research. methodology in social sciences will find this book very helpful in. understanding the basic concepts before they read any book on. research methodology , This book is useful those students who offer the Research. Methodology at Post Graduation and M Phil Level This book is also. very useful for Ph D Course Work examinations , Dr Prabhat Pandey. Dr Meenu Mishra Pandey, 6, 1, Research, Introduction .
Research is an essential and powerful tool in leading man towards. progress Without systematic research there would have been very little. progress , John W Best has rightly said The secret of our cultural. development has been research pushing back the areas of ignorance by. discovering new truths which in turn lead to better ways of doing. things and better products , Scientific research leads to progress in some field of life New. products new facts new concepts and new ways of doing things are. being found due to ever increasing significant research in the physical . the biological the social and the psychological fields Research today is. no longer confined to the science laboratory , Meaning of Research . Word Research is comprises of two words Re Search It means to. search again So research means a systematic investigation or activity to. gain new knowledge of the already existing facts , Research is an intellectual activity It is responsible for bringing. to light new knowledge It is also responsible for correcting the present. mistakes removing existing misconceptions and adding new learning to. the existing fund of knowledge Researches are considered as a. combination of those activities which are removed from day to day life. 7, and are pursued by those persons who are gifted in intellect and sincere.
in pursuit of knowledge But it is not correct to say that the research is. restricted to such type of persons however it is correct to say that. major contribution of research comes from highly gifted and committed. workers Thus the research is not at all mysterious and is carried on by. hundreds of thousands of average individuals , Research is also considered as the application of scientific. method in solving the problems It is a systematic formal and intensive. process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis There are many. ways of obtaining knowledge They are intuition revelation and. authority logical manipulation of basic assumptions informed guesses . observation and reasoning by analogy One of the branches of research. known as empirical research is highly goal oriented technique . Definitions of Research , The following are the important definitions of research . Research is an endeavor attempt to discover develop and verify. knowledge It is an intellectual process that has developed over. hundreds of years ever changing in purpose and form and always. researching to truth , J Francis Rummel, Research is an honest exhaustive intelligent searching for facts and. their meanings or implications with reference to a given problem The. product or findings of a given piece of research should be an authentic . verifiable contribution to knowledge in the field studied . P M Cook, Research may be defined as a method of studying problems whose. solutions are to be derived partly or wholly from facts . W S Monroes, Research is considered to be the more formal systematic intensive.
process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis It involves a. 8, more systematic structure of investigation usually resulting in some. sort of formal record of procedures and a report of results or. conclusion , John W Best, Research comprises defining and redefining problems formulating. hypothesis or suggested solutions collecting organizing and evaluating. data making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last careful. testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated. hypothesis , Clifford Woody, Research is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge . Redman Mori, Social research may be defined as a scientific undertaking which by. means of logical and systematized techniques aims to discover new. facts or verify and test old facts analyse their sequences inter . relationships and casual explanation which were derived within an. appropriate theoretical frame of reference develop new scientific. tools concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid. study of human behavior , P V Younge, Purpose of Research .
The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the. application of scientific procedure The main aim of research is to find. out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet . Though each research study has its own specific purpose some general. objectives of research below , i To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights. into it Studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or. formative research studies , 9, ii To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual . situation or a group Studies with this object in view are known as. descriptive research studies , iii To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with. which it is associated with something else Studies with this object. in view are known as diagnostic research studies . iv To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables . Such studies are known as hypothesis testing research studies . Characteristics of Research , Following are the characteristics of research . i Research is directed toward the solution of a problem . ii Research requires expertise , iii Research emphasizes the development of generalizations .
principles or theories that will be helpful in predicting future. occurrences , iv Research is based upon observable experience or empirical. evidences , v Research demands accurate observation and description . vi Research involves gathering new data from primary or first hand. sources or using existing data for a new purpose . vii Research is characterized by carefully designed procedures that. apply rigorous analysis , viii Research involves the quest for answers to un solved problems . ix Research strives to be objective and logical applying every. possible test to validate the procedures employed the data. collected and the conclusions reached , x Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity . xi Research is carefully recorded and collected , xii Research sometimes requires courage .
10, Types of Research , There are varieties of ways through which we may classify it into. different categories , A On the basis of nature of information . On the basis of nature of information we can classify the research into. two types , i Qualitative Research When information is in the form of qualitative. data , ii Quantitative Research When information is in the form of. quantitative data , B On the basis of utility of content or nature of subject matter of.
research , On the basis of these criteria we can categorize the research into two. categories , i Basic Fundamental pure or Theoretical Research Its utility is. universal , ii Experimental or Applied Research Its utility is limited . C On the basis of approach of research , We may classify research into two different categories . i Longitudinal Research Examples of this category are historical Case. study and Genetic research , ii Cross Sectional Research Examples of this category are.
Experimental and Survey Research , D On the basis of method of research . On the basis of research method we may classify a research into five. different categories , i Philosophical Research It is purely qualitative in nature and we are. focusing on the vision of others on the content of research . ii Historical Research It is both qualitative as well as quantitative in. nature and deals with past events , 11, iii Survey Research It deals with present events and is quantitative in. nature It may further be sub divided into discretional correlational. and exploratory type of research , iv Experimental Research This is purely quantitative in nature and. deals with future events , v Case Study Research It deals with unusual events It may be.
qualitative as well as quantitative in nature depending upon the. content , 12, 2, Research Process, Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to. effectively carry out research These actions or steps are . i Formulating the Research Problem, ii Extensive Literature Survey. iii Developing the Research Hypothesis, iv Preparing the Research Design. v Determining the Research Design, vi Collecting the Research Data. vii Execution of the Project, viii Analysis of Data.
ix Hypothesis Testing, x Generalization and Interpretation. xi Preparing of the Report or Presentation of the Result. i Formulation of Research Problem , At the very outset the researcher must decide the general area of. interest or aspect of a subject matter that he would like to inquire into. and then research problem should be formulated , ii Extensive Literature Survey . Once the problem is formulated the researcher should undertake. extensive literature survey connected with the problem For this. purpose the abstracting and indexing journals and published or. 13, unpublished bibliographies are the first place to go to academic. journals conference proceedings government reports books etc must. be tapped depending on the nature of the problem , iii Development of Working Hypothesis .
After extensive literature survey researcher should state in clear terms. the working hypothesis or hypotheses Working hypothesis is tentative. assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical. consequences It s very important or it provides the focal point for. research , iv Preparing the Research Design , After framing hypothesis we have to prepare a research design i e we. have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be. conducted The preparation of such a design facilitates research to be as. efficient as possible yielding maximal information In other words the. function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant. evidence with optimum effort time and expenditure But how all these. can be achieved depends mainly on the research purpose . v Determining Sample Design , A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data is actually. collected for obtaining a sample from a given population in census. inquiry we involve a great deal of time money and energy so i. students fail to understand the books written on Research Methodology because generally they are written in technical language Since this course is not taught before the Masters degree the students are not familiar with its vocabulary methodology and course contents The authors have made an attempt to write it in very non

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