Representation Of Grammar As A Set Of Vectors Wordpress Com-Books Pdf

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CAES Vol 1 4 December 2015, megalocomparison2 usually some randomly chosen items are taken outside of their appropriate. contexts For instance active or ergative typology or the fact of so called isolating or. polysintetic typology i e items that are not usual for native languages of researchers and that. shock researchers minds are considered as interesting exotic items while no attention is paid. to holistic and systematic analysis of language structures Such approach makes typology be a. curiosity store but not a tool of historical linguistics however initially according to founding. fathers of linguistics it is typology that should be the main tool of historical linguistics. According to the mythology created by adepts of megalocomparison comparative linguistics has. actually little connection with typology and makes its statements with use of a lexicostatistical. hoodoo Often megalocomparativists object on this critics saying that they also pay attention to. structural issues and beside lexis they also compare morphemes However we know very well. what actually means megalocomparative comparison of morphemes it means analysis in a. lexical way i e only material components are compared so there is no difference between such. comparison of material components of morphemes and comparison of lexemes The cause of it. is the fact that megalocomparativists ignore that any morpheme consists of three components. meaning position and material expression and reduce morpheme to their material expressions. Almost no attention is paid to the fact that grammar is first of all positional distribution of. certain meanings There is a presupposition that genetic relationship of two languages can be. proved by discovering of look alike lexemes of so called basic vocabulary and by finding out. certain regular phonetic correspondence However yet Atoine Meillet pointed on the fact that. regular phonetic correspondence can appear due to borrowings and can t be proves of. relationship, Grammatical correspondences provide proof and they alone prove rigorously but only if one. makes use of the details of the forms and if one establishes that certain particular. grammatical forms used in the languages considered go back to a common origin. Correspondences in vocabulary never provide absolute proof because one can never be sure. that they are not due to loans Meillet 1954 27, Regular phonetic correspondence can be between words of any randomly chosen languages For. instance it is possible to find some regular correspondence between Japanese and Cantonese and. even prove their relationship boku Japanese personal pronoun I used by males Cantonese. buk servant I Japanese b stick Cantonese baang stick Japanese o taku your. family your house or your husband Cantonese zaak house Japanese taku swamp in. compounds Cantonese zaak swamp Japanese san three Cantonese sam Japanese shin. forest used in compounds Cantonese sam forest Japanese roku six Cantonese l k. Japanese ran orchid Cantonese laan orchid If there would be no other languages of so. called Buyeo3 stock and no languages of Chinese stock we would have no ability to single those. words as items borrowed from Southern Chinese dialects since they have same regular and wide. use as words of Japanese origin In the case of Japanese and Cantonese we know history of their. stocks rather well and have many firm evidences that Japanese isn t a relative of Chinese stock. If someone thinks that this example about Japanese and Cantonese is just a weird joke then. everyone can take a look at the procedure that was used by Greenberg in order to prove that. Megalocomparison is a term invented by James Matisoff Matisoff 1990 the term is used to denote attempts to. discover distant genetic relationship basing on comparison of lexis i e attempts to prove genetic relationship of. certain languages in Greenberg style of so called mass comparison. Buyeo stock is a hypothetical stock that includes Japanese Korean and Okinawan languages. CAES Vol 1 4 December 2015, Waikuri language belonged to Hokan family4 the conclusion that Waikuri belonged to Hokan. stock was based on comparison of FOUR words only Poser Campbell 1992 217 218. Also we should keep in mind that Greenberg actually didn t care much about precise phonetic. correspondence and superficial likeness was rather sufficient for him. Pic 1 Geographic location of Waikuri language red line map made after Google maps. screenshot, Phonetic correspondence themselves can be even between completely unrelated languages and.
so a stock can t be proved by regular correspondence but regular correspondence should be. proved by existence of a stock since true regular phonetic correspondence exist only inside. Then it was Swadesh yet who warned that comparison of vocabularies can t be proof of genetic. relationship of languages and some other methods should be used for it i e analysis of. structures Swadesh method is method of estimation of approximate time of divergence of. languages which have been already proved to be relatives However Swadesh s warning is well. forgotten Also we should keep in mind that even so called basic lexicon is actually culturally. determined Hoijer 1956 and borrowings can be inside it above considered example of. Japanese and Cantonese, Moreover we should keep in mind the fact that there are thousands of languages which history. is completely unknown and which are described only in their current phase and so there is no. ability to distinguish borrowings in their lexicon and so it s completely impossible to say. anything about their genetic relationship basing on methodology of comparison of lexis. Waikuri is an extinct language that existed in Southern part of Baja California pic 1 Hokan stock is a. hypothetical stock of a dozen small language families that were spoken mainly in California Arizona and Baja. California pic 2,CAES Vol 1 4 December 2015, Methodology that ignores structural grammatical issues allows different scholars to make completely. different conclusions about the same language for instance Sumerian is thought to be a relative. of Kartvelian stock Nicholas Marr of Uralic stock Simo Parpola of Sino Tibetan Jan. Braun of Mon Khmer Igor M Diakonoff or even of Basque Aleksi Sahala Another notable. example is Ainu that is attributed to Altaic James Patrie to Austronesian Murayama Shichir. to Mon Khmer Alexander Vovin 5 The most notable fact is that all such attempts coexist and. all are considered by public as rather reliable in the same time obviously it looks much a like a. plot for a vaudeville sketch rather than a serious matter of a science. Pic 2 Scheme representing location of Hokan stock source Wikipedia. https en wikipedia org wiki Hokan languages accessed December 2015. Different methods can lead to different conclusions but if people use same methodology they. supposedly are expected to make same conclusions about the same material however we don t. see it it means only that methodology based on comparison of lexis isn t relevant for historical. linguistics, Also a weird issue is that such lexical methodology has never been tested in an appropriate way. Being asked why you came to the conclusion that it is possible to conclude something about. certain languages genetic relationship basing on comparison of lexis only. megalocomparativists usually answer morphology doesn t matter and don t explain how they. came to such conclusion they actually look much alike adepts of a religion but not alike. scientists since science always supposes experiments and verifications while statements it is so. because it is so obviously don t belong to the field of science but are actually statements of a. Due to completely isolated position among languages of the world Ainu is especially attractive material for. perfunctory and amateurish hypotheses,CAES Vol 1 4 December 2015. All facts show us that comparison of lexicon is completely irrelevant methodology in the field of. historical comparative studies of languages, Why we can say that language is first of all grammar i e system of grammar meanings and.
their distributions but not a heap of lexemes, Yet William Jones founding father of linguistics pointed on the fact that grammar is much. more important than lexis, The Sanscrit language whatever be its antiquity is of a wonderful structure more perfect. than the Greek more copious than the Latin and more exquisitely refined than either yet. bearing to both of them a stronger affinity both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of. grammar than could possibly have been produced by accident so strong indeed that no. philologer could examine them all three without believing them to have sprung from some. common source which perhaps no longer exists There is a similar reason though not quite. so forcible for supposing that both the Gothick and the Celtick though blended with a very. different idiom had the same origin with the Sanscrit and the old Persian might be added to. the same family if this were the place for discussing any question concerning the antiquities. of Persia Jones 1798 422 423, Main function of any language is to be mean of communication but in order to be able to. communicate first of all we have to set a system of rubrics labels markers that s why main. function of any language is to rubricate to structurize reality Structural level grammar is the. mean that rubricates reality and so it is much more important than lexicon I suppose we can. even say that structure appeared before languages of modern type i e when ancestors of Homo. sapiens developed possibility of free combination of two signals inside one utterance it already. was primitive form of modern language Structure is something alike bottle while lexicon is. liquid which is inside the bottle in a bottle can be put wine water gasoline or even sand but. bottle always remains bottle, To those who think that structure is not important I can give the following example Gakusei ha. essei wo gugutte purinto shita Having googled an essay student printed it What makes this. phrase be a Japanese phrase Japanese words gakusei student a word of Chinese origin. essei essay a word of English origin purinto print or may be Japanese verb guguru to. google One can probably say that this example is very special since it was made without so. called basic lexicon however such words are of everyday use and also as it has been noted. above it is impossible to distinguish some lexis that is basic all lexis is culturally determined. and borrowings can be even inside of so called basic lexis Any language can potentially accept. thousands and millions of foreign words and still remain the same language until its structure. remains the same, All the above considered facts mean that comparison of lexis should not be base of genetic.
classification of languages and any researches about genetic affiliation should be based on. comparative analysis of structures grammar i e analysis and comparison of grammatical. systems of compared languages is completely obligatory procedure to prove test some. hypothesis of genetic affiliation of a language,CAES Vol 1 4 December 2015. 1 2 A brief outline of Verbal Grammar Correlation Index VGCI method. a As far as language is structure i e grammar so to understand whether languages are related. we should compare their grammars, b Grammar is first of all positional distributions of grammatical means i e ordered pair of the. following view A where A is set of grammatical meanings and is set of operations. defined on A or positional distributions, c Why it is possible to conclude about languages relatedness unrelatedness considering only. verbal grammar Because there are many languages that have poor grammar of noun or have. almost no grammar of noun while there is no language without verbal grammar i e there are. languages which have no cases and genders even language that are very close relatives can. differ seriously in that case for instance English and German or Russian and Bulgarian but. there are no languages without modalities moods tenses and aspects that s why verb is. backbone of any grammar and backbone of comparative method. d In order to understand whether two languages are genetically related we should analyze the. degree of correlation of both sets In other words general idea of the method is the following. comparing the degree of correlation of grammatical meanings sets and comparing positional. distributions of common grammatical meanings Also I am to note that the method doesn t pay. any attention to material exponents at all i e the method supposes comparison of meanings and. their positional distributions only It isn t response to radical megalocomapartivists who harshly. ignore typological issues and write typology doesn t matter but it s just a matter of reality and. practice since material correlation regular phonetic correspondence between languages that are. distant relatives can be very complicated matter so the method is intended to prove genetic. relationship unrelatedness by pure typology, e In order to calculate value of VGCI we have to take logical conjunction of degree of. grammatical meanings sets correlation and degree of correlation of positional distributions of. common grammatical meanings i e VGCI is multiplication logical conjunction of two. f It is rather obvious that languages which are closer genetically related demonstrate higher. Representation of grammar as a set of vectors Alexander problem background called Buyeo3 stock and no languages of Chinese stock we would have no ability

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