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READING PASSAGE 1
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change itself and evolve to explore how extinct animals like dinosaurs and. our own early ancestors walked and stalked , The fossilized bones of a complete dinosaur skeleton can tell scientists a lot. about the animal but they do not make up the complete picture and the. computer can try to fill the gap The computer model is given a digitized. skeleton and the locations of known muscles The model then randomly. activates the muscles This perhaps unsurprisingly results almost without fail. in the animal falling on its face So the computer alters the activation pattern. and tries again usually to similar effect The modeled dinosaurs quickly. evolve If there is any improvement the computer discards the old pattern. and adopts the new one as the base for alteration Eventually the muscle. activation pattern evolves a stable way of moving the best possible solution is. reached and the dinosaur can walk run chase or graze Assuming natural. selection evolves the best possible solution too the modeled animal should be. moving in a manner similar to its now extinct counterpart And indeed using. the same method for living animals humans emu and ostriches similar top. speeds were achieved on the computer as in reality By comparing their. cyberspace results with real measurements of living species the Manchester. team of palaeontologists can be confident in the results computed showing. how extinct prehistoric animals such as dinosaurs moved . The Manchester University team have used the computer simulations to. produce a model of a giant meat eating dinosaur lt is called an. acrocanthosaurus which literally means high spined lizard because of the. spines which run along its backbone It is not really known why they are there. but scientists have speculated they could have supported a hump that stored. fat and water reserves There are also those who believe that the spines acted. as a support for a sail Of these one half think it was used as a display and. could be flushed with blood and the other half think it was used as a. temperature regulating device It may have been a mixture of the two The. skull seems out of proportion with its thick heavy body because it is so narrow. and the jaws are delicate and fine The feet are also worthy of note as they look. surprisingly small in contrast to the animal as a whole It has a deep broad tail. and powerful leg muscles to aid locomotion It walked on its back legs and its. front legs were much shorter with powerful claws , Falkingham himself is investigating fossilized tracks or footprints using. computer simulations to help analyze how extinct animals moved Modern day. trackers who study the habitats of wild animals can tell you what animal made. a track whether that animal was walking or running sometimes even the sex. of the animal But a fossil track poses a more considerable challenge to. Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 2. interpret in the same way A crucial consideration is knowing what the. environment including the mud or sediment upon which the animal walked. was like millions of years ago when the track was made Experiments can. answer these questions but the number of variables is staggering To. physically recreate each scenario with a box of mud is extremely time . consuming and difficult to repeat accurately This is where computer. simulation comes in , Falkingham uses computational techniques to model a volume of mud and. control the moisture content consistency and other conditions to simulate the. mud of prehistoric times A footprint is then made in the digital mud by a. virtual foot This footprint can be chopped up and viewed from any angle and. stress values can be extracted and calculated from inside it By running. hundreds of these simulations simultaneously on supercomputers Falkingham. can start to understand what types of footprint would be expected if an animal. moved in a certain way over a given kind of ground Looking at the variation in. the virtual tracks researchers can make sense of fossil tracks with greater. confidence , The application of computational techniques in palaeontology is becoming. more prevalent every year As computer power continues to increase the. range of problems that can be tackled and questions that can be answered will. only expand , Questions 1 6, Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading.
Passage 1 In boxes 1 6 on your answer sheet write, TRUE if the statement is true. FALSE if the statement is false, NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage. 1 In his study of prehistoric life Peter Falkinghom rarely. spends time on outdoor research , 2 Several attempts are usually needed before the. computer model of a dinosaur used by Sellers and Manning manages to. stay upright , 3 When the Sellers and Manning computer model was. used for people it showed them moving faster than they are physically. Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 3. able to , 4 Some palaeontologists have expressed reservations.
about the conclusions reached by the Manchester team concerning the. movement of dinosaurs , 5 An experienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as. easily as those made by live animals , 6 Research carried out into the composition of prehistoric. mud has been found to be inaccurate , Questions 7 9. Label the diagram below , Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer . Write your answers in boxes 7 9 on your answer sheet . , 7, 8, 9, Questions 10 13, Complete the flow chart below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer, Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 4. , 10, 11, 12, 13, Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 5. READING PASSAGE 2, You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 26 which are based on. Reading Passage 2 below , The robots are coming, What is the current state of play in Artificial Intelligence . A , Can robots advance so far that they become the ultimate threat to our.
existence Some scientists say no and dismiss the very idea of Artificial. Intelligence The human brain they argue is the most complicated system. ever created and any machine designed to reproduce human thought is bound. to fail Physicist Roger Penrose of Oxford University and others believe that. machines are physically incapable of human thought Colin McGinn of Rutgers. University backs this up when he says that Artificial Intelligence is like sheep. trying to do complicated psychoanalysis They just don t have the conceptual. equipment they need in their limited brains , B , Artificial Intelligence or Al is different from most technologies in that scientists. still understand very little about how intelligence works Physicists have a good. understanding of Newtonian mechanics and the quantum theory of atoms and. molecules whereas the basic laws of intelligence remain a mystery . But a sizable number of mathematicians and computer scientists who are. specialists in the area are optimistic about the possibilities . To them it is only a matter of time before a thinking machine walks out of the. laboratory Over the years various problems have impeded all efforts to create. robots To attack these difficulties researchers tried to use the top down. approach using a computer in an attempt to program all the essential rules. Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 6. onto a single disc By inserting this into a machine it would then become self . aware and attain human like intelligence , C , In the 1950s and 1960s great progress was made but the shortcomings of. these prototype robots soon became clear They were huge and took hours to. navigate across a room Meanwhile a fruit fly with a brain containing only a. fraction of the computing power can effortlessly navigate in three dimensions . Our brains like the fruit fly s unconsciously recognize what we see by. performing countless calculations This unconscious awareness of patterns is. exactly what computers are missing The second problem is robots lack of. common sense Humans know that water is wet and that mothers are older. than their daughters But there is no mathematics that can express these. truths Children learn the intuitive laws of biology and physics by interacting. with the real world Robots know only what has been programmed into them . D , Because of the limitations of the top down approach to Artificial Intelligence . attempts have been made to use a bottom up approach instead that is to. try to imitate evolution and the way a baby learns Rodney Brooks was the. director of MIT s Artificial Intelligence laboratory famous for its lumbering top . down walking robots He changed the course of research when he explored the. unorthodox idea of tiny insectoid robots that learned to walk by bumping into. things instead of computing mathematically the precise position of their feet . Today many of the descendants of Brooks insectoid robots are on Mars. gathering data for NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration . running across the dusty landscape of the planet For all their successes in. mimicking the behavior of insects however robots using neural networks have. performed miserably when their programmers have tried to duplicate in them. the behavior of higher organisms such as mammals MIT s Marvin Minsky. summarises the problems of Al The history of Al is sort of funny because the. first real accomplishments were beautiful things like a machine that could do. well in a maths course But then we started to try to make machines that could. answer questions about simple children s stories There s no machine today. that can do that , E , There are people who believe that eventually there will be a combination. between the top down and bottom up which may provide the key to Artificial. Intelligence As adults we blend the two approaches It has been suggested. Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 7. that our emotions represent the quality that most distinguishes us as human . that it is impossible for machines ever to have emotions Computer expert. Hans Moravec thinks that in the future robots will be programmed with. emotions such as fear to protect themselves so that they can signal to humans. when their batteries are running low for example Emotions are vital in. decision making People who have suffered a certain kind of brain injury lose. the ability to experience emotions and become unable to make decisions . Without emotions to guide them they debate endlessly over their options . Moravec points out that as robots become more intelligent and are able to. make choices they could likewise become paralysed with indecision To aid. them robots of the future might need to have emotions hardwired into their. brains , F , There is no universal consensus as to whether machines can be conscious or.
even in human terms what consciousness means Minsky suggests the. thinking process in our brain is not localised but spread out with different. centres competing with one another at any given time Consciousness may. then be viewed as a sequence of thoughts and images issuing from these. different smaller minds each one competing for our attention Robots might. eventually attain a silicon consciousness Robots in fact might one day. embody an architecture for thinking and processing information that is. different from ours but also indistinguishable If that happens the question of. whether they really understand becomes largely irrelevant A robot that has. perfect mastery of syntax for all practical purposes understands what is being. said , Questions 14 20, Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A F Which paragraph contains the. following information , Write the correct letter A F in boxes 14 20 on your answer sheet . NB You may use any letter more than once , 14, An insect that proves the superiority of natural. intelligence over Artificial Intelligence, 15, Robots being able to benefit from their mistakes. 16, Many researchers not being put off believing that.
Access https ieltsonlinetests com for more practices page 8. Artificial Intelligence will eventually be developed. 17, An innovative approach that is having limited success. 18, The possibility of creating Artificial Intelligence being. doubted by some academics, 19, No generally accepted agreement of what our brains do. 20, Robots not being able to extend the intelligence in the. same way as humans, Questions 21 23, Look at the following people Questions 21 23 and the list of statements.
below Match each person with the correct statement A E. Write the correct letter A E in boxes 21 23 on your answer sheet . 21, Colin McGinn, 22, Marvin Minsky, 23, Hans Moravec. A Artificial Intelligence may require something equivalent to feelings in order. to succeed , B Different kinds of people use different parts of the brain . C Tests involving fiction have defeated Artificial Intelligence so far . D People have intellectual capacities which do not exist in computers . E People have no reason to be frightened of robots. Questions 24 26, Complete the summary below Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the. passage for each answer , Write your answers in boxes 24 26 on your answer sh. IELTS Mock Test 2018 February Reading Practice Test 1 READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below Walking with dinosaurs Peter L Falkingham and his colleagues at Manchester University are developing techniques which look set to revolutionize our understanding of how dinosaurs and other extinct animals behaved The media

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