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Introduction to Electronics ii, Dedication, Human beings are a delightful and complex amalgam of. the spiritual the emotional the intellectual and the physical. This is dedicated to all of them especially to those. who honor and nurture me with their friendship and love. Introduction to Electronics iii, Table of Contents. Preface xvi, Philosophy of an Online Text xvi, Notes for Printing This Document xviii. Copyright Notice and Information xviii, Review of Linear Circuit Techniques 1. Resistors in Series 1, Resistors in Parallel 1, Product Over Sum 1.

Inverse of Inverses 1, Ideal Voltage Sources 2, Ideal Current Sources 2. Real Sources 2, Voltage Dividers 3, Current Dividers 4. Superposition 4, A quick exercise 4, What s missing from this review 5. You ll still need Ohm s and Kirchoff s Laws 5, Basic Amplifier Concepts 6. Signal Source 6, Amplifier 6, Ground Terminal 7, To work with analyze and design amplifiers 7.

Voltage Amplifier Model 8, Signal Source 8, Amplifier Input 8. Amplifier Output 8, Open Circuit Voltage Gain 9, Voltage Gain 9. Current Gain 10, Power Gain 10, Introduction to Electronics iv. Power Supplies Power Conservation and Efficiency 11. DC Input Power 11, Conservation of Power 11, Efficiency 12. Amplifier Cascades 13, Decibel Notation 14, Power Gain 14.

Cascaded Amplifiers 14, Voltage Gain 14, Current Gain 15. Using Decibels to Indicate Specific Magnitudes 15, Voltage levels 15. Power levels 16, Other Amplifier Models 17, Current Amplifier Model 17. Transconductance Amplifier Model 18, Transresistance Amplifier Model 18. Amplifier Resistances and Ideal Amplifiers 20, Ideal Voltage Amplifier 20.

Ideal Current Amplifier 21, Ideal Transconductance Amplifier 22. Ideal Transresistance Amplifier 23, Uniqueness of Ideal Amplifiers 23. Frequency Response of Amplifiers 24, Terms and Definitions 24. Magnitude Response 24, Phase Response 24, Frequency Response 24. Amplifier Gain 24, The Magnitude Response 25, Causes of Reduced Gain at Higher Frequencies 26.

Causes of Reduced Gain at Lower Frequencies 26, Introduction to Electronics v. Differential Amplifiers 27, Example 27, Modeling Differential and Common Mode Signals 27. Amplifying Differential and Common Mode Signals 28. Common Mode Rejection Ratio 28, Ideal Operational Amplifiers 29. Ideal Operational Amplifier Operation 29, Op Amp Operation with Negative Feedback 30. Slew Rate 30, Op Amp Circuits The Inverting Amplifier 31.

Voltage Gain 31, Input Resistance 32, Output Resistance 32. Op Amp Circuits The Noninverting Amplifier 33, Voltage Gain 33. Input and Output Resistance 33, Op Amp Circuits The Voltage Follower 34. Voltage Gain 34, Input and Output Resistance 34, Op Amp Circuits The Inverting Summer 35. Voltage Gain 35, Op Amp Circuits Another Inverting Amplifier 36.

Voltage Gain 36, Op Amp Circuits Differential Amplifier 38. Voltage Gain 38, Op Amp Circuits Integrators and Differentiators 40. The Integrator 40, The Differentiator 41, Introduction to Electronics vi. Op Amp Circuits Designing with Real Op Amps 42, Resistor Values 42. Source Resistance and Resistor Tolerances 42, Graphical Solution of Simultaneous Equations 43.

Graphical Analysis of Diode Circuits 48, Examples of Load Line Analysis 49. Diode Models 50, The Shockley Equation 50, Forward Bias Approximation 51. Reverse Bias Approximation 51, At High Currents 51. The Ideal Diode 52, An Ideal Diode Example 53, Piecewise Linear Diode Models 55. A Piecewise Linear Diode Example 57, Other Piecewise Linear Models 58.

Diode Applications The Zener Diode Voltage Regulator 59. Introduction 59, Load Line Analysis of Zener Regulators 59. Numerical Analysis of Zener Regulators 61, Circuit Analysis 62. Zener Regulators with Attached Load 63, Example Graphical Analysis of Loaded Regulator 64. Diode Applications The Half Wave Rectifier 66, Introduction 66. A Typical Battery Charging Circuit 67, The Filtered Half Wave Rectifier 68.

Relating Capacitance to Ripple Voltage 70, Introduction to Electronics vii. Diode Applications The Full Wave Rectifier 72, Operation 72. 1st Positive Half Cycle 72, 2nd Negative Half Cycle 72. Diode Peak Inverse Voltage 73, Diode Applications The Bridge Rectifier 74. Operation 74, 1st Positive Half Cycle 74, 2nd Negative Half Cycle 74.

Peak Inverse Voltage 74, Diode Applications Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Features 75. Bridge Rectifier 75, Full Wave Rectifier 75, Filtered Full Wave and Bridge Rectifiers 75. Bipolar Junction Transistors BJTs 76, Introduction 76. Qualitative Description of BJT Active Region Operation 77. Quantitative Description of BJT Active Region Operation 78. BJT Common Emitter Characteristics 80, Introduction 80. Input Characteristic 80, Output Characteristics 81.

Active Region 81, Saturation 82, The pnp BJT 83, BJT Characteristics Secondary Effects 85. Introduction to Electronics viii, The n Channel Junction FET JFET 86. Description of Operation 86, Equations Governing n Channel JFET Operation 89. Cutoff Region 89, Triode Region 89, Pinch Off Region 89. The Triode Pinch Off Boundary 90, The Transfer Characteristic 91.

Metal Oxide Semiconductor FETs MOSFETs 92, The n Channel Depletion MOSFET 92. The n Channel Enhancement MOSFET 93, Comparison of n Channel FETs 94. p Channel JFETs and MOSFETs 96, Cutoff Region 98, Triode Region 98. Pinch Off Region 98, Other FET Considerations 99, FET Gate Protection 99. The Body Terminal 99, Basic BJT Amplifier Structure 100.

Circuit Diagram and Equations 100, Load Line Analysis Input Side 100. Load Line Analysis Output Side 102, A Numerical Example 104. Basic FET Amplifier Structure 107, Amplifier Distortion 110. Biasing and Bias Stability 112, Introduction to Electronics ix. Biasing BJTs The Fixed Bias Circuit 113, Example 113.

For b 100 113, For b 300 113, Biasing BJTs The Constant Base Bias Circuit 114. Example 114, For b 100 114, For b 300 114, Biasing BJTs The Four Resistor Bias Circuit 115. Introduction 115, Circuit Analysis 116, Bias Stability 117. To maximize bias stability 117, Example 118, For b 100 and VBE 0 7 V 118. For b 300 118, Biasing FETs The Fixed Bias Circuit 119.

Biasing FETs The Self Bias Circuit 120, Biasing FETs The Fixed Self Bias Circuit 121. Design of Discrete BJT Bias Circuits 123, Concepts of Biasing 123. Design of the Four Resistor BJT Bias Circuit 124, Design Procedure 124. Design of the Dual Supply BJT Bias Circuit 125, Design Procedure 125. Design of the Grounded Emitter BJT Bias Circuit 126. Design Procedure 126, Analysis of the Grounded Emitter BJT Bias Circuit 127.

Introduction to Electronics x, Bipolar IC Bias Circuits 129. Introduction 129, The Diode Biased Current Mirror 130. Current Ratio 130, Reference Current 131, Output Resistance 131. Compliance Range 132, Using a Mirror to Bias an Amplifier 132. Wilson Current Mirror 133, Current Ratio 133, Reference Current 134.

Output Resistance 134, Widlar Current Mirror 135, Current Relationship 135. Multiple Current Mirrors 137, FET Current Mirrors 137. Linear Small Signal Equivalent Circuits 138, Diode Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 139. The Concept 139, The Equations 139, Diode Small Signal Resistance 141. Notation 142, BJT Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 143.

The Common Emitter Amplifier 145, Introduction 145. Constructing the Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 146. Voltage Gain 147, Input Resistance 148, Output Resistance 148. Introduction to Electronics xi, The Emitter Follower Common Collector Amplifier 149. Introduction 149, Voltage Gain 150, Input Resistance 151. Output Resistance 152, Review of Small Signal Analysis 153.

FET Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 154, The Small Signal Equivalent 154. Transconductance 155, FET Output Resistance 156, The Common Source Amplifier 157. The Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 157, Voltage Gain 158. Input Resistance 158, Output Resistance 158, The Source Follower 159. Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 159, Voltage Gain 160.

Input Resistance 161, Output Resistance 162, Review of Bode Plots 164. Introduction 164, The Bode Magnitude Response 165, The Bode Phase Response 166. Single Pole Low Pass RC 167, Gain Magnitude in dB 167. Bode Magnitude Plot 168, Bode Phase Plot 169, Single Pole High Pass RC 170. Bode Magnitude Plot 170, Bode Phase Plot 171, Introduction to Electronics xii.

Coupling Capacitors 172, Effect on Frequency Response 172. Constructing the Bode Magnitude Plot for an Amplifier 174. Design Considerations for RC Coupled Amplifiers 175. Low Mid Frequency Performance of CE Amplifier 176, Introduction 176. Midband Performance 177, Design Considerations 178. The Effect of the Coupling Capacitors 179, The Effect of the Emitter Bypass Capacitor CE 180. The Miller Effect 183, Introduction 183, Deriving the Equations 184.

The Hybrid p BJT Model 185, The Model 185, Effect of Cp and Cm 186. High Frequency Performance of CE Amplifier 189, The Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 189. High Frequency Performance 190, The CE Amplifier Magnitude Response 192. Nonideal Operational Amplifiers 193, Linear Imperfections 193. Input and Output Impedance 193, Gain and Bandwidth 193.

Nonlinear Imperfections 194, Output Voltage Swing 194. Output Current Limits 194, Slew Rate Limiting 194, Full Power Bandwidth 195. Introduction to Electronics xiii, DC Imperfections 195. Input Offset Voltage VIO 195, Input Currents 195, Modeling the DC Imperfections 196. Using the DC Error Model 197, DC Output Error Example 201.

Finding Worst Case DC Output Error 201, Canceling the Effect of the Bias Currents 203. Instrumentation Amplifier 204, Introduction 204, Simplified Analysis 205. Johnson Noise 206, Johnson Noise Model 207, Shot Noise 207. 1 f Noise Flicker Noise 208, Other mechanisms producing 1 f noise 209. Interference 210, Amplifier Noise Performance 211, Terms Definitions Conventions 211.

Amplifier Noise Voltage 211, Amplifier Noise Current 212. Signal to Noise Ratio 212, Noise Figure 213, Noise Temperature 213. Converting NF to from Tn 214, Adding and Subtracting Uncorrelated Quantities 214. Amplifier Noise Calculations 215, Introduction 215. Calculating Noise Figure 216, Typical Manufacturer s Noise Data 217.

Introduction 217, Example 1 218, Example 2 219, Introduction to Electronics xiv. Noise References and Credits 220, Introduction to Logic Gates 221. The Inverter 221, The Ideal Case 221, The Actual Case 221. Manufacturer s Voltage Specifications 222, Noise Margin 222. Manufacturer s Current Specifications 223, Fan Out 223.

Power Consumption 224, Static Power Consumption 224. Dynamic Power Consumption 224, Rise Time Fall Time and Propagation Delay 226. Speed Power Product 227, TTL Logic Families Characteristics 228. CMOS Logic Families Characteristics 229, MOSFET Logic Inverters 230. NMOS Inverter with Resistive Pull Up 230, Circuit Operation 230.

Drawbacks 231, CMOS Inverter 232, Circuit Operation 232. Differential Amplifier 239, Modeling Differential and Common Mode Signals 239. Basic Differential Amplifier Circuit 240, Case 1 Common Mode Input 240. Case 2A Differential Input 241, Case 2B Differential Input 241. Large Signal Analysis of Differential Amplifier 242. Introduction to Electronics xv, Small Signal Analysis of Differential Amplifier 246.

Differential Input Only 246, Analysis of Differential Half Circuit 249. Differential Input Resistance 250, Differential Output Resistance 250. Common Mode Input Only 251, Analysis of Common Mode Half Circuit 253. Common mode input resistance 253, Common mode output resistance 253. Introduction to Electronics xvi 1 I use the word supposedly because in my view the official rewards for textbook authoring fall far short of what is appropriate and what is achievable through an equivalent