Production Of Fish Oil National Oceanic And Atmospheric-Books Pdf

Production of Fish Oil National Oceanic and Atmospheric
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,Stewart L UdaB Secretary. David S Black Under Secretary, Stanley A Cain Assistant Secretary jor Fish and Wildlife and Parks. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Clarence F Pautzke Commissioner. BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES H E Crowther Director. Production of Fish Oil,GEORGE M PIGOTT,Assistant Professor Food Science Departm ent. College of Fisheries University of Washington,Seattle Wash. Chapter 13 reprinted from the book Fish Oils,M E Stansby editor Avi Publishing Com pany.
Westport Connecticut 1967,CIRCULAR 277,Washington D C. Decem ber 1967,CHAPTER 13,George M Pigott I Production of Fish Oil. CONVENTIONAL WET RENDERING METHOD, The relationship between the tmee basic products meal oil and stick. water from a conventional fish meal plant are important in the pr para. tion of plans and the selection of equipment used in a given operation. Required plant capacity and raw material storage facilities are deter. mined by the regularity of the supply and the quantity of raw materials. The fishing season and the nature of the raw material not only greatly in. fluence the type of processing equipment but the storage and packaging. facilities for each of the three products, A 1ean fish is usually considered as having less than 2 2 5 fat The. equipment necessary for processing lean fish is rather simple since the. cooking and pressing operation are greatly minimized or even eliminated. However oily fish containing over 2 50 0 oil require processing that will re. duce the oil content in the meal to a level acceptable to the market In the. past the so called conventional or classical cooking and pressing tech. nique has been the only economically practical method for producing. large quan tities of low fat meal for the animal feed market. Meal from a conventional plant contains 2 100 0 oil or even more. Hence the yield of oil will be essentially that contained in the raw ma. terialless that left in the dry meal Oil first emerges from the process as a. mixture of water and oil from the pressing operation Most of the solids in. this pressed liquor aJre removed by straining Oil and remaining solids. are separated from the water by settling or centrifuging or a combination. of both Separated oil is further purified by water washing and heating to. remove water soluble and volatile impurities, The cooking of fish to aid in the recovery of water and oil is the first.
step in the conventional fish reduction plant Although the equipment. employed may vary in design and use the actual cooking is still an art and. is generally regarded as the most critical step in fish reduction. Fish cookers are of two general types Direct steam injection and indi. reet cookers On some designs of the later provisions are also made for. direct steam injection The direct steam cooker is a simple inexpensive. rugged piece of equipment that has been little changed since its introduc. tion in the late 1800 s A modem direct steam cooker is shown in Fig 26. 184 FISH OILS, This model is 30 inches in diameter by 30 feet long Fish are charged to a. hopper located above the internal screw conveyor The cooker loading. rate is controlled by a variable speed motor driving the conveyor screw. Throughput conveyor speed is controlled by the operator and is varied. as the quality oil content etc of the raw material changes The cooked. fish are discharged through a short choke screw Steam is introduced. through a series of small inlet pipes into the lower part of the cooker In. some designs a single manifold is employed and in others more than one. thus enabling the operator to vary the temperature in different sections ot. the cooker, The steam requirements for direct cooking are rather high Assuming a. specific heat of 1 Btu per lb C F for fish and in input temperature of. 15 5 C 60 F it would require 270 000 Btu or approximately 300 lb of. steam to bring a ton of fish to 90 C 195 F During the early period of. the reduction industry when settling tanks were used to recover oil and. stick water and the water was dumped overboard the addition of 300 lb. of water to a ton of fish was of little consequence With the introduction. of centrifugal separators for the recovery of oil and evaporators for the. concentration of stick water the water introduced by direct steam cooking. becomes a significant factor in terms of capital investment and operating. A smaller evaporator can be used with an indirect cooker allowing. greater fuel economy Furthermore an even greater savings can be real. ized if exhaust steam from the evaporator is used as the heat source for the. cooker Although the direct steam cooker is still widely used in the. United States particularly in the menhaden industry the indirect steam. cooker has gained widespread acceptance in most of the other fish oil pro. ducing countries of the world A representative type of indirect cooker is. shown in Fig 27 This cooker has indirect heating by both a steam jacket. Courtesy of Edward Renneburg S0713 Co Baltimore,FIG 26 DmECT STEAM COOKER. PRODUCT OF FISIt On 185,Courtesy of Edward Renneburg Sons Co Baltimore. FIG 27 INDIRECT STEAM CoOKER, and a steam heated internal hollow screw Provisions are also made for.
direct steam injection into the cooker when faster cooking is required. The external steam jacket is divided into a number of sections thus en. abling a high degree of control of the internal temperature Indirect cook. ers although widely used are not practical on all fish due to the build up. of scums on the heat transfer surface Use of indirect heat cookers in. these situations is further complicated but can be made more effective by. the use of scrape surface exchangers, In many installations particularly in the package plant a single cooker. is used to feed a single press This is common in the fixed capacity pro. duction line where the capacity is increased by increasing the number of. lines Another arrangement involves the use of one or more cookers in. parallel feeding one or more presses in parallel Single direct steam injec. tion cookers capable of cooking up to 60 tons of fish per hour are not unu. sual The indirect cookers on the other hand seldom have a capacity in. excess of 20 tons hr, The temperatures used and t he cooking times aJre dependent upon many. factors It is these various factors that place cooking in the category of an. art The species of fish size condition temperature and oil content are. representative of factors which determine the cooking conditions Under. cooking usually results in incomplete coagulation of protein and reduces. the amount of oil and water that can be removed during the pressing oper. ation Overcooking results in a breakdown in the coagulated muscle tis. sue to the extent that it is very hard to develop a solid core in the mess. 186 FISH OILS, Both ot these conditions result in poor oil recovery and excessive oil in the. fish scrap or meal,De Watering, From the standpoint of removing water the press is the most efficient. piece of equipment in a conventional fish reduction plant Presses are of. two basic types batch and continuous Sinc continuous presses are used. to the almost complete exclusion of the batch type today only the former. will be considered The original presses were essentially a single tapered. screw operating in a barrel made up of closely fitted slats which ran the. length of the barrel The material was discharged through annular open. ings in the end of the screw with the pressure adjusted by a cone which. could be positioned to control the size of the opening Single screw. presses vary as to size screw conformation and the curb Although the. curbs in most early presses consisted of horizontal steel slats held in posi. tion by heavy metal bands present day presses usually employ perforated. brass cylinders reinforced by a metal framework The openings in the. slotted presses and perforations in the brass cylinder are larger on the. outside than on the inside in ord r to minimize plugging Single screw. presses are still the most widely used in the industry but the trend is. toward multistage screws A 12 foot 4 tage screw press is shown in. Fig 28 Externally these presses clos ly resemble the early models ho v. ever capacity is greatly increased and the efficiency of de oiling and. de watering can be maintained over a wide range of materials The. ability to handle soft fish and feeding fish constitute advantages over. the older processes, In addition to multi stage presses there are also a series of new twin.
Courtesy of Edward Renneburg S01 3 Co Baltimore,FIG 28 FOUR STAGE SCREW PRESS. PRODUCT OF FISH OIL 187, screw presses One line of these presses is designed in side by side place. ment of the screws while another line features an over and under arrange. ment The same advantages are claimed for these presses as for the multi. stage type press, It has been proposed that cooked fish be de atered with the aid of a. horizontal bowl centrifuge Cooked fish are passed through a aisintegra. tor in order to reduce them to a pumpable slurry The slurry is pumped. to the centrifuge and clarified pressed liquor and solids are recovered. Although not generally used the method is workable and generally recov. ers slightly more oil than a conventional press This process also leaves. approximately ten per cent more water with the solids It is possible that. a better recovery would be effected if the centrifugally recovered solids. were subjected to pressing, Pressed liquor other than that obtained centrifugally normally contains. a considerable quantity of solids These are in the form of coagulated. proteins scale and bone fragments that have been extruded through the. Courtesy of Centrico Inc Englewood New Jersey,FIG 29 THREE PHASE NOZZLE CENTRIFUGE.
188 FISH OILS, small openings in the brass cylinders or between the barrel slats during the. pressing operation These solids are normally removed by screening. and or centrifuging A preliminary coarse screening or scalping is fol. lowed by passing the product over fine mesh vibrating screens or feeding. to a solid bowl centrifuge The solids recovered are higher in oil than reg. ular press cake and are usually fed back through the presses pressed sepa. rately or added to press cake and dried After removal of the suspended. solids the press liquor is ready for separation, In most reduction plants centrifugal recovery of oil is used to the almost. complete exclusion of the older settling tank method The centrifuges in. use today for the recovery of oil from pressed liquor are referred to as. sludgers These are three phase machines with either continuous sludg. ing or periodic self desludging The continuous desludging or nozzle ma. chine has been in use the longest and is found throughout the industry A. modern three phase nozzle machine and the design and operating princi. ples of the bowl are shown in Figs 29 and 30 respectively The operating. Courtesy of Centrico Inc Englewood New Jersey, FIG 30 OPERATION DIAGRAM OF THREE PHASE NOZZLE CENTRIFUGE. PRODUCT OF FISH OIL 189, principles of the bowl are basically the same as those of any liquid separa. tor disc bowl The liquid to be separated rises through channels in the. disc set The position of the rising channels is determined by the propor. tion of the liquid phases to each other The light liquid phase i e oil. passes to the inside of the head of the bowl and is discharged through a. special section of the hood The solids together with a quantity of the. heavy liquid phase are continuously discharged through the nozzles The. number of nozzles depends upon the characteristics of the feed material. the percentage of solids and the particle size The remaining heavy liq. uid phase i e water leaves the bowl over an exchangeable ring dam. The diameter of the ring dam is determined by the specific gravity of the. two liquid phases,Purification, The older settling tank method of separating oil press liquor allowed.
long contact time between oil water and meal This allowed oxidation. and deg adation of the oil that was then characteristic of the finished. product Modern centrifuging produces a much better quality oil since. the oil separation takes place immediately after the pressing operation. The improvement in quality is exemplified by lighter color and lower free. fatty acid content Also centrifuging increases the oil yield by several. gallons per ton of raw fish processed, Oil that is initially separated contains slight amounts of mois UII e and. finely divided meal which tend to allow degradation of the oil and an in. crease in free fatty acid content Since oil must usually be stored for a pe. riod of time prior to use it is necessary to carry out a final polishing op. eration This operation consists of stripping the oil by steam or hot water. and recentrifuging to remove any final contaminates that would h ave al. lowed degradation during storage A typical analysis of sardine oil that. has been finished by a qommercial system is as follows. Moisture and volatiles 0 11,Insoluble impurities 0 01. Free fatty acid as oleic 0 450 0, Oil of the above analysis would not significantly deteriorate over extended. The increased emphasis Oh world utilization of trash fish indicates. Production of Fish Oil By GEORGE M PIGOTT Assistant Professor Food Science Departm ent College of Fisheries University of Washington Seattle Wash Chapter 13 reprinted from the book Fish Oils M E Stansby editor Avi Publishing Com pany Westport Connecticut 1967 CIRCULAR 277 Washington D C Decem ber 1967 CHAPTER 13 George M Pigott I Production of Fish Oil CONVENTIONAL WET

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