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Producing 3D applications for urban planning by integrating 3D scanned. building data with geo spatial data, Yonghui Song Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment BuHu University of. Salford UK,Email Y H Song Salford ac uk,Hongxia Wang BuHu University of Salford UK. Email H Wang Salford ac uk,Andy Hamilton BuHu University of Salford UK. Email A Hamilton Salford ac uk,Yusuf Arayici BuHu University of Salford UK. Email Y Arayici salford ac uk, Abstr act Visual Information Systems for urban planning can be produced in a variety of ways In.
this paper we give an account of research into integrating scanned data with urban data sets to. produce 3D applications that span built environment spatial scales from building elements to the. whole city In our research 3D laser scanner is used to capture 3D building models as a way of. developing visual 3D presentations In order to use 3D building models for urban environment. relevant standards are reviewed and the integration of 3D building models with urban scaled. geo spatial data are explored In the recent EU funded IntelCities 2004 2005 and Virtual. Environment Planning System VEPS 2004 2008 research projects the authors have worked on. capturing an existing building in digital form and using 3D data in building refurbishment projects. and visualisation of urban environment in planning consultation The paper introduces the ways of. producing 3D applications using integrated data from 3D scanning with geo spatial datasets The. IntelCities application shows an application for building features survey such as windows and. doors and holistic review of the building s surroundings regarding historical building. refurbishment The application developed in the VEPS demonstrates the potential of delivering. web based integrated consultation services using 2D 3D visualisation This can be useful to. achieve holistic analysis in urban planning projects. Keywor ds 3D Geo visualization 3D data aquisation City model Data integration IFC City. GML Web Service GIS VR 3D application,1 Introduction. 1 1 Background research, The UK government and governments in most of the developed world are providing. citizens with web based services that are delivered directly to the home Governments also. require Local Authorities to provide services to citizens Many of these services are. specifically concerned with urban development such as the need to engage citizens in. decisions concerning a retail park or a new swimming pool To deliver these services cities. need to develop web applications that can show a wide range of information in a 3D. environment Furthermore these applications need to be developed in such a way that they can. be incrementally updated to reflect the changing face of the city To acheive this end. application developers face a number of challenges. Generally 3D city models are created using CAD tools There have been many successful. projects which have produced detailed and realistic 3D city models for a diverse range of. cities Dodge 1998 Hammad 1999 Bulmer 2001 Jepson 2001 These city models are. created with accurate building models compiled with ortho photographs and achieved. impressive realistic urban environment Chan 1998 However the creation of 3D city. models using CAD tools and ortho phtographs are facing challenges Two of the challenges. are discussed below, The first challenge is that the creation of 3D city models with CAD tools is. labour intensive time consuming and expensive Recently developed and emerging. technologies have the potential to make the creation of the 3D city models more effective. GIS based methods combine 3D techniques with GIS to improve the visualization ability of. GIS However GIS based 3D models are restricted to block models or block models with. texture mapping which lack of detailed information and limited quality of the visual realism. due to the lack of detailed 3D spatial data for man made objects Aquiring 3D data is difficult. but a useful technology is photogrammetry which provides an economic mean to acquire truly. 3D models based on aerial images for the coverage of a wide urban area However this. technology has limitations For example it seems quite difficult to capture the detailed. building structure by using photogrammetry An emerging technology for 3D data capture is. the laser scanning which is a quick and efficient way of digital data capture for a building. However it should be noted that the efficient processing of scanned data to produce virtual. models of buildings is still the subject of research This will be discussued in this paper. The second challenge is that the datasets underlying these 3D city models are in diverse. formats It is difficult to satisfy the frequent updating and extending requirement for the. developing urban environments Different tools have their own ways to describe urban. environments A standard description of the 3D city model is needed in order to support. various applications It is also necessary to develop appropriate data processing and. converting mechanism standard format of data outcome make the data model usable for. urban environment based applications, These two challenges are the focus of this paper We will show how recent research. undertaken by the authors not only addreses the challenges individually but also by. considering the way scanned data can be used in large urban models provides for the. integration of data sets across a wider spatial scale than is currently available in cities. In this paper two research projects in which the authors were involved IntelCities and. VEPS have been reviewed regarding the development of 3D scanning technologies and data. integration in urban models, The Intelligent Cities IntelCities project http www intelcitiesproject com was an.
integrated project funded by the European Commission EC Information Society. Technologies programme under framework 6 6 8 million Euro January 2004 to October. 2005 The aim of the IntelCities project was the development of open secure interoperable. and re configurable e Government services at the city level. For IntelCities the authors developed the Building Data Integration System as a concept. system to illustrate how digitized historic building data can be integrated with other types of. city data Hamilton et Al 2005 3D scanning techonology was used to facilitate building. reverse engineering producing data models and plans for buildings from surveying. information Due to the 3D scanning technology having high accuracy e g Reigl 390 is. accurate to 5 mm with a range of 350 Metres this allows for the development of accurate. building plans A series of laser scans were taken to capture 3D data of Jactin House in. Manchester for refurbishment purpose This work is detailed in Section 2 and 4. The second project is the Virtual Environmental Planning Systems VEPS project. 2004 2008 VEPS project is an INTERREG IIIB funded 4 million Euro European project. E109 was led by the Environment Agency for England and Wales EAEW A key activity. in VEPS was the use of a variety of data sets including high resolution three dimensional. 3D data from both aerial and ground based laser scanning for use within Virtual Reality. VR visualization software and the subsequent delivery of the VR environment via the. Internet and World Wide Web Through the VEPS project issues of building data capture and. building data integration were to be considered at a larger scale through investigating data. standardization modelling interoperability and integration with other VR systems. Counsell et Al 2008 This will be discussed in Section 4. 1 2 Overview of the paper, For the urban built environment stakeholders rely heavily on information from various. sources in the urban planning decision making process There is an increasing need to. seamlessly integrate the relevant datasets at both building and urban scales The capture and. integration of relevant data for the urban built environment has always been a challenge due. to the high cost and the heterogeneous nature of the datasets Wang 2007 In our research. historic building data is captured using the laser scanning technologies and are processed into. a CAD IFC building model For buildings which do not have digital format model available. it can be more effective and quicker to produce the skelecton of buildings using drawing. softwares based on the 3D point clound data than drawing from scratch Further more the. authors worked on the integration of digital building data with surrounding geospatial data. which can bridge the gap between the construction and urban domain and support urban. development control and construction process This extends the use of datasets beyond their. original collection purposes and facilitates the data sharing and interoperablity across. domains In this way the construction industry and urban development can both benefit by. reducing data capturing cost, The paper is in 5 sections In Section 2 the paper reviews 3D laser scanning technologies. and how they are used In Section 3 the paper discusses the needs for standards in 3D city. models in order to support various applications Specifically the paper discussed the. emerging 3D city model standard CityGML an application scheme based on OGC s GML. 3 1 In section 4 it reviews the integrating of 3D scanned data with 3D city models to produce. a model that has a spatial scale from the smallest building elements to the whole of the city. This is through the review of two research project In section 5 the paper is concluded with a. review of the production of 3D applications for urban services using the integration of 3D. scanned building data and 3D city data, It should be noted that the focus of the paper is not the processing of scanning data rather. it focuses on investigation of the potential and benefit of integrating building scale 3D models. derived from 3D scanning technologies to produce city scale 3D models. 2 Using 3D Laser Scanning Technologies for Built,Environment Modelling Jactin House 3D scanning. Laser scanning technology can be used by construction professionals to analyse 3D. building data and as way of developing a highly visual 3D presentation tool Arayici et Al. 2005 In IntelCities FP6 Integrated Project see section 1 1 the use of 3D Laser Scanner had. illustrated how an unusual building with many curved elements can be captured in digital. form with an accuracy that would not be possible without a 3D scanner. 3D laser scanning provides a way of getting accurate surface information of physical. objects without contacting it This is very useful for modelling fragile objects or unreachable. objects In some cases normal surveying of an object can be dangerous due to physical. structure etc in all of this situation 3D scanning technologies have big advantages That is. why 3D scanning technologies have the potential to be widely used in archaeology digital. building survey and site monitoring applications and so on. In the IntelCities project the 3D building data of Jatin House was captured using a 3D. scanner With the 3D scanner it is very convenient to take internal and external. measurements to provide accurate plans sections and elevations The potential to accurately. capture information of the inaccessible and potentially hazardous areas such as pitched. rooftops and workplaces makes it possible to acquire building information difficult to capture. in other ways Hamilton et Al 2005, By post processing the captured spatial data outputs for different purposes can be obtained.
such as CAD modelling physical modelling by prototyping and visualization in different. platforms This kind of building reverse engineering facilited by the 3D scanner can be very. accurate due to the 3D scanning technology having high accuracy e g Reigl 390 is accurate. to 5 mm with a range of 350 Metres This allows for the development of accurate building. The following Figure 1 shows the raw scans of the interior and exterior of the Jactin House. They are conducted with several different scan positions and then merged together. Figure 1 Exterior scans around Jactin house left and interior scans inside the Jactin House. By having sufficient overlap scan at the entrance area of Jactin House the exterior and. interior scans were registered merged as well to form a complete Jactin House mesh model. A CAD model was created by a combination of using of a point cloud data software. Polywork and the point cloud modeler and CAD software Microstation Figure 2. Figure 2 Jactin House CAD model is developed, The scanning work shows that using laser scanning technologies is an effective way of. producing detailed CAD building models The authors believe that using 3D scanning. technologies is one way of meeting current challenges especially quickly and efficiently. capturing detailed 3D models, It should be noted althouth 3D scanner can obtain sufficient information of existing. buildings the post processing can still be complex and time consuming depending upon how. detailed the information needs to be Achieving more automatisation in the post processing of. the scanned data can make the process less complex and time consuming Recent researchers. in this area has made good progress it Wang 2008 This paper however will not focus on the. automatisation instead it will put the emphasis on integrating the CAD model derived from. ground based scanning with urban scale 3D model to produce 3D urban system application. In section 4 1 the paper will revisit the Jactin House case study about its integration with. surrounding area 3D model to produce a 3D application. 3 3D city model and building model, As discussed in the Section 1 the creation of the 3D city model using traditional CAD tools. is facing challenges The work introduced in the Section 2 shows that using laser scanning. technologies is an efficient way of producing detailed CAD building models This section. focuses on how to use CAD building models in urban environmental modelling The. emerging 3D data standards and converting between different standards are discussed. 3 1 3D City Model and CityGML, Section 1 has shown that due to the variation of 3D data formats in the market it is difficult. to satisfy the frequent updating and extension requirement for developing urban. environments Different tools have their own ways to describe urban environments At the. building scale many organisations with an interest in the construction industry have. developed Industry Foundation Classes IFCs to provide a unified system describing all. aspects of a building At the urban scale a standard description of the 3D city model is. needed in order to support various applications The emerging 3D city model standard. CityGML is such a standard description These two systems are discussed in this section. with an account of recent work by the authors to integrate IFC and CityGML in order to. achieve a unified model for the Built Environment across the building and urban scales. CityGML is an application scheme based on OGC s GML 3 1 CityGML holds not only. geospatial information but also supports a semantic model of city objects. http www citygml org CityGML not only represents the graphical appearance of city. models but especially takes care of the semantic representation thematic properties. taxonomies and aggregations of digital terrain models sites including buildings bridges. tunnels vegetation water bodies transportation facilities and city furniture Kolbe 2005. The ability of maintaining different levels of detail makes it suitable for small and large area. utilizations The underlying model differentiates five consecutive levels of detail LoD. where objects become more detailed with increasing LoD both in geometry and thematic. differentiation Kolbe 2006,3 2 CAD Building Model and IFC.
Currently there are many different types of CAD software in support of building design. Each CAD system from different vendors has its own method of describing geometry both. mathematically and structurally Most CAD models use proprietary data formats and are. stored as files in a file system As one de facto data standard for CAD applications AutoCAD. Drawing Interchange Format DXF is probably one of the most widely supported vector. formats in the world today, The IAI an international cooperation of more than 650 members drawn from more than 20. countries http www iai international org pioneered international technical cooperation to. define a single building model as one authoritative semantic definition of building elements. their properties and interrelationships Howell 2003 This work has largely been successful. with its IFC Model now endorsed as an ISO standard ISO PAS 16739. IFC is a non proprietary set of internationally standardised object definitions for use in the. construction industry The IFC model describes full 3D geometry but also relationships. process material cost and other behaviour data Integrating a CAD model with IFC enables. the accurate geometric representation to be integrated with structural and behaviour elements. and facilitates links with external applications Ding 2003. IFC was designed to support the whole life cycle of a facility from planning through. construction and usage to its demolition In contrast to common 2D and 3D geometry data. formats e g DXF files IFC are capable of modelling much attribute and meta information. related to the geometry, 3 3 Building models in urban environment and IFC s conversion into. Buildings are one of the most important elements within urban built environment. According to Fuchs s survey 95 of stakeholders identified three dimensional building data. to be of most interest in digital city models Fuchs 1998 In a physical sense a city is a. collection of buildings Good three dimensional models of buildings are important for a. variety of tasks including urban planning urban management simulation disaster recovery. etc Digitalized 3D building models have been employed to support planning tasks by. exploration guiding public participation and visual impact Shiode 2001 Yao 2003. Building descriptions in GIS have simple geometric descriptions mainly only a building s. footprint This information clearly is not sufficient to determine how a building is perceived. as part of the public domain let alone the analysis and simulation for professionals. Sometimes buildings are represented by their walls and roofs Fuchs reports high interest in. roofs as the size of the smallest element is critical for representing front details and. overhanging elements Fuchs 1998 More rarely windows doors small balconies levelled. streets and pavements are reconstructed Arena2000 1999 It is nescessary to convert the. detail IFC building model into the 3D city model, In a recently completed PhD by one of the authors an IFC building model was converted. into CityGML through Building Feature Service BFS wang 2007 BFS was designed to. retrieve and convert the IFC building model The BFS can directly access building. information sources which can be IFC IFCXML files OO building model database etc It. allows a client to query building features on the Web and convert the detailed building feature. description into a CityGML document, A prototype of BFS has been implemented Wang 2007 The test building is Jactin House. in the Ancoats area of Manchester The Jactin House data was first captured by using a 3D. laser scanner and was processed into an IFC building model The BFS was developed as an. ASP Net web service by using C programming language based on the Microsoft Net. framework The process of generating a CityGML document from IFC building model. included three main tasks manipulating IFC documents coordinating conversion and. generating service output in CityGML GML The implmentation diagram is hown in Figure 3. For manipulating IFC documents there are some toolkits like IFCsvr EDM and EuroStep. etc In this prototype the IFC document manipulation is implemented by using a freeware. IFCsvr ActiveX component IMS 2002 The main reason of choosing it is because it is. freeware and easy to embed in the development as an ActiveX components The shortcoming. is that ActiveX components can only be used in Microsoft s Window platforms. Figure 3 The implementation process of IFC to CityGML. The second task is to transform the building elements from IFc to CityGML The first. transformation is from a Local Coordination System into the World Coordination System of. IFC buildings model The transformation matrix can be calculated based on the relationship. between these building elements specifically in IfcLocalPlacement s PlacementRelTo and. RelativePlacement attributes in the IFC document The second transformation is from the. geometric type in IFC into the geometric reprenstation in CityGML. An XML document is then generated based on the CityGML schema definition The. System Xml namespace in Microsoft Net framework provides standards based support for. processing XML files It is fairly easy to call the relevant functions for generation of XML. documents based on CityGML schema, The implementation details can be seen in one of the authors PhD thesis Wang 2007.
The following Figure 4 shows the integration results of the conveted 3D building model from. IFC and surrounding building footprint from GIS in a CityGML viewer. Figure 4 The integrated CityGML file displayed in Aristoteles3D viewer. 4 IntelCities and VEPS 3D application, This paper mentioned the IntelCities and Virtual Environmental Planning Systems VEPS. project in Section 1 This section introduces the IntelCities and VEPS system applications. from a special angle of utilizing 3D scanning data In other words this section shows that 3D. scanning technologies are used to provide 3D data for building 3D applications for urban. activities This was done by integrating scanned 3D building data with the city scaled spatial. Section 4 1 reviewed the IntelCities application based on the integration of building CAD. model from scanned data with the surrounding city 3D model and the services the application. can provide Section 4 2 is about the integration of scanning data with other VEPS data. sources and Section 4 3 is an introduction of VEPS application design. 4 1 IntelCities Application outcome of Jactin House case study. In Section 2 we reviewed the scanning technologies and how Jactin House was scanned. and to further produce 3D CAD model This section briefly reviews the 3D application which. integrates CAD model derived from 3D scanned building data and surrounding city model. During IntelCities Laser scanner technology was used to assist with the refurbishment. process To guide this case study in IntelCities project a fictitious Gaudi Bank scenario was. created as a typical multi national development project In this scenario the Gaudi Bank. based in Spain with branches in the UK is planning to set up a training centre in Manchester. for staff working in the UK The focus building is Jactin House in East Manchester This is. the proposed location of the training centre for Gaudi Bank The structural data of Jactin. House was obtained by using a 3D scanner The data about the surrounding area was obtained. from an OS Land line map And other information such as public transport etc was also. collected and stored in a database with reference to the 3D data objects and 2D map objects. By editing and integrating this data a multi dimensional model of the building and the urban. area was created to be used for decision making processes A system called Built. environment Data Integration System BDIS has been produced to use the combined. building scale and urban scale data to give a wide scaled view of a city environment Various. spatial data from different sources have to be converted into appropriate formats necessary for. the integration 2D geo spatial data 3D Industry Foundation Classes IFC building data. captured by 3D scanning and non spatial data Then the system can be used to provide. functionality such as a data surveying report and even generate a 3D representation of all. windows and doors of the House Song et Al 2007 see Figure 5. Figure 5 Left images of windows generated by BDIS Right 3D VRML model of just. windows and doors in Jactin House, The case study shows the laser scanning greatly improved the process of data capture. compared to the traditional way of surveying for refurbishment in which data capture was a. time consuming task By means of laser scanner technology the building data can be captured. in a short time period and stored in electronic format which can be shared between the. stakeholders situated in different locations apart from providing a faster better quality and. more precise analysis and feature detection for building surveys Arayici et al 2004 The. research pointed out that the use of the 3D laser scanner has enormous potential to benefit. building surveyors and their clients in terms of accuracy speed and productivity in plan. preparation and then to extend the range of services offered through modelling applications. The ideas behind this research is data integration Hamilton et Al 2005 The 3D scanned. building models were mapped into IFC schema Arayici et al 2005 Tanyer et al 2005. Wang and Hamilton 2005 and were then saved into a centralized database The following. Figure 6 demonstrate the conceptual mode of the BDIS application In this way the 3D. scanning data is integrated with other data sources This enabled services based on the. integrated data set to be provided to its users Thus the scanned data is ready for use by a. variety of users such as for building refurbishment For instance construction professionals. are able to see the building in 3D and do a building survey from their office Also for. example it is possible to generate a 3D representation of all Windows and doors of Jactin. House see Figure 5 and even generate a report about windows and doors in Jactin House. See Figure 7, Figure 6 IntelCities BDIS top level data flow diagram. From the above figure the centralized database accepts not only 3D building information. but also Geo Spatial information and other thematic information This information integration. greatly helps people doing holistic review and analysis of a building during the decision. making process Thus it is quite possible to do a report about the features of the whole. building and its relationship with surroundings The following Figure 7 shows a report of. windows and doors in Jactin House generated by the BDIS And Figure 8 shows the building. model captured from the 3D scanner is integrated with urban scale 3D model and GIS 2D. Figure 7 A report of the survey of windows and doors in Jactin House. Figure 8 Merged Ground Based 3D building scanning with airborne scanning of the. surrounding area left and converted scanning model was displayed with converted ESRI. shape file right of Jactin House, However the research recognized the fact that the data analysis is still problematic in terms. of the automation on data processing the post processing can still be very time consuming. and depends on the required level of detail of the model. However there is much current research interest in fully automatic pattern matching and. object recognition on both ground based laser scanning and airborne data and some. successful outcomes Actually the subsequent VEPS project that the authors were involved in. also had a focus on object recognition Wang 2008,4 2 VEPS data sources.
The IntelCities 3D applitation based on the integrated building 3D scanning data and urban. scale 3D data was described in Section 4 1 This sub section 4 2 and the following sub section. 4 3 are going to introduce the VEPS web based 3D application design As introduced in. Section 1 a key activity of the VEPS project was to analyse large data sets including high. resolution 3D data from LiDAR and ground based scanning for use within Virtual Reality. VR visualisation software and the subsequent delivery of the VR environment via the. Internet and World Wide Web In the VEPS system post processed and converted 3D. scanning data of buildings were also integrated into urban scale 3D data The VEPS projet. was concered with the delivery of 3D data through the web This was achieved using Web. In the VEPS project as in most geo spatial related development there are three kinds of. datasets used spatial data thematic data and administrative data However spatial data is the. core data for the 3D City Model In VEPS data source definition there are two kinds of. spatial data spatial basic data and Specific spatial data Common to all VEPS test sites is a. standard set of geographic data the so called spatial basic data Further specific data like. noise simulation results might differ between test sites This data is called Specific spatial. data The related common standards are GML IFC building model CityGML See also in. In VEPS 3D scanning data is seen as one of the available raw data collection methods. And the scanned 3D data set has to be processed and converted to be integrated with other. spatial basic data This is actually a complex issue about data level interoperability in. VEPS XML based extended schema such as CityGML and other application schema are used. as a common data model in this framework The VEPS project saw improving the data level. interoperability as a long term research ambition,4 3 VEPS application. VEPS defined its user group as urban planners architects professionals investors project. managers citizens and local authorities The VEPS system requirements were therefore. defined to include Geo spatial planning information commenting and communication. between one to one and one to many Requirements are visualization and interactivity with. map 3D scene enquiry tool secured user data administration functions From the users point. of view system service is provided through the client interface In order to provide an. interface suitable for a wide range of users the VEPS system includes 3 main elements 3D. interaction 2D interaction and communication facilities such as discussion forums and. spatially located comments These facilities are inter linked 3D scanning data can play the. role of a 3D data source to this application, The VEPS concept architecture diagram reflects the VEPS user requirements see Figure 9. Figure 9 VEPS conceptual architecture, In the Figure 9 3D scanning data is seen as means of raw data collection method. Underpinned by data sources the system can provide various levels of functions to its users. In VEPS project development 2D 3D and spatially related commenting modules were. integrated to provide Internet users the ability to interact with urban scaled information The. post processed and converted 3D scanning data of buildings were seen as a system data. source to be integrated into urban scaled 3D data, To summarize this section reviews the IntelCities 3D application and the VEPS web 3D. applications design Both of the IntelCities and VEPS applications utilise integrated 3D. scanned building data and urban scaled 3D data sets to provide service to users The. IntelCities application shows clearly services such as statistics of windows and doors of a. building and holistic review of the building and its surroundings The design of VEPS. application shows the possibilities to deliver integrated services across the Internet and thus. holistic views of whole urban environments can be made available to the public. 5 Conclusion, This paper reviews ground based 3D laser scanning technologies and it discusses the use.
and integration of 3D scanned building data with city scaled spatial data to build wide scale. built environment models and to achieve holistic analysis The authors believe this could be. the solution for the two challenges that the traditional ways of creating city 3D models are. facing That brings us to the conclusion 3D Laser scanning technology can be used to. effectively produce 3D building model and as way of developing visual and 3D. representations In this review of recent research projects the authors not only illustrated how. complicated buildings can be captured in digital form with an accuracy that would not be. possible without a 3D scanner but also proved that the 3D data can be further processed and. integrated with other sources of data spatial or non spatial and thereby support construction. professionals in making holistic analysis before coming to a decision In the Virtual. Environment Planning System VEPS project it is also a proof of concept that 3D scanning.


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