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Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara
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Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in,Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and. Constrains,Kassie Dessie M Raman, Abstract The growth in total output and productivity in the last commercialization results in product choice and input. fifteen years in the Amhara region are not accompanied by use decisions based on the principle of profit. significant changes in the marketed surplus of cereal crops. maximization Pingali and Rosegrant 1995, The use of improved seeds and biological and chemical inputs. Commercial orientation of agricultural production occurs. have increased but not at the rate required to commercialize. for cereals as well as for high value cash crops 291. the agriculture to produce high marketed surplus For. instance the proportion of grain marketed was 19 65 percent Commercialization of agriculture leads to greater market. orientation of farm households and a greater,Issue V Version I. in 2001 2 and it was 20 3 percent in 2009 10 In the case of. cereals the proportion of output marketed has increased substitution of non traded inputs for purchased inputs. marginally from 12 99 percent to 15 2 percent during this Commercialization of agriculture is generally. period The proportion of pulses marketed has increased from accompanied by the decline of integrated farming. 18 66 percent to about 23 percent The proportion of oilseeds system and emergence of specialized enterprises for. marketed has declined to 45 77 percent in 2009 10 compared crop live stock and poultry signifying higher value. to 49 36 percent The farm technology is still predominantly. addition Pingali 1997 Binswanger and Braun 1991, traditional The percentage of acreage of grain crops in the.
noted that normally technology and commercialization. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. total acreage has come down in the past fifteen years Small. stimulate agricultural growth improve employment, farmers market orientation is seen in terms of increase in the. acreage allotted for pulses oilseeds vegetables sugarcane opportunities and expand food supply all central to. coffee and chats the alleviation of poverty However the authors argue. What is required is big push for creating that through social engineering the benefits from. infrastructure like dams or drainage system to accelerate the technology and commercialization can easily be. process of commercialization of agriculture in the region targeted toward the poor. Input markets must be reformed to enable private public. agencies and cooperatives to act competitively to provide II Structure of the Region s Economy. needed agriculture inputs such as improved seeds biological. and chemical inputs to the farmers so as to reach higher level The Amhara region located in the Northern. of yield and output parts of Ethiopia is largely an agrarian economy The. The significant proportion of crop land is used for contributions of agriculture industry and services. cereal crops perpetuating subsistence farming There is. sectors to the region s domestic product respectively. persistence of integrated farming Diversification of crops is. seen on the larger size of holdings are 57 91 22 91 and 19 18 in 2004 05 With total. regional domestic product of 19 45 million ETB and total. Section 1 population of 18 68 million the per capita income was. 1042 50 ETB per annum AmharaInfo 2010 It is, I Introduction estimated that of the 18 68 million populations in. n recent years there is resurgence of interest on Amhara region 87 1 of the population resides in rural. Ethiopian agriculture focusing on processes and areas and they largely engaged in agriculture and. constraints on commercialization of peasant agriculture related activities AmharaInfo 2010 The. agriculture Tanguy Bernard David J Spielman small scale and micro enterprises dominate the. Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse and Eleni Z Gabre economic landscapes in the region There are a few. Madhin 2010 Jaleta Gebremedhin and Hoekstra large scale and medium sized manufacturing industries. 2009 Bonger Gabremehin and Babu 2002 The need found in beverages furniture and other non metallic. for commercialization of peasant agriculture stems from enterprises textiles and leather processing plants The. the fact that it leads to specialization in crop production public sector manufacturing enterprises are not. improvements in farm management techniques in numerous to absorb a rising labor force in the region In. traditional agriculture high marketable surplus and high terms of cropping area and agricultural production. income for the small farmers Agricultural Amhara region contributes respectively about 30 and. 33 of Ethiopia s cropping area and total agriculture. Author Bahir Dar University e mail kassiedessie gmail com output AmharaInfo 2010 The food security for the. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. growing population at the rate of 1 7 per annum is the V Methodology. major concern for the Governments at the Federal and. the Regional levels It is estimated there are 2 5 million This study is purely descriptive analysis It is. people in the region who are chronically food insecure in based on secondary data collected by the Central. addition to 3 3 million people who are vulnerable to food Statistical Authority CSA an organ of the Federal. shortages AmharaInfo 2010 Democratic Republic of Ethiopia The analysis is. The rest of the paper is organized as follows conducted for Amhara region with respect to changes in. The section two presents the statement of the problem cropping pattern farm management practices and land. methodology and sources of data used for utilization by peasant private land holders from 1995 96. understanding the commercialization of agriculture The to 2009 2010 3 The information obtained from the. following four sections discuses the concept of Reports on Land Utilization and Farm Management. commercialization farm size and farm organization the Practices are used for describing changes in. growth of area production and yields of principal diversification of crops by the size of holdings and. constraints on intensification of use of modern, cereals crops pulses oilseeds and vegetables and root. crops in the region followed by the discussion on the agriculture inputs Using data from the Farm. proportion of marketed surplus of cereal crops and Management Practices we identify the level of. other crops to understand the level of commercialization commercialization by using various indices The growth. of agriculture The section seven presents the rates are computed for whole time periods and two. Issue V Version I, persistence of integrated farming and diversification of sub periods i e 1995 96 to 2001 02 and 2003 04 to.
crops by the size of holdings The section eight presents 2009 10 In order to find out growth rates of area. the strategy to be formulated for intensification of use of production and yields of various crops the regression. modern agriculture input in agriculture and the model for finding the growth rates take the form ln Y a. prospects of commercialization in the region The final b t where lnY is the area or production or yield. section summarizes the findings transformed into natural logarithm a is constant and b. is the coefficient of time variable, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. VI Quantity Decomposition,III Statement of the Problem. In addition to an analysis of cropping pattern, While there are a number of studies which deal changes by using growth rates we also utilize. with pace and processes of commercialization of decomposition method to understand the changes in. traditional agriculture at the macro level at the regional output due to changes in yield and changes in cropping. level there is hardly any study with the processes areas Tafesse 2008 4 applied the decomposition. constraints and prospects of commercialization of methods for cereal crops in four regions of Ethiopia. agriculture This study attempts to fill the void in the namely Amhara Oramia SNNP and Tigray In addition. growing literature on the commercialization of small farm to cereal crops we use decomposition methods for. agriculture in Amhara region in the past 15 years in the pulses oilseeds vegetables and stimulant crops for. context of various institutional changes implemented by. the Federal and Regional Governments This study, analyzes changes in cropping pattern intensification of. use of modern inputs the diversification of crops by size. of holdings and nature and characteristics of 3, The Central Statistical Agency has not collected data on area.
commercialization of agriculture Further this study production and yield as well as farm management practices and land. discusses various institutional constraints that hold back utilization pattern of peasant households for the year 2002 03 as that. the pace of commercialization of peasant agriculture in was the Census year. the region The quantity of output of crop i is the product of yield and. acreage allocated to its production Decomposition can take the. IV Objectives of the Study following approximate form. To describe the processes of commercialization of, cereal crops in Amahara region from 1995 96 to The decomposition identifies relative contribution of changes in. 2009 10 acreage and changes in yield to changes in the quantity of output. To identify the diversification of crops by the private There are two ways of applying it with periodic data t standing for. land holders in Amhara region from 1995 96 to,2009 10 Or. To identify the institutional constraints that holds. back the process of commercialization of agriculture. in Amahara region,2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. three time periods i e 1995 6 over 1994 5 2004 5 over Unlike subsistence farmers semi commercial farmers. 2003 04 and 2009 10 over 2008 9 5 obtain nutrition both from home produced and. purchased The semi commercial farmers use farm yard. Section 3 manure and chemical fertilizers In case of commercial. farming system farmers objective is the profit,VII Concept on Commercialization. maximization farmers produce highly specialized, The process of commercialization is defined by products by using predominately traded inputs the.
various scholars depending on the level or the degree of household income is derived predominantly from non. participation of peasant farmers in the product and in agriculture operations they obtain their nutrition which is. the factor markets Since all small farmers are not purchased from the market They use chemical fertilizers. homogeneous Miracle 1968 proposed seven criteria for their agriculture operations Pingali 2001 cited in. for identifying subsistence farmers 6 depending on the Bernard et al 2010 In the context of Amhara region in. strengths and weaknesses of these factors the author characterizing farmers as subsistence farmers and. noted that these forces would either perpetuate semi commercial farmers will be a suitable criteria. subsistence production among small farmers or make The third definition will be difficult to defend on. the small farmers be innovative and progressive the ground the size distribution of private peasant 311. Hayami and Herd 1977 in their study on the market holdings is small and specialization of production is not. price effect on the subsistence rice producers in yet deep rooted Since off farm economic activities in. Issue V Version I, Philippines classify large and small farmers based on rural areas as well as in urban areas is not well. the proportion of output they sell Given the same rate of developed for the absorption of farm family labor the. adoption of technology for the small and large farmers opportunity cost facing peasant family farm labor is not. and given the fact that an impact of technology is high enough to neglect their farm operations In fact an. neutral small farms are those who sell 20 percent of organization of farm production is largely based on use. output produced and large farmers are those who sell of family labor peasants use simple farm techniques. 80 of the output produced In contrast Pingali 2001 they rely less on purchased inputs Using data from the. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. uses multiple indices to capture nature of Farm Management Practices we identify nature and. commercialization of agriculture based on heterogeneity degree of commercialization of agriculture as. of farmers production behavior Peasants are classified subsistence farmers or semi commercial farmers We. as subsistence farmers semi commercial farmers and also utilize Land Utilization data to indicate a degree of. fully commercial farmers depending on farmers commercialization of agriculture by size of holdings in. objectives source of uses of agriculture inputs product Amhara region Further we use the level of. mix sources of household income human nutrition and specialization of farmers in terms of cultivation of mono. their level of use of farm yard manure and fertilizer In crop as commercial farmers or in cultivation of multiple. subsistence systems farmers main objective is attaining crops as semi commercial farmers Similarly if farmers. food self sufficiency by producing a wide range of combine livestock management and farm management. agriculture produce by using inputs which are non they may be called subsistence farmers on the other. traded household generated The farmers obtain their hand if farmers separate farm production from. nutrition predominantly from home produced In case of livestock management they will be identified as. semi commercial system the objective of semi commercial farmers as each operation requires. commercial farmers is surplus generation by producing specialized knowledge and skills. moderately specialized products by using mix of traded. a Size of land holdings,and non traded inputs The semi commercial farmers. The total number of private peasant holders has, sources of income are agriculture and non agriculture. increased from 2583 81 thousands in 1995 96 to,3588 21 thousands in 2009 10 While 83 of peasant. The separate time period analysis will provide better information on holders with less than 2 hectares of land occupied. isolating the factors contributing to the output change 57 53 of crop area in 1995 96 in 2009 10 80 of. 1 Isolation from the market place 2 Chronic low level of living 2 1 peasant holders with less than 2 hectares of land hold. Chronic mal nutrition traceable to the level of production 2 2 Fairly. 54 69 of the cropping land The average size of, frequent occurrence of seasonal food shortage 3 Economic.
stagnation 3 1 Little increase in per capita production in the last ten holdings had decreased marginally from 1 17 hectare. years 3 2 Little increase in production sold per capita 4 Weak per holder in 1995 96 to 1 15 hectare per holder in. commitment to agriculture 4 1 Off farm activities outside of agriculture 2009 10 It suggests an increasing pressure on. and commerce 4 2 Off farm activities in commerce or elsewhere in. agriculture during this period All crop land has, agriculture 5 Insecurity of land tenure 5 1 Insecure land tenure. discourages land improvement 5 2 Insecure land tenure restricts increased from 3010 18 thousand hectares in 1995 96 to. enterprise combinations 6 Labor dependency 7 Capital 4109 138 thousand hectares in 2009 10 The average. dependency area per holder across the size of holdings has. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. decreased during this period possibly due to an,increase in the number of holders. Table 1 Total number of holders total crop land in hectare. 1995 96 2009 10,Size of All crop,Number of Average All crop land Number of Average. Holdings area,holders area holder area 000 holders area holder.
Less than 0 10 190 33 0 03 6 09 220 967 0 04 8 122. 0 10 0 10 564 56 0 31 173 89 642 829 0 26 166 61,0 51 1 00 643 31 0 75 482 11 824 019 0 66 549 827. 1 01 2 00 750 35 1 43 100 42 1194 761 1 28 1528 021. 2 01 5 00 419 92 2 81 1179 95 669 356 2 45 1637 351. 5 01 10 00 14 58 5 97 87 06 33 021 5 55 183 219,Total 2583 81 1 17 3010 68 3588 211 1 15 4109 138. Issue V Version I,Source CSA 1995 96 2009 10,Not available. b Organization of farm production their farm lands ready well in advance for the next. Commercialization of agriculture depends on season by tilling the land just after one pre monsoon. risk taking behavior of peasants which in turn shower A large percentage of land holders use animal. determined by size distribution of landholdings and power by using oxen horse donkey and bullocks as. types of crops being cultivated by peasant farmers The draught power energy for tilling the land as well as for. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. size distribution of land holdings largely determines the transportation of farm products Farmers use largely. nature of crops whether they are subsistence crops or their own seeds saved from the previous harvest and. commercial crops The farmers with large land holdings natural fertilizers like leaves and farm yard manure. will be able to bear more risks to cultivate commercial However what is witnessed in the region is. crops as they have more capacity to undertake multiple responsiveness of peasant farmers to market incentives. crops in order to increase their income levels This risk by combing traditional inputs and improved farm inputs. bearing attitude through diversification of crops reduces such as high yielding varieties of seeds and chemical. price uncertainty facing large farmers In contrast fertilizers for higher yield and production. small land holders who are generally risk averse due to. resource constraints will try to avoid market price Section 4. uncertainty and rather cultivate food crops to meet first. VIII Area Production and Yield of, their own family consumption than to cultivate crops for. the market One can hypothesize an unequal asset Cereal Crops in the Amhara Region. distribution in combination with forces of urbanization The grain crops constitute cereals pulses and. accelerates the pace and processes of oilseeds Among the cereals 8 Teff barley wheat. commercialization of small holder agriculture At the maize sorghum and finger millets are principal cereals. same time if small farmers have already met their target produced in Amhara region The area under grain crops. of food security for household consumption and have was 2933 08 thousand hectares in 1995 96 and has. equal access to markets they can have positive attitude increased to 3997 75 thousand hectares in 2009 10 The. toward crops which have a commercial value Our share of cropping area under cereals was 81 16 in. hypothesis is that though farmers are small land 1995 96 whereas it was 72 81 in 2009 10 Among. holders they cultivate multiple crops taking into account cereals the cropping area under Teff has decreased. the needs of their household consumption and market from 30 08 in 1995 96 to 24 40 in 2009 10 though in. demand 7 An organization of farm production is based absolute terms the cropping area under Teff has. on use of family labor than hired labor or wage labor. use of simple farm techniques rather than use of 8. These cereals are major staple food for thousands of farmers and. tractors power tillers and threshers and or any other millions of consumers and a source of income to the thousands of. capital intensive production process Farmers keep peasant farmers The significant proportion of total cropped area is. devoted to these cereals in Meher season which is the main cropping. 7 season from September to February which has long rainy season The. Commercialization of agriculture does not necessarily imply a. Belg season which has short rainy reason takes less cropped area. development of capitalistic mode of production Capitalistic mode of. from March to August, production refers to use of more hired labor on farms The hired labor.
in agriculture is to be paid a wage at the prevailing market rate. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. increased from 882 28 thousand hectares to 1001 03 2009 10 The cropping area under major cereal crop. thousand hectares during this period The cropping Teff has increased at the compound growth rate of 1 31. area under cereal crops has increased at the compound per annum during the same period. growth rate of 2 32 per annum during 1995 96 to, Table 2 Compound Growth Rates for Grain and Cereal crops. CGR for the period CGR for the period CGR for the period. Crop Type 1995 96 to 2009 10 1995 96 to 2001 02 2003 04 to 2009 10. Area Production Yield Area Production Yield Area Production Yield. All Crops 3 14 7 68 4 39 1 61 3 56 2 02 4 08 8 98 4 70. Grain Crops 2 94 6 82 3 76 1 40 2 94 1 40 3 98 9 41 5 54. Cereals 2 32 6 18 3 87 0 40 1 91 1 51 3 97 9 30 5 44. Teff 1 31 5 44 4 18 0 30 1 40 1 71 3 76 9 96 6 92, Barley 3 35 7 87 4 39 1 10 2 63 1 51 0 50 5 65 4 81. Wheat 7 14 12 18 2 43 5 75 9 74 3 76 6 18 10 18 3 35. Issue V Version I,Maize 2 43 5 12 2 63 2 53 3 97 1 40 6 50 11 51. Sorghum 1 00 4 60 3 56 2 83 3 23 0 40 2 42 6 18 3 66. Millet 0 60 3 56 3 87 0 10 0 60 0 50 3 14 10 18 7 57. Oats 1 21 2 73 28 01 5 02 8 22 2 94 1 10 8 22 4 18. Source Authors computation based on CSA data various years. The production and yields of each of the cereals measure of improved farm management practices has. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. at any time period are influenced by factors such as increased from 7 86 quintal per hectare in 1995 96 to. rainfall types of soil quantum of fertilizers use 12 85 quintal per hectare in 2009 10 Similarly yield of. pesticides and insecticides and use of high yielding maize per hectare has increased from 19 56 quintal per. varieties of seeds The production of cereals was hectare in 1995 96 to 22 53 quintal per hectare in. 24774 23 thousand quintals in 1995 96 and it has 2009 10. increased to 46301 97 thousand quintals in 2009 10. The yield of wheat per hectare was 8 92 quintal, The share of cereal production in total crop production.
per hectare in 1995 96 and increased to 16 34 quintal. was 86 58 in 1995 96 and had come down to 74 79, per hectare in 2009 10 Nevertheless the yields of wheat. in 2009 10 The share of production of Teff barley, and maize per hectare are far lower than the yields. wheat maize and sorghum respectively was 24 22, obtained in other developing countries requiring strong. 8 77 8 09 19 81 and 19 85 in 1995 96 and they, public action to improve yield levels in the region The. were respectively 20 77 8 19 14 47 12 94 and,yields of Teff barley wheat maize and sorghum.
12 80 in 2009 10 The analysis of production and, respectively have grown at compound growth rates of. yields of cereals show divergent growth rates over the. 4 18 4 39 2 43 2 63 and 3 56 during this, period 1995 96 to 2009 10 In general an increase in. study period Other crops in cereal group have not, production of cereal output is directly correlates with an. experienced significant growth in yields due to lack of. increase in cropping area under cereals While total. breakthrough in high yielding varieties of seeds The. area under cereals has increased at the rate of 2 32. growth rates of yields for individual crops in the second. per annum the production of cereals output as a whole. sub period are higher than the growth rates observed in. has increased at the compound growth rate of 6 18, the first sub period The comparison of growth rates of. per annum While cropping area under Teff has,area for two sub periods show that an increase in.
increased at the compound growth rate of 1 31 per, cropping area under teff wheat and maize are high in. annum the Teff output has increased at the compound. the second sub period compared to the first sub period. growth rate of 5 44 per annum during this period The. The growth in production can be largely attributed to. output of barley wheat maize and sorghum respectively. area expansion for teff wheat maize and millet in the. has grown at the compound growth rates of 7 84,second sub period compared to first sub period In. 12 18 5 12 and 4 60 per annum during the, spite of low rate of growth of cropping area under barley. period 1995 96 to 2009 10, in the second sub period the growth of barley output is. A significant variation in individual crop output, higher due to higher growth rate in yield level It is seen.
under cereals is related to variations on the adoption of. from the decomposition analysis Appendix 5 at three. improved farm management practices by the peasant, points of time an increase in yield has brought about an. farmers The yield of Teff per hectare which is a,2017 Global Journals Inc US. Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. increase in output higher than an increase in cropping percent It is observed percentage utilization for. area under Teff household consumption has come down for all crops in. recent years especially for Teff from 61 19 to 57 89. a Marketable surplus of cereal crops,The percentage of crop output for seed is almost. One of the indices for measuring the level of,constant in the two periods suggesting farmers. commercialization of agriculture is the proportion of. dependence on own seed for crop production either,cereal output marketed The proportion of output.
due to lack of improved seeds or high cost of improved. marketed depends on the resource base of the farmers. seeds in the market,Hayami and Herd 1977 in their study on the market. This finding suggests that commercialization,price effect on the subsistence rice producers in. has not taken place in full form in the region Farmers. Philippines classify large and small farmers based on. are not producing enough grains due to technological. the proportion of output sold Given the same rate of. and institutional bottlenecks The expansion of cereal. adoption of technology for the small and large farmers. output and higher marketable surplus requires large. and given the fact that an impact of technology is. doses of the biological and chemical inputs and hybrid. neutral the authors assumed small farmers are those. varieties of seeds with assured irrigation Taking into. who sell 20 percent of output produced and large, 34 account the increasing urbanization and population. farmers are those who sell 80 percent of the output. growth in coming years it is imperative to commercialize. produced Inderjit Singh 1971 in the context of,the traditional agriculture in the region. Issue V Version I, transformation of traditional Punjab agriculture in India.
An emerging pattern is that for cereal crops as, into commercial agriculture noted the marketed surplus. well as for other types of crops the percentage of crop. of wheat as a percentage of total production increased. output utilization for payment as wages in kind had. from 53 4 percent in 1952 to 80 3 percent in 1965,come down in 2009 10 as compared to 2001 02. indicating that whereas 47 percent of the production of. suggesting an emergence of wage labor in the village. wheat was for subsistence in 1952 only 18 percent of. economy and to some extent an increasing,the production was for the same purposes in 1965. monetization Also we find decrease in the percentage. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. Based on proportion of output marketed we can find the. utilization of crops for animal feed and others in 2009 10. degree of commercialization of agriculture in the region. as compared to 2001 02 It may also suggest that, We utilize the crop output utilization data collected by. farmers buy animal feed from the market rather than. the CSA for two points of time 2001 02 and 2009 10 for. using the crop output, observing changes in the production of various crops.
and their utilization to suggest an emerging pattern of b Input constraints. commercialization of agriculture The farmers generally i Irrigation for cereal crops. utilize crop output for 1 household consumption 2 The commercialization of agriculture. seed for reproduction 3 sales 4 wages in kind 5 presupposes availability of assured irrigations for all. feed for animal and 6 others Since a number of crops In fact assured irrigation would act as catalyst. authors use proportion of output marketed as the for farmers in the adoption of improved farm. indicator of the marketable surplus to gauge a degree of management practices The slow expansion of irrigated. commercialization along with the reduction of wage area under cereals slows down the process of. payment in kind we follow the same approach commercialization of agriculture in the form of purchase. In 2001 02 the production of grain was 33 7 of improved seed fertilizer and pesticide. million quintal the percentage utilization of output for In case of Teff as against 1001 03 thousand. household consumption was 64 25 for seed 13 15 hectares of cropped area in the region the irrigated area. for sale 19 65 and for animal feeds and for others under Teff was 4 414 thousand hectares in 2009 10. accounted for less than 3 In 2009 10 the production Total cropped area under Teff has increased from. of grain was 57 1 million quintals of which 61 64 was 826 443 thousand hectares in 2003 04 to 1001 028. utilized for household consumption which is lower than thousand hectares in 2009 10 by 21 12 However the. household consumption level in 2001 02 There is percentage of irrigated hectares of Teff in total cropped. marginal increase in the percentage of output utilized for area of Teff in 2003 04 was 0 24 and it was 0 44 in. seed indicating increased reliance on own and 2009 10 suggesting farmers heavy dependence on. indigenous seed The percentage of output utilized for monsoon Assured irrigation will enable peasant farmers. sale in the market was almost constant in spite of to apply improved seed modern chemical fertilizer and. increase in the production levels Payment for wages in obtain higher yield The teff being the staple food for the. kind was almost one percent millions of Ethiopians only through a large scale. In the case cereals the marketed sale has modernization of traditional agriculture one could. increased from 12 99 percent to 15 2 percent during the witness a growth of enough buffer stock for food. period while the consumption of the same has security in the region The modernization leading to full. decreased marginally from 68 42 percent to 66 93 fledged commercialization of teff production requires. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. multi pronged strategy from R D creation of irrigation improved seeds for wheat was 141 47 kg in 2009 10. involvement of local institutions and government Per hectare use of high yielding varieties of seed for. agencies maize was 24 46 kg in 2009 10,The cropped area under barley was 357 174. iii Fertilizer use for cereal crops, thousand hectares in 2003 04 and increased to 387 862. Similar to use of high yielding seeds farmers, thousand hectares in 2009 10 Year to year fluctuations. purchase of fertilizers is an indication of increasing. in area under barley appears to be due to fluctuations in. commercialization of agriculture In 2009 10 as against. the amount of rainfall and resource constraints facing. total cropping area of cereals of 2986 622 thousand. farmers The irrigated area under barley fluctuates. hectares 51 23 of cropped area used all fertilizers. widely The percentage of irrigated area under barley in. inclusive of natural fertilizers DAP and Urea An, total cropped area of barley was 1 3 in 2003 04 and it.
application of all fertilizer per hectare amounted to. was 1 14 in 2009 10 As against 387 86 thousand, 104 54 kg The shares of hectares of land using natural. hectares of cropped area under barley only 4 32,fertilizer DAP and Urea in total cropped area. thousand hectares were under irrigation,respectively was 12 10 75 and 4 58 The share of. Total cropped area under wheat has increased, hectares of land using both DAPs and Urea in total. from 332 645 thousand hectares in 2003 04 to 434 386 351. cropped land was 23 85 An application of DAP and,thousand hectares in 2008 09 In 2009 10 the area.
Urea per hectare respectively was 88 kg and 81 48 kg. under wheat has fallen to 334 524 thousand hectares. Issue V Version I,The use of Urea and DAP per hectare was 169 43 kg. from 434 386 thousand hectares in the previous year A. decrease in total cropped area under wheat appears to Section 5. have been picked up by barley whose cropped area has. increased to 387 862 thousand hectares from 347 72 IX Area Production and Yields of. thousand hectares in the previous year Pulses Oilseeds and Vegetables. The percentage of irrigated area under maize in, the total cropped area of maize was 1 56 in 2003 04. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. Pulses 9 are the second important group of, and it was 0 74 in 2009 10 As against 355 51 thousand. crops after cereals in Amhara region In fact pulses are. hectares of cropped area under maize only 2 621,major commercial crops and they have significant. thousand hectares of land under maize were under, commercial value to peasant farmers The production.
irrigation As noted above lack of irrigation facilities. of pulses has grown from 3101 19 thousand quintals in. operate as a significant bottlenecks on the diffusion of. 1995 6 to 8541 thousand quintals in 2009 10 Peasant. modern cultivation practices in the region, farmers grow pulses in dry seasons The crops do not. ii Improved seeds for cereal crops require assured irrigation and they can be grown with. One of the features of commercialization of little soil moisture While cropped area under pulses has. agriculture is the participation of farmers in the input grown at the compound growth rate of 5 23 per. markets The farmers participation in the input market annum production of pulses has grown at the. implies purchase of modern inputs for obtaining higher compound growth rate of 9 41 per cent per annum. yield and output An improved seeds provide higher during the period 1995 6 to 2009 10 Despite lack of. yields than the local seeds Though a significant significant breakthrough in high yielding varieties for dry. breakthrough in high yielding varieties of seeds was crops such as pulses higher growth rates for individual. seen for wheat and maize they were not used crops under pulses are seen in the second sub period. intensively extensively and consistently over the period The yields of pulses per hectare have increased from. A use of quantum of high yielding varieties of seeds for 8 02 quintal per hectare in 1995 6 to 12 30 quintal per. wheat is reduced from 23 10 thousand quintals in hectare in 2009 10 From the Table 4 it can be seen. 1996 97 to 12 74 thousand quintals in 2009 10 In rate of growth of cropping area was higher in the first. contrast use of local seeds has increased from 217 sub period compared to the growth rate found in the. thousand quintals to 884 62 thousand quintals in second sub period On the other hand growth rates for. 2009 10 The reason for a decrease in the use of an individual crops output under pulses are higher except. improved seed and rise in the local seed could be, attributed to non availability of an assured irrigation for. wheat as well as high cost of inputs and a competitive 9. The crops under pulses are horse beans field peas haricot beans. crop of maize The percentage of area under improved chick peas lentils and vetch These products are widely consumed. seed for maize in total cropped area under maize was by population as they provide a great amount of protein The. 28 56 in 2003 04 and it was 35 20 in 2009 10 A production of pulses is for home consumption as well as for domestic. markets These are cultivated with limited soil moisture and they are. use of improved seed variety for maize has increased generally cultivated in dry season A large number of peasant farmers. from 2 34 thousand quintals in 1996 97 to 30 60 obtain cash income from selling pulses in the domestic market. thousand quintals in 2009 10 Per hectare use of Pulses have high export potential too. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. for horse beans in the second sub period than in the. first sub period,Table 3 Compound Growth Rates for Pulses. CGR for the period CGR for the period CGR for the period. Crop Type 1995 96 to 2009 10 1995 96 to 2001 02 2003 04 to 2009 10. Area Production Yield Area Production Yield Area Production Yield. Pulses 5 23 9 41 3 97 6 18 9 30 2 83 4 49 9 52 5 23. Horse beans 6 39 9 19 2 73 7 46 12 07 4 18 3 76 4 18 0 90. Field peas 4 70 9 63 4 81 5 54 9 19 3 35 0 50 4 18 4 91. Haricot beans 6 18 12 97 6 39 8 43 15 48 6 50 4 60 19 12 14 11. Chick peas 2 63 7 46 4 81 4 60 5 75 1 10 4 08 11 60. Lentils 7 14 10 18 3 04, 36 Vetch 3 56 8 43 4 70 3 97 4 49 0 50 7 89 14 79 6 39.
Soya beans 24 35 84 41 48 43,Issue V Version I, Fenugreek 7 14 11 85 4 91 4 49 7 78 3 14 19 12 26 74 10 07. Gibto 17 46 36 20 14 45, Source Authors computation based on CSA data various years. The decomposition analysis shows that a than the growth rates for grain crops and cereal crops. positive growth in cropped area and yield in pulses in Within this group the significant proportion of area is. 1995 6 over 1994 5 resulted in positive growth in output devoted to horse beans. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. an increase in cropped area under pulses has resulted The irrigated areas under pulses were 0 98. in an increase in output greater than a positive growth in thousand hectares as against total cropped area of. yield in 2005 4 over 2004 3 a fall in cropped area and 385 66 thousand hectares in 1997 98 and it has. yield in 2010 9 over 2009 8 resulted in fall in output increased to 2 436 thousand hectares in 2009 10 as. The share of cropped area under pulses in total against total cropped area under pulses of 694 672. cropped area of the region was 13 19 in 1995 96 and thousand hectares The irrigated areas under oilseeds. it has increased to 16 93 in 2009 10 The cropped were 0 744 thousand hectares in 2008 09 as against. area under pulses was 386 8 thousand hectares in cropped area of 23 325 thousand hectares vegetables. 1995 96 and it has increased to 694 672 thousand and root crops were 5 48 thousand hectares in 2009 10. hectares in 2009 10 The cropped area under pulses as against total cropped area of vegetables and root. has increased at the compound growth rate of 5 23 crops of 26 020 thousand hectares. per annum during 1995 96 to 2009 10 which is higher. Table 4 Compound Growth Rates for Oilseeds, CGR for the period CGR for the period CGR for the period. Crop Type 1995 96 to 2009 10 1995 96 to 2001 02 2003 04 to 2009 10. Area Production Yield Area Production Yield Area Production Yield. Oilseeds 5 02 11 4 6 39 3 66 4 60 0 80 3 66 10 73 8 65. Neug 1 61 2 63 4 28 4 18 3 14 1 00 10 96 1 51 10 18. Linseed 0 5 4 81 4 08 9 96 12 52 2 42 3 66 7 78 10 40. Sunflower 34 98 4 39 12 74 8 43 34 98 17 35 7 46 1 81 8 00. Sesame 29 17 38 12 5 12 10 73 18 88 6 92 36 88 38 54 3 04. Rapeseed 12 86 12 74 3 04 12 74 0 10 2 02 4 60 3 66 3 35. Source Authors computation based on CSA data Various years. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. b Oilseeds Only in second sub period 2003 04 and 2009 10 the. The peasant farmers cultivate different types of area under vegetables has increased at the compound. oilseeds 10 for household consumption as well as for growth rate of 11 8 per annum from 17 28 thousands. market As with the case for pulses oilseeds have high hectares to 37 12 thousand hectares suggesting market. internal and export demand Nevertheless cropping profitability of crops. area under oilseeds is relatively less In spite of suitable. d Marketable surplus of pulses oilseeds and, environmental conditions for production of oilseeds in.
vegetables, the region a significant amount of edible oil is being. imported by Ethiopia every year incurring heavy foreign i Pulse. exchange But due to low yield uncertain market The production of pulses has increased from. conditions and lack of processing plants in the edible oil 5 07 million quintal in 2001 02 to 8 54 million quintal in. sector compounded by lack of knowledge on the 2009 10 The percentage utilization of pulses for seed. market potential outside their domestic market farmers was marginally higher in 2009 10 than in 2001 02 The. percentage utilization for sales was higher in 2009 10 at. devote less cropping area for oilseeds The share of. area under oilseeds in total area of cropped area of the 22 96 of crop output compared to 18 66 of crop. region was 5 33 in 1995 96 and has increased to output in 2001 02 suggesting farmers increasing. 7 71 in 2009 10 The area under oilseeds occupied orientation toward market and cash transaction. 156 3 thousand hectares in 1995 96 and which has Compared to other crops soya beans has high wage. Issue V Version I, increased to 316 46 thousand hectares in 2009 10 With payment in kind at 5 26 of crop output in 2009 10 as. an increasing domestic demand for edible oils due to against 2 61 of crop output in 2001 02 For all other. changing consumption behavior in urban areas the role pulse crops wage payment in kind had come down in. of extension agencies in propagating a commercial 2009 10 compared to 2001 02. value of crops is important in motivating peasant ii Oilseeds. farmers to increase more area under oilseeds Though production of oilseeds have increased. The decomposition analysis shows a decline in, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. it is not adequate enough to meet rising demand in the. output of oilseeds in 2010 9 over 2009 8 is largely due to. domestic market The percentage of oilseeds for, fall in cropping area In 2005 4 over 2004 3 a positive household consumption was higher in 2009 10 at. growth in cropped area has brought about a positive 42 46 of crop output than in 2001 02 at 38 9 the. growth in output which is higher than positive change in percentage of output utilized for sale was lower at 45 77. yield level of oilseeds crops It is known from three of output in 2009 10 as against 49 36 of crop output. points of time a change in output is largely due to a in 2001 02. change in cropped area rather than a change in yield. iii Vegetables, c Vegetables In case of vegetables the percentage of output.
The vegetables 11 are not widely cultivated by utilized for household consumption as well as for market. peasant farmers in the region despite favorable climatic sale has increased in 2009 10 compared to 2001 02. conditions The food habits of consumers also partly. determine the cropping area under vegetables Better Section 6. knowledge about nutritional benefits of fresh vegetables. X Area Production and Yield of Root, will significantly alter production and consumption. pattern of peasants and others in rural and urban areas Crops Fruits Crops and Stimulant. The share of cropping area under vegetables in total Crops. cropped area of the region was less than one percent in. a Vegetables and root crops, 2009 10 In absolute terms the total area devoted to. The major root crops 12 produced in Amhara,vegetables was 37 12 thousand hectares in 2009 10. region are beetroot carrot onion potatoes and sweet. potatoes Garlic taro godre These root crops are, The major oilseeds are neug linseeds rapeseed and safflower. Though the Amhara region is suitable for oilseeds production the largely for market sales Effectively marketed either on. cropping area devoted to the oilseed is relatively low The cooperative line or by private or public institutions some. commercial value of oilseeds is yet to be recognized by peasant of these products of root crops can be exported either in. farmers in the region raw form or in processed form The share of area under. The production of vegetables depends on immediate disposal of the root crops in total cropped area of the region was 0 08. products Since vegetables are perishable they require to be in 2009 10 The total area under root crops was 36 34. transported to nearby market place for immediate consumption The. infrastructure facilities like cold storage facilities and well developed. transport network between villages and urban consumption centers 12. These root crops are used widely by consumers in rural and urban. are prerequisite which will go a long way in motivating peasant farmers areas along with the staple food grains These products add flavor and. to devote more area under vegetables crops aroma to the foods besides providing tastes to the food items. Especially garlic has medicinal value,2017 Global Journals Inc US.
Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. thousand hectares in 2009 10 The area under root in cropping area under coffee clearly signify an. crops has increased only in the second half of the study emergence of commercial motives of peasant farmers. period from 15 88 thousand hectares in 2003 04 to towards market. 36 34 thousand hectares in 2009 10 Decomposition results for chats show that a. From the decomposition analysis a yield change in output is due to positive change in cropping. increase in root crops resulted in a significant increase area The overall negative growth in output is due to. in output in 2005 4 over 2004 3 and 2010 9 over 2009 8 negative growth in both cropping area and yield. The major fruit crops 13 in Amhara region are avocadoes Similarly for stimulant crops there was positive growth in. bananas mangoes oranges papayas and lemons A cropping area and yields of coffee and hops resulting in. share of area under fruit crops in the total cropped area positive growth in output. in the region was 0 07 percent in 2009 10 In absolute. terms the cropping area under fruit crops was 2 84. thousand hectares in 2009 10 Though the cropping, area under fruit crops in absolute terms has increased. from 1 80 thousand hectares in 2003 04 to 2 85, 38 thousand hectares in 2009 10 the compound growth. rate for the fruit crops has shown a negative growth rate. of 6 61 percent per annum due to high fluctuations in. Issue V Version I, cropping area between two time periods An institutional. arrangement for storage of fruits is scanty in rural areas. scaring peasant farmers away from wide spread, cultivation of fruit crops The fruit crops require a large. area like orchards for a profitable operation They have. a potential of high export earnings in the long run The. government initiatives in recent years in leasing out large. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. parcels of land to private entrepreneurs to develop. horticulture floriculture and orchards is in the right. direction to optimize the resources in the region and to. commercialize agriculture on large scale for,employment generation and for export earnings.
The decomposition analysis for fruit crops, reveals that a positive growth of area and yield resulted. in higher output in 2010 9 over 2009 8 There was a. negative growth in area and yield resulting in negative. output growth in 2005 4 over 2004 3,The number of farmers cultivating stimulant. crops such as coffee and chats are larger than farmers. cultivating fruits Cropping area under stimulant crops. such as chats and coffee have increased respectively. from 2 72 and 4 27 thousand hectares in 1995 96 to. 6 44 and 5 42 thousand hectares in 2009 10 Cropping. area under hops another stimulant crop in the region. has marginally increased from 13 48 thousand hectares. to 15 19 thousand hectares during this period Cropping. areas under chat coffee and hops respectively have. grown at compound growth rates of 17 70 5 33 and,1 40 per annum during 2003 04 to 2009 10 Another. significant crop in this group is coffee whose area has. increased in recent years Demand for coffee has,shown an increasing trend both in domestic and in. international markets in spite of an increase in the. number of competitors in the African continent A growth. in number of farmers cultivating coffee and an increase. These crops are largely cultivated by private land holders in small. plots These are purely commercial crops as large proportions of. these products are for sales in the market,2017 Global Journals Inc US.
Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. Table 5 Compound Growth Rates for Vegetables and Root crops. CGR for the period 2003 04 to 2009 10,Area Production Yield. Vegetables 12 29 14 11 1 81,Head cabbage 23 98 24 48 2 42. Ethiopian cabbage 15 83 13 65 2 12,Tomatoes 9 08 6 28 11 07. Green peppers 16 88 13 2 2 12,Red peppers 11 96 14 91 2 73. Swiss chard 29 17 10 84 34 04,Root crops 7 57 5 44 2 02.
Beetroot 11 62 10 29 8 54 391,Carrot 1 12 29 11 96. Issue V Version I,Onion 3 04 0 7 2 83,Potatoes 7 14 5 97 1 1. Garlic 13 43 7 46 4 28,Sweet potatoes 4 81 7 89 19 96. Source Authors computation based on CSA data, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. b Commercialization of sugar cane and garlic in 2009 10 as compared to 2001 02 On the. The cropping area under sugar cane is very other hand there is a significant rise in the market sale. marginal compared to other crops in the region 14 The for potatoes. total cropping area under sugar cane was 0 69,ii Permanent crops.
thousand hectares in 1995 96 and increased to 1 07. In case of permanent crops there is a marginal, thousand hectares in 2009 10 At present sugar cane is. reduction in the percentage utilization of crop output for. generally transported to nearby urban areas and market. household consumption In 2001 02 the percentage of. places for retail consumption There is no sugar, crop output utilized for household consumption was. processing factory in the region to process raw sugar. 58 47 and which has decreased to 55 91 of crop, cane to obtain final product sugar Though it is cash. output in 2009 10 The percentage of crop output for. crop an assured irrigation and an establishment of. market sale was 37 69 of crop output in 2001 02 and. sugar factory will spur the expansion of area under. increased marginally to 40 97 of crop output Coffee. sugarcane in the region and can earn much higher profit. which is an important cash crop showed increased,than any competitive crop. percentage utilization for home consumption leading to. c Marketable surplus of root crops and permanent reduced market sale in 2009 10 compared to 2001 02. crops It is known there is a decrease in percentage. i Root crops utilization of cereal crops for household consumption. Root crops are beet root carrot onion leading to increased market sales in case of root crops. potatoes and garlic which have shown an increase in and oilseeds there is decrease in percentage utilization. production in 2009 10 than in 2001 02 The percentage for market sales and an increase in household. utilization of crop output as a whole for household consumption in case of vegetables there is an increase. consumption has increased to 65 91 in 2009 10 from in market sales as well as household consumption One. 62 7 of crop output in 2001 02 As a result of an can infer whenever there is an increase in cropping area. increase in the household consumption there is a fall in leading to increase in production there is a consequent. the market sale of root crops in 2009 10 There is increase in household consumption and market sale. significant fall in market sale of carrot beet root onion The farmers food habits are slowly undergoing a. change due to income change and awareness about, Cultivation of sugar cane requires an assured irrigation It is long the nutritional benefits of certain crop output leading to.
gestation crop running into 11 12 months It is cultivated by small decline in market sale. peasant holders in the region,2017 Global Journals Inc US. Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. Table 6 Compound Growth Rates for Fruit crops and stimulant crops. CGR for the period 2003 04 to 2009 10,Area Production Yield. Fruit crops 6 61 60 48 48 73,Avocados 4 39 101 98 77 71. Bananas 6 82 36 07 24 23,Guavas 3 76 29 17 23 98,Lemons 5 23 1 4 3 25. 22 38 50 53 21 4,Oranges 2 02 57 45 54 8,Papayas 3 14 92 7 69 21.
40 Chat 17 7 24 35 5 75,Coffee 5 33 20 8 13 88,Issue V Version I. Hops 1 4 10 18 7 46,Sugarcane 98 55 442 49 774 95, Source Authors computation based on CSA data various years. Section 7 under major categories such as cereals pulses. oilseeds vegetables root crops temporary crops and. XI Persistence of Integrated Farming, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. permanent crops,in the Amhara Region,In 1995 96 the peasant farmers have. concentrated on cereal production by allocating a large. At the advance stage of commercialization of, percentage of crop area for the cereal production in the.
agriculture farmers can specialize either in crop only or. two lowest size classes of holdings to the level of 71 of. livestock management In 1995 96 a significant, 2380 35 thousand hectares of total cereal cropped land. proportion of farmers 76 24 had involved in, The area under cereal crops was concentrated in two. production of both crops and livestock followed by crop. size classes of holdings below 0 50 hectares followed. only 20 86 and livestock only 2 90 In 2009 10,by pulses and oilseeds. there was an increase in the number of farmers who. The increase in the area under cereals in the, were involved in both crop production and livestock. size classes of 1 01 2 00 and 2 01 5 00 appears to. management 86 63 followed by crop only 11 32, be due to rising market prices for cereal output and.
and livestock only 2 05 The Farm Management, market profitability and the need to protect themselves. Practices in 1995 96 and 2009 10 suggests clearly, from the rising market prices The increase in cereal. subsistence and semi commercial farming systems and. area in the two size classes of 1 01 to 2 00 and 2 01 to. reinforce the fact small farmers have not divorced. 5 00 hectares is due to reduction in the cropping area in. cropping activities from livestock management in the. the two lowest size classes of holding less than 1. region It is no surprise given the fact that fluctuations. hectare and also from an additional increase in the total. in monsoon contributes to fluctuations in the income. cropped area during this period The total cereal crop. levels of the farmers the importance of livestock allied. area has increased from 2380 35 thousand hectares in. sector for small farmers provides cushion to tide over an. 1995 96 to 2986 62 thousand hectares in 2009 10 In. adverse weather conditions and keep farmers to smooth. 2009 10 77 49 of the 2986 62 thousand hectares of,their income and consumption in times of economic. cereal cropped land was cultivated in the two size. classes of holding 1 01 to 2 00 and 2 01 to 5 00, a Crop diversification a sign of commercialization in hectares. the region The cropping area under pulses and oilseeds. Another characteristic used to measure the was less significant in the total cropping area No. degree of commercialization of agriculture is crop specific information is available for area under. diversification by farmers by the size of holdings We vegetables and root crops which are commercial crops. can find some emerging trends on the diversification of The area under pulses has increased from 381 99. crops across the size of holdings at three points of time thousand hectares in 1995 96 to 694 67 thousand. 1995 96 2001 02 and 2009 10 We have grouped crops hectares in 2009 10 It is seen small size holdings less. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains.
than 0 50 hectares had cropping area under pulses in certain regions where resource endowments are. 1995 96 In contrast in 2001 02 and 2009 10 an area favorable in terms of irrigation market access and. under pulses had come down in the size classes of availability of modern inputs It has to be noted that. holdings less than 0 50 hectares On the other hand the while price incentive may benefit large farmers with. area under pulses has increased as the size of holdings surplus production in contrast a widespread adoption. increased up to the size classes of 2 01 5 00 hectares of modern farm technology will benefit all farmers. suggesting market orientation of farmers in the larger irrespective of size of holdings and consumers at large. size of holdings The area under oilseeds has increased In order to reach the objective of food security price. from 165 97 thousand hectares in 1995 96 to 316 456 instrument must be effectively utilized to induce farmers. thousand hectares in 2009 10 Similar to an increase in to intensively apply modern inputs for higher marketable. cropping area under pulses with the size of holdings surplus which is required in the initial stages of. the area under oilseeds has increased with the size of economic development 15 The experiences of Asian. holdings up to 5 hectares It signifies large size holdings countries clearly bring out the role of price incentives in. take to a crop diversification strategy due to opening of adoption of modern technology in agriculture The. market opportunities stable agriculture price policy combined with the. The cropping area under vegetables and root institutional and infrastructural development triggered 411. crops which are largely commercial crops and can fetch high rate of adoption of modern farm practices by a. immediate cash have increased the former from large farmers followed by small farmer contributing to. Issue V Version I, 18 13 thousands hectares in 1995 96 to 37 12 thousand food self sufficiency Rosegrant and Evenson 1992 Ray. hectares in 2009 10 and the latter from 16 25 thousand Cummings and Herdt 1979. hectares to 36 34 thousand hectares during the same. b Prospects for Irrigation development,Hayami and Ruttan 1970 noted investment in. In 1995 96 irrespective of the size of holdings, land development such as irrigation and drainage will be. farmers have devoted more cropping area for temporary. necessary to obtain full return from the new biological. crops The cropping area under permanent crops was, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. and chemical technology Lack of assured irrigation in. very insignificant in 1995 96 The farmers who had small. the region acts as a great bottleneck on adoption of. land holdings below 0 50 hectare used less cropping. modern agriculture inputs Main sources of irrigation in. land for permanent crops Of the total cropping area of. the region are rivers ponds lakes and watersheds A. 3010 68 thousand hectares in 1995 96 99 10 of,greater proportion of cropped area in the region.
cropping area was used for temporary crops and 0 90. depends on monsoon Assured irrigation is dismally low. was used for permanent crops The percentage, for most of the cereal and other crops in the region At. utilization of cropping area for temporary and permanent. the regional level though cropping area under irrigation. crops was almost constant in 2009 10 of the cropping. has increased from 76 thousand hectares in 2001 to 348. area of 4109 14 thousand hectares 99 22 and 0 78, thousand hectares in 2009 yet a greater proportion of. respectively used for temporary and permanent crops in. cropped area is un irrigated As a result of lack of. 2009 10 The peasant farmers with size of holdings less. assured irrigation farmers are constrained to apply. than 1 hectare were cultivating all crops suggesting. modern inputs on their farms A significant percentage. there was no commercialization and persistence of, of even food grains crops in the region do not come. subsistence farming systems in 1995 96 There was no. under assured irrigation In 1995 96 as against 2380 35. separation of production decision from consumption. thousand hectares of cereal crops in the region only. decision by farm households in 1995 96 Farmers were. 14 87 thousand hectares were under irrigation In,producing almost all crops such as cereals pulses. 2009 10 as against 2986 62 thousand hectares of,oilseeds and other crops and simply there was no.
cereals 14 60 thousand hectares were under irrigation. specialization of crops Even in large size classes of. The situation is similar for almost all individual crops. land holdings no noteworthy of cropping area of, commercial importance could be seen suggesting less. commercialization,XII Prospects of Commercialization. a Prospects for Price policy, In the context of peasant agriculture in order to 15. In the liberalized economic environment it is difficult to say that. achieve the objective of food security and price stability terms of trade is against agriculture and in favor of industry as there is. the government must have a region or an area specific no massive industrialization in the region to demand any. approach for intensive crop production Price instrument discriminatory price policy to promote import substituting industry or to. provide subsidized wage goods to the industrial labor force or urban. would accelerate the process of commercialization in consumers. 2017 Global Journals Inc US, Process of Commercialization of Agriculture in Amhara Region Ethiopia Prospects and Constrains. Table 7 Crop Type All Irrigation Improved Seed and Extension Package. Total cropped Irrigated Improved Extension,area hectare 000 seeds package.
2003 04 3264 949 27 085 0 830 92 874 2 844 403 861 12 369. 2004 05 3474 371 28 061 0 808 106 293 3 059 545 406 15 697. 2005 06 3683 566 28 297 0 768 11 039 3 122 789 902 21 44. 2006 07 3750 473 28 817 0 768 125 819 3 394 748 59 19 957. 2007 08 3969 559 41 619 1 048 163 165 4 11 674 302 16 986. 2008 09 4092 989 31 178 0 761 163 439 3 99 816 536 19 949. 2009 10 4109 138 30 777 0 748 148 371 3 61 991 908 24 139. Source Authors computation based on CSA various years. 42 Table 7 above shows the percentage of bring a larger area under irrigation and motivate farmers. irrigated hectares of all crops in total cropped area in to cultivate various cash crops. Issue V Version I, Amhara region The percentage of irrigated hectares of The governments initiatives in creating more. all crops in total cropped area was 1 78 in 2001 02 irrigation facilities will bring forth private investment as. and decreased to 0 75 in 2009 10 While total complement to public investment for wider coverage of. cropped area has increased from 3200 28 thousand cropping area under irrigation Investments in irrigation. hectares to 4109 138 thousand hectares by 28 40 sector have to be stepped up by the governments to. during this period the percentage of irrigated lands had accelerate the pace of transformation of traditional. decreased by 64 40 during this period The area agriculture from subsistence and semi commercial to. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research D Volume XVII. under improved seeds for all crops has increased from commercial form of organizations An assured irrigation. 87 033 thousand hectares in 2001 02 to 148 371 will contribute to desired change in the cropping pattern. thousand hectares by 70 in 2009 10 However if we in the region accordance with the domestic and. relate the cropping area under improved seeds to total international market prices of agriculture commodities. cropped area we can find the share of all crops for With an assured irrigation facilities the peasant farmers. improved seed in the total cropped area was 2 72 in would shift to more remunerative cash crops without. 2001 02 and there was a marginal increase of 3 61 in sacrificing food security for the region. c Prospects for adoption of improved seed varieties. An extension package has covered a large The region has been experiencing a slow. percentage of cropped area The percentage of diffusion of modern agriculture inputs contributing to. cropped area under an extension package in total moderate rise in yield and production A number of. cropped area was 12 37 in 2003 04 and almost modern farm management practices have been. doubled to 24 14 in 2009 10 An impact of extension introduced in the past fifteen years However a number. package is yet to be felt in terms of real increased area of institutional constraints hold back a high rate of. under improved seeds and on crop yields diffusion and adoption of modern agricultural. Farmers cannot make much investment in techniques Spielman 2008 Major factor which has. irrigation due to lack of credit for long term investment contributed to raising a yield in Teff wheat and maize is. uncertain demand for output price uncertainty for the gradual improvements in the adoption of improved. crops and rising cost of modern farm inputs public high yielding varieties of seeds Various institutions. investment in irrigation and attractive farm prices will such as public institutions private institutions and. motivate farmers to invest in irrigation on their farm cooperative institutions have been involved in seed. Public investments in restoration of canals water industry so as to reach out to farmers in accessing and. bodies lakes and water sheds will contribute to availing high yielding varieties of seeds though to a. conservation and storage of rain water Assistance to limited extent. farmers associations at field level may make farmers to At the regional level an application of improved. monitor and protect water bodies and regulation of variety of seeds and local seeds for all crops show that. waters to individual farmers An institutional arrangement the improved seeds has increased by 55 41 whereas. at the field level requires strong support from the use of local seeds has increased by 99 A crop. government The peasant associations farmers groups specific use of improved seeds for various crops show. NGOs and Governments must have common that in 1996 97 the quantity of improved seeds for. approach to address irrigation management and cereals was 32 58 thousand quintals as against the total. address irrigation problems The collective actions will cereal cropped area of 2487 41 thousand hectares The.

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