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A frica Now, Africa Now is an exciting new series published by Zed Books. in association with the internationally respected Nordic Africa. Institute Featuring high quality cutting edge research from. leading academics the series addresses the big issues confronting. Africa today Accessible but in depth and wide ranging in its. scope Africa Now engages with the critical political economic. socio logical and development debates affecting the continent. shedding new light on pressing concerns,Nordic Africa Institute. The Nordic Africa Institute Nordiska Afrikainstitutet is a centre. for research documentation and information on modern Africa. Based in Uppsala Sweden the Institute is dedicated to providing. timely crit ical and alternative research and analysis of Africa. and to cooperating with African researchers As a hub and a. meeting place for a growing field of research and analysis the. Institute strives to put knowledge of African issues within reach. for scholars policy makers politicians the media students and. the general public The Institute is financed jointly by the Nordic. countries Denmark Finland Iceland Norway and Sweden. www nai uu se,Forthcoming titles, Mats Utas ed African Conflicts and Informal Power Big Men and. Maria Eriksson Baaz and Maria Stern Sexual Violence in African. Conflicts Perceptions Prescriptions Problems,Titles already published. Fantu Cheru and Cyril Obi eds The Rise of China and India in. Africa Challenges Opportunities and Critical Interventions. Ilda Lindell ed Africa s Informal Workers Collective Agency. Alliances and Transnational Organizing in Urban Africa. Iman Hashim and Dorte Thorsen Child Migration in Africa. Cyril Obi and Siri Aas Rustad eds Oil and Insurgency in the Niger. Delta Managing the Complex Politics of Petro violence. Prosper B Matondi Kjell Havnevik and Atakilte Beyene eds. Biofuels Land Grabbing and Food Security in Africa. About the editors, Prosper B Matondi is the executive director of the Ruzivo Trust a.
not for profit organization based in Harare Zimbabwe He holds a. PhD in rural development from the Swedish University of Agricul. tural Sciences He has more than 15 years experience of researching. on land natural resources management environmental policy and. planning in Zimbabwe in southern Africa and internationally He. has published widely and contributed to many national regional. and inter national networks on land and agrarian reform issues He. sits on various research boards and is currently supervising PhD. students working on land issues in Zimbabwe and beyond. Kjell Havnevik is senior researcher and head of the research cluster. on rural and agrarian change at the Nordic Africa Institute He is also. professor of development studies at the University of Agder in Nor. way He holds a PhD from the University of Bradford 1988 and has. been working with universities and research institutes in Norway. Sweden and Tanzania From 1996 2005 he was professor of rural de. velopment at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences He has. published a number of books and articles on African development. issues with a special focus on rural development natural resource. management and international financial institutions strategies in. and development assistance to Africa He has wide experience as a. teacher and lecturer on African rural and development issues. Atakilte Beyene is a researcher in rural development He is based. at the Stockholm Environment Institute His research focuses on. institutions and the relationships between smallholder agricultural. systems property rights and national agricultural policies He. has facilitated and conducted extensive empirical field studies on. livelihood systems food insecurity and risk management strategies. natural resources management and recent developments in com. mercial farming including biofuels He has also been a lecturer at. the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences where he doubled. up as coordinator of an international MSc programme in Integrated. Water Resources Management,Biofuels land grabbing and food. security in Africa,edited by Prosper B Matondi Kjell Havnevik. and Atakilte Beyene,london new york, Biofuels land grabbing and food security in Africa was first published in. association with the Nordic Africa Institute PO Box 1703 se 751 47 Uppsala. Sweden in 2011 by Zed Books Ltd 7 Cynthia Street London n1 9jf uk. and Room 400 175 Fifth Avenue New York ny 10010 usa. www zedbooks co uk,www nai uu se, Editorial copyright Prosper B Matondi Kjell Havnevik and. Atakilte Beyene 2011,Copyright in this collection Zed Books 2011.
The rights of Prosper B Matondi Kjell H avnevik and Atakilte Beyene to. be identified as the editors of this work have been asserted by them in. accordance with the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. Set in OurType Arnhem Monotype Gill Sans Heavy by Ewan Smith London. Index ed emery thefreeuniversity net,Cover designed by Rogue Four Design. Printed and bound in Great Britain by the MPG Books Group King s Lynn. and Bodmin, Distributed in the usa exclusively by Palgrave Macmillan a division of. St Martin s Press llc 175 Fifth Avenue New York ny 10010 usa. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic mechanical photocopying or otherwise without the prior. permission of Zed Books Ltd, A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data available. isbn 978 1 84813 879 7 hb,isbn 978 1 84813 878 0 pb. Tables figure boxes and maps vi Acronyms vii,Acknowledgements ix Preface xi.
Introduction biofuels food security and land grabbing in Africa 1. Prosper B Matondi Kjell Havnevik and Atakilte Beyene. 1 Grabbing of African lands for energy and food implications for. land rights food security and smallholders 20,Kjell Havnevik. 2 Biofuel governance a matter of discursive and actor intermesh 44. Marie Wideng rd, 3 Peak oil and climate change triggers of the drive for biofuel. production 60,Rune Skarstein, 4 Attracting foreign direct investment in Africa in the context of land. grabbing for biofuels and food security 68,Prosper B Matondi and Patience Mutopo. 5 Smallholder led transformation towards biofuel production in. Ethiopia 90,Atakilte Beyene, 6 Biofuel land and environmental issues the case of SEKAB s biofuel.
plans in Tanzania 106,Kjell Havnevik and Hanne Haaland. 7 Agro investments in Zimbabwe at a time of redistributive land. reforms 134,Prosper B Matondi, 8 Competition between biofuel and food Evidence from a jatropha. biodiesel project in Northern Ghana 159,Festus Boamah. Conclusion land grabbing smallholder farmers and the meaning. of agro investor driven agrarian change in Africa 176. Prosper B Matondi Kjell Havnevik and Atakilte Beyene. Notes 196 References 206,Other contributors 221,Tables figure boxes and maps. 3 1 The share of different countries and regions of total world population. and the world s total CO2 emissions 2004 63, 3 2 Activities with CO2 emissions from burning of fossil fuels and CO2.
emissions according to type of fuel global figures for 2001 64. 5 1 Major agricultural land leases in Ethiopia 92, 5 2 Balancing policy focuses for biofuel and the desired policy goals in. the rural development context of Ethiopia 103, 7 1 Key production characteristics in Chisumbanje and Mwenezi project. agro investments 146, 5 1 Multiple dimensions of smallholder biofuel production 98. 4 1 Types of growth promoted by FDI 72,4 2 The short story of land loss in Ghana 84. 6 1 Overview of major changes in the December 2008 ESIA for the. Bagamoyo SEKAB T biofuel project as compared to the May 2008. version 118, 7 1 Testimony of a former parastatal chief executive officer 141.
7 2 Outcomes of investment in jatropha for biodiesel in Zimbabwe 144. 7 3 Template for changed agrarian relations due to foreign investments 154. 6 1 SEKAB plans village lands and protected areas 124. 6 2 Village land Kipo and Nyaminywili 125,AAG ActionAid Ghana. ARDA Agriculture and Rural Development Authority Zimbabwe. ARU Ardhi University Dar es Salaam, BIPPA bilateral promotion and protection agreement. BRICS Brazil Russia India China South Africa, CAADP Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme. CSR corporate social responsibility,DRC Democratic Republic of Congo. DTZ Development Trust of Zimbabwe, EIA Energy Information Administration environmental impact.
assessment,ESIA environmental and social impact assessment. EU European Union,FAO Food and Agriculture Organization. FARA Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa,FDI foreign direct investment. GHS Ghana new cedi, ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics. IEA International Energy Agency, IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development.
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute. IIED International Institute for Environmental Development. IMF International Monetary Fund,IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. MME Ministry of Mines and Energy Ethiopia,MNC multinational corporation. NEMC National Environmental Management Council Tanzania. NGO non governmental organization,NOCZIM National Oil Company of Zimbabwe. OECD Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development. OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. PGU Politik f r Global Utveckling Policy for Global Development. RAINS Regional Advisory and Information Network Systems Ghana. RBZ Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe,RED Renewable Energy Directive EU. SEA strategic environmental analysis,SEI Stockholm Environment Institute.
SEK Swedish krona, Sida Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. SOE state owned enterprise,SWF sovereign wealth fund. TAC Technical Advisory Committee,TIC Tanzania Investment Centre. TNC transnational corporation,ToR terms of reference. UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. UNEP UN Environment Programme, UN SRRF UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food.
VLUP village land use plan,WB World Bank, WCED World Commission on Environment and Development. ZAPU PF Zimbabwe African People s Union Patriotic Front. ZBE Zimbabwe Bio Energy Ltd,Acknowledgements, This book is a result of the efforts of many people who have been engaged in. African rural and agrarian issues over the last decade or more During this. time a number of scholars in Africa and Europe have networked and met to. share ideas and experiences of a range of issues agriculture land environ. ment sustainability institutions poverty biofuel development etc A major. international workshop in Harare November 2006 and several follow up. workshops in Sweden and Norway in recent years have contributed to this. book Biofuels food security and land grabbing have slowly emerged as the. major global topical issues and have become the focus of this book. Engaged as we were with these issues through North South research. networks we benefited greatly from the support of the Nordic Africa Institute. NAI in Sweden the Swedish Interdisciplinary Research Network on Liveli. hoods and Natural Resource Governance SERN funded by Sida Sarec and the. Ruzivo Trust in Harare The NAI and SERN were instrumental in generating the. knowledge from the various research forums including the Harare workshop. and seminars at the Royal Swedish Academy of Forestry and Agriculture KSLA. Stockholm April 2008 at Stockholm University 20 May 2009 and at the. Nordic Africa Institute Uppsala 17 September and 4 December 2009. The authors of the chapters have through multi and interdisciplinary. research approaches addressed various contested issues related to biofuel. development food security and land grabbing, The editors are grateful for the support provided in connection with the. research and publication of this book We would particularly like to single out. our former colleague the late Nontokozo Nemarundwe and to thank Opira. Otto Torbj rn Rydberg Otavio Cavalett Simone Noemdoe Peter Roberntz. Linda Engstr m Melinda Fones Sundell Deborah Bryceson Bertil Od n. Amanda Hammar Mats H rsmar G ran Holmqvist Terje stig rd Eva. Tobisson Carin Norberg and other colleagues at NAI At the Ruzivo Trust. we acknowledge the support provided by Esther Paradza Mukundi Mutasa. Sheila Chikulo Tandiwe Musiyiwa Sheila Jack and Alfred Mafika Colleagues. at the University of Agder Norway also provided immeasurable support We. are grateful for the support in publishing the book from Birgitta Hellmark. Lindgren at NAI and Ken Barlow at Zed Books and for the very competent. language editing of Clive Liddiard, The financial support provided by SERN and NAI made it possible to. arrange the workshops and seminars and to publish this book. Africa has seen a whirlwind of development models constructed implemented. and evaluated from one decade to the next These have had mixed outcomes. But what is not contested is the fact that Africa badly needs to see the stand. ard of living of the majority of its people raised The issues of what and who. will contribute to the Africans quest to drag themselves out of poverty and. misery and of how this will be achieved are highly contested The introduc. tion of biofuels in Africa has raised debates about their meaning and about. whether their presumed benefits will help Africans At the same time the last. two to three years have witnessed unprecedented land grabbing not just for. biofuels but also for food production, In 2008 intense debates on biofuels emerged on the back of the energy.
crisis which seems also to have triggered the world food crisis As these issues. dominated the global debates climate change issues also emerged at a time. when the world financial system and hence also the economic system was. likewise in dire straits Our major preoccupation as researchers was to try. to make sense of these multiple and complex crises in relation to Africa and. its people Our view was that the rights of smallholder African farmers were. under siege because the direction of change did not inspire confidence that. Africans would ultimately benefit Today there is a lack of confidence in world. food trade At the same time oil markets are unstable because the dynamics. keep changing from day to day In Africa there is a new propensity to venture. into large scale farming as a response to the global crisis yet the basis for. Africa s livelihoods is smallholder farming, However the problems that Africa faces are uneven given the rising and. unstable commodity pricing The tacit pressure placed on Africans to open. their countries up to agro investors in biofuels food and other agricultural. commodities is creating new relationships In this book we demonstrate how. the issues are being framed in terms of areas of origin Middle East Europe. the Americas Africa Asia the scramble for a variety of resources food. energy labour water mining tourism etc the range of investors state. sover eign funds private sector and strategic interests developing export. model away from the home country search for markets pure profit motives. Clearly as the cases in this book show land grabbing has become a key. security issue, On the other hand there are different conditions and patterns emerging. in Africa unclear deal making various kinds of contracts land lease and. outright land acquisition strategic interests of domestic elites issues to do. with compensation or lack thereof in some instances We have therefore. performed a first systematic analysis of the various interests and issues that. are emerging in Africa We present the stories behind the headlines in an. attempt to provide information that might contribute to action on alternatives. that can leverage benefits for Africa, In this book we have opened the debate beyond the underlying issues to. call for a deeper understanding of the African environment and people At the. same time our work is not anti development as is assumed by proponents of. land grabbing Rather we question the win win paradigm that is externally. driven which resembles development for and not with Africans We are also. clear that Africa requires development that not only protects the poor but also. attracts technological advances and investments that can benefit all African. people We hope this book will stimulate further research and debates on. these issues and that policy making processes aimed at balancing external. investments and the internal development of Africa will begin to feature. prominently,Prosper B Matondi Ruzivo Trust Harare Zimbabwe. Kjell Havnevik Nordic Africa Institute Uppsala Sweden and University. of Agder Kristiansand Norway, Atakilte Beyene Stockholm Environment Institute Sweden.
We dedicate this book to our colleague the late,Dr Nontokozo Nemarundwe born Nabane who. passed away in 2010 We worked with our friend,whom we fondly called Nonto for the past ten. years on various issues that are pertinent to,Africa May her soul rest in eternal peace.

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