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Principles of Experimental Design for Art Conservation
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PRIN CIPLES OF,EXP ERIMEN TAL DESIGN,FOR ART CONSERVAT ION. Tnryj Reedy,eNnJrll L Reedy,GCI SCIENTIF IC PROGRAM REPORT. JANUARY 1992,3 SIIII RotUi,Nt1INlr t D m vlln 19711. U iwnity ofD Im vtt,Art U1WTVIItio D lU tmmt,Nt1INlr t D m vlln 19716. Tk Gdt U1UmJlltw Instituu,4503 GIntrH Avmw,MuiNl IkI R9 Q Jjfomi4 90292.
CJ992bytMJ PtnJGmy Trrut,11 lhls rrs6WJ,Uwt1 printNi 0 Simpso Qunt. r yekJ st 1t rui l 00,pOst C01lSllmt1 IINUU,1 CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND PRACTICE 3. 1 1 CONSERVATION RESEARCH 3, 1 2 CLASSIFICATION OF CONSERVATION RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE 3. 1 2 1 Phase 3,1 2 2 Study Types 4,1 2 3 ConseIVation Research Problems 4. 1 2 4 Art Objects and Materials 5,1 3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 6.
1 3 1 literature SUIVey 6,1 3 2 Planning 7,1 3 3 Major Aspects of Experimental Design 8. 2 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND CONSERVATION RESEARCH 11. 2 1 STEPS IN THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 11,2 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 12. 2 3 HYPOTHESES 13,2 3 1 Contingency 14,2 3 2 Multiplicity 15. 2 3 3 Two Cautionary Tales 15,2 4 EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS 16. 2 5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 16,2 5 1 Statistical Hypothesis Testing 17.
2 6 EXAMPLES 18,2 6 1 Technological Example 18,2 6 2 Scientific Example 18. 2 6 3 ObseIVational Example 19,2 6 4 Summary Example 20. 3 SINGLE OBJECT STUDIES 23,3 1 ADVANTAGES AND USE 23. 3 2 MEASUREMENTS ON SINGLE OBJECTS 24,3 2 1 One Measurement 24. 3 2 2 Simultaneous Measurement of Multiple Variables 24. 3 2 3 Two Measurements of One Variable 25,3 2 4 Repeated Measurements of One Variable 25.
3 2 5 Treatment Effects 27,3 3 DESIGN 1 ONE TREATMENT INTERVAL 27. 3 3 1 Random Selection from Multiple Intervals 27,3 3 2 Test Statistics 29. 3 3 3 Treatment Randomization Tests 32,3 3 4 One Sided and Two Sided Tests 33. 3 4 DESIGN 2 MULTIPLE TREATMENT INTERVALS 34,3 4 1 Example with Calculations 34. 3 4 2 Selecting Combinations 36, 3 5 OTHER DESIGNS FOR ONE TREATMENT ON A SINGLE OBJECT 37.
3 5 1 Design 3 Single Treatment Patch 37,3 5 2 Design 4 Multiple Treatment Patches 37. 3 5 3 Design 5 Multiple Treatment Patch Intervals 38. 3 5 4 Design 6 Paired Treatment Control Intervals 39. 3 5 5 Design 7 Order Balanced Paired Intervals 39,3 5 MULTIPLE TREATMENTS AND CONDmONS 40. 4 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 41,4 1 GOALS 41,4 1 1 Strategy 41. 4 1 2 Questions 41,4 1 3 Research Programs 41,4 1 4 Observational Studies 42. 4 2 OBJECTS 43,4 2 1 Study Units 43,4 2 2 Replicates 44.
4 2 3 How Many Experimental Units 44,4 2 4 Random Selection 46. 4 3 MEASUREMENTS 47,4 3 1 Dataset Structure 47,4 3 2 Repeated Readings 48. 4 3 3 Repeated Measurements 48,Avoidance of Bias,4 4 TREATMENTS 50. 4 4 1 Controls 51,4 4 2 Randomization 51,5 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 57. 5 1 DATASET STRUcruRE 57,5 1 1 Missing Values 57,5 1 2 Repetitions 57.
5 1 3 Data Values and Analytical Methods 58,5 2 ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS 59. 5 2 1 Data Models 59,5 2 2 Curve Fitting 60,5 2 3 More Models 61. 5 3 INFERENCE AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING 62,5 3 1 One Sided and Two Sided Tests 62. 5 3 2 Randomization Ranks and Distributions 63,5 3 3 Tests Based on the Normal Distribution 64. 5 3 4 Tests Based on Ranks 65,5 3 5 Points Intervals and Significance 66.
5 4 WORKING WITH STATISTICIANS 67,6 MULTIPLE OBJECf GROUP STUDIES 69. 6 1 ONE GROUP 69,6 1 1 Comparison to a Standard 69. 6 1 2 Color Match Example 71,6 1 3 One Treatment 72. 6 1 4 Color Match Part 2 73,6 1 5 Paired Treatments 74. 6 1 6 Color Match Paired 75,6 2 lWO GROUPS 76,6 2 1 Historical Controls 76.
6 2 2 Two Treatment Groups 76,6 2 3 Crossover and Related Two Factor Designs 77. 6 3 MULTIPLE GROUPS 79,6 3 1 Multiple Treatments 79. 6 3 2 Multiple Factors 80,6 3 3 Random Effects 81,6 3 4 Repeated Measures Factorials 82. 6 3 5 Single Replicate Factorials 83,6 3 6 Fractional Factorials 83. 6 3 7 Blocks and Latin Squares 84,6 3 8 Quality Control and Improvement 85.
6 4 CONSERVATION RESEARCH EXAMPLES 86,6 4 1 Cobalt Blue and Linseed Oil Drying 86. 6 4 2 Mordant and Yellow Dye Fading 86,6 4 3 Light and Textile Dye Fading 87. 6 4 4 Linen Canvas Weakening 87,Book Deterioration Survey. 6 5 WORK SHEET FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 89,7 CONSERVATION TREATMENT TRIALS 91. 7 1 CLINICAL TRIALS IN MEDICINE 91,7 1 1 History 91.
7 1 2 Trial Personnel 91,7 2 GOAL AND PLANS 92,7 2 1 Better Treatments 92. 7 2 2 Drug Testing Phases 93,7 2 3 Conservation Research 93. 7 3 OBJECTS 94,7 4 MEASUREMENTS 94,7 5 TREATMENTS 96. 7 5 1 Selection 96,7 5 2 Randomization and Masking 96. 7 5 3 Protocol 97,7 6 ANALYSIS 98,STATISTICAL GLOSSARY INDEX 101.
REFERENCES 109,THE AUTHORS,Terry J Reedy, Dr Terry 1 Reedy has degrees in mathematics operations research and ecology He. was a consulting statistician from 1979 to 1989 in the Biomathematics Unit of the Center for. Ulcer Research and Education in the School of Medicine University of California at Los. Angeles This work gave him broad experience with the practical problems of data analysis. in scientific research He also has experience in the problems of statistics in archaeometry. art history and conservation research He currently works as an independent consultant and. Chandra L Reedy, Dr Chandra L Reedy received her Ph D in Archaeology from the University of. California at Los Angeles in 1986 where her areas of specialization were materials analysis. and South Asian art and archaeology She did conservation research at the Los Angeles. County Museum of Art from 1986 to 1989 She currently coordinates the Ph D program and. teaches in the Art Conservation Department of the University of Delaware Her particular. interests are regional provenance studies and the role of experimental design and statistical. analysis in the study of art and art conservation, The subject of this report is experimental design for art conservation research It covers both. practical and statistical aspects of design and both laboratory experiments on art materials. and clinical experiments with art objects General principles developed in other fields are. applied to concrete research problems in conservation Problems encountered in. conservation practice illustrate the points discussed Most of the material should be. comprehensible to working conservators and conservation scientists alike. Chapters 1 and 2 set the scene by discussing conservation research and the scientific. method In broad terms an experiment is planned performed analyzed and reported The. remaining chapters generally focus on the design phase of research which comes before the. performance and analysis phases They explore possibilities for designing experiments in art. conservation but do not evaluate current practice, Chapter 3 presents designs for experiments with single objects and the corresponding. treatment randomization tests Both subjects are ignored in most books on experimental. design and statistical analysis but they are especially pertinent to conservation research The. designs formalize and extend the current practice of testing treatments on small patches. before treating a whole object The corresponding statistical tests are comprehensible. without esoteric assumptions and mathematical derivations This material should be. especially accessible to conservators without training in research and statistics. Chapter 4 systematically examines the major aspects of design goals objects. measurements and treatments In chapter 7 this scheme is used to discuss a particular. design treatment trials directly comparing two or more treatments on art objects The. authors believe that more extensive and more rigorous use of this design would benefit. conservation practice, More traditional material on experiments with groups of objects and statistical tests.
based on normal distributions and ranks is presented in chapters 5 and 6 These chapters. do not duplicate the detail found in books on these subjects However the preponderance. of scientific experiments use the simpler designs given the most attention in chapter 6 This. chapter ends with a work sheet that readers can use to design similar studies section 6 5. In spite of the focus on design there is some material on statistical data analysis One. reason is that an initial plan of analysis is part of the design Chapters 6 and 7 especially. identify for each design statistical techniques that might be part of such a plan Readers. without previous statistical experience or training will need additional help from a statistical. expert to actually do the analysis after performing the experiment Knowing the name of a. test or procedure will facilitate finding the relevant section of a statistics book or statistical. program manual and may also be useful when consulting with a statistician see section 5 4. Another reason for including statistical material is that other parts of the design are. governed by statistical considerations It is the post experiment analysis that will actually. answer the question that motivates the design Some statistical discussions especially in. Chapter 5 give optional background for understanding Some require previous statistical. knowledge and can be skipped by those without The STATISTICAL GLOSSARY. INDEX briefly defines many statistical terms and gives page references to their use in the. Our previous study and technical report Statistical Analysis in Art Conservation. Research Reedy and Reedy 1988 reviewed 320 papers from the conservation literature. covering five years of four publications It critically evaluated presentation of designs data. and statistical analyses in this body of published art conservation research Though written. first it is logically a sequel to this work It gives several examples of statistical analysis of art. conservation data and discusses issues of data organization and plotting that are not covered. This report results from a conceptual investigation combined with experience teaching. this material to art conservation graduate students It builds on and is colored by the senior. author s statistical experience which is primarily laboratory and clinical research at a. university medical school An agricultural or industrial statistician would certainly emphasize. different topics By its size it is more of an overview than a detailed compendium It is an. opening statement rather than a closing argument The authors invite reasoned reader. Acknowledgments, This work was sponsored by the Getty Conservation Institute scientific research program. We thank the students of the Art Conservation Program of the University of Delaware and. Winterthur Museum for listening to earlier drafts of this material We also thank Laurie. German Hope Gumprecht Eric Hansen Jim Druzik and Mary Striegel for their review and. CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND PRACTICE,1 1 CONSERVATION RESEARCH. Art conservation practice combines philosophy skill and knowledge Philosophy covers the. goals and evaluation of conservation practice including aesthetics questions of restoration. versus preservation and questions of reversibility versus permanence Skill comes from. hands on practice obtained in apprenticeships and training programs Knowledge can be. communicated but is originally derived from experience either accidental or deliberate This. book discusse s the design of intentional research projects aimed at increasing the knowledge. of objects materials and processes that forms the basis of art conservation practice. The purpose of research is to answer questions In the field of conservation. theoretical questions involve some aspect of conservation science Their answers add to a. developing body of scientific knowledge Practical questions deal with some phase of a. conservation project Such technological questions and their answers help achieve the goal. of the project Research can be directed at either technological or scientific questions The. principles used in research study design and experimental design can be applied to questions. of both types Both types of questions are covered in this book. To put a boundary on the subject of conservation research we require that it involve. some art object or material If several adhesives are studied in the pot by measuring. variables such as viscosity density shelf life and fume toxicity then the subject is adhesive. chemistry Even if such work is done by a conservation scientist and is relevant to. conservation practice it is not conservation science as defined here If one applies the same. adhesives to some art material and then measures properties such as strength and. discoloration then the study falls within conservation science. 1 2 CLASSIFICATION OF CONSERVATION RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 1 2 1 Phase, Conservation of an object has three possible phases. Composition Determining the composition of the object. Deterioration Determining how the object might or is most likely to deteriorate for. prevention or how it has deteriorated for remediation. Treatment Determining and applying a satisfactory treatment based upon the. information derived from the two previous phases, Composition deterioration and treatment are three major divisions or aspects of. conservation This scheme covers most studies published in the conservation literature It. is also useful as one basis for organizing research questions in conservation science. This three part categorization has direct analogies in medical science and medical. practice The study of COmposilion can be likened to anatomy and physiology which cover. the structure and function of the human body Pathology and etiology include the nature and. cause of disease delerioralion The corresponding phase of medical practice is diagnosis. Pharmacology with the attendant practice of drug prescription and surgery are two of the. subareas of medical therapeutics lrealment Medical students study all these areas of. medical science as a basis for medical practice Research in medical science continues in all. these areas,1 2 2 Study Types, Conservation questions can be divided or categorized on another basis the subject.
or type of object studied, Melhod A particular technique process or type of equipment. Objecl An art object or a few objects considered individually. Class A generic class of art objects with particular objects possibly used as. illustrative or experimental material, SUmJgale Art materials or objects made from art materials especially for the study. A class of objects can include all the objects in a large collection or a group selected. by any reasonable criterion The dividing line between an object study of a few objects and. a class study of a small group is sometimes a bit fuzzy When a group is so large that one. cannot study each object with individual attention then one is doing a class study. The key to surrogate studies is the use of art materials in place of actual art objects. Surrogate objects may be artificially aged and given possibly dangerous treatments. Occasionally old materials that have aged naturally are available Other advantages of. surrogates are the availability of as much material as needed and the freedom to do. destructive testing The disadvantage is that results must be extrapolated to real objects. sometimes with questionable validity,1 2 3 Conservation Research Problems. To make these classifications more concrete we give an example from the literature for each. of the twelve combinations of phase and type, Composition Method Quantitative determination of red anthraquinone dyes on. ancient textile fibers Wouters 1985, Object Identification of the pigments in the Peacock Room by.
Whistler Winter and FitzHugh 1985, Oass Presence of manganese black pigment on Etruscan. terracottas Schweizer and Rinuy 1982, Surrogate Discrimination between re creations of three nineteenth. century blue textile dyes Cordy and Yeh 1984, Deterioration Method Rapid determination of exhibition and storage materials. likely to tarnish silver objects Daniels and Ward 1982. Object Nature and cause of sandstone deterioration on a. reconstructed eighteenth century building in Bern,Switzerland Zehnder and Arnold 1984. Oass Contribution of various weathering processes to. deterioration of rock art inside caves Dragovich 1981. Surrogate Effect of temperature and humidity change on cracking. splitting and anisotropic movement of ivory Lafontaine. and Wood 1982, Conservation Method Rapid and easy testing of polyethylene glycol PEG.
penetration in wood stabilization Hoffmann 1983, Object The most efficacious and safe solvent reagent system for. cleaning the damaged gilding on the Door of Paradise. panels by L Ghiberti Fiorentino et al 1982, Oass The best method for eliminating chlorides from highly. corroded excavated iron objects Rinuy and Schweizer. Surrogate Effectiveness of benzotriazole BTA for inhibiting the. corrosive behavior of stripping reagents used on bronze. while still allowing the patina to be removed Merk 1981. Art Objects and Materials, A third basis for categorizing conservation projects and research is by art material and. object class Within the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. AIC there are specialty groups for book and paper paintings textiles photographic. materials objects wooden artifacts and architecture This is one possible categorization on. this basis Objects can be further subdivided into metal stone and ceramic among others. Each poses different problems of deterioration and conservation. Books works of art on paper paintings textiles and photographs are legitimate areas. of specialization each with their own problems and practices Their common feature is that. they are basically two dimensional with a thin third dimension consisting of image material. superimposed on a mechanical substrate Image materials such as ink pigment dye and. silver nitrate all have the unfortunate property that they can fade and change colors. Substrate materials such as canvas paper textile wood and plaster have the common. problem that they can lose strength and fall apart. Here is one possible classification of art materials and objects. Two Dimensional mage substrate wood,image paint,silver grains. Three Dimensional Object wood,1 3 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.
1 3 1 Literature Survey, In Statistical Analysis in Art Conservation Research Reedy and Reedy 1988 hereafter referred. to as Statistical Analysis we reported the results of a survey of over 300 articles in the. English language art conservation literature from 1980 to 1985 It used the phase and type. categories described above since they relate to many aspects of study design and analysis. In that survey research questions and the experimental designs used to answer them were. taken as given without evaluation We did look at and evaluate a statistical analysis and. b the reporting of design data and analysis Our primary purpose at that time was to. quantify categorize and evaluate the statistical methods used in conservation research. We discovered that few papers in the conservation literature had any formal statistical. content For only 10 of all papers could we say that the experimental design was such that. the statistical technique of hypothesis testing could and should have been applied For nearly. half of the studies none of our evaluation categories not even description of treatment. number was applicable because the experimental design did not allow for it. In Statistical Analysis we said that many of the studies reviewed could have been. designed to make numerical techniques and statistical analysis applicable and useful but that. design questions were beyond the scope of that volume Here we examine the. appropriateness and tradeoffs of various experimental designs in relation to conservation. research questions,1 3 2 Planning, What is experimental design In one sense it is whatever one does in an experiment It also. refers to the action of planning An experimental design is analogous to an architectural. plan One could start with the goal of building a two story house with four bedrooms three. bathrooms and a fireplace but one usually would not immediately start to build An. architectural plan would be drawn first The degree of detail for experimental designs as. with architectural plans ranges from a rough sketch to a complete finished plan. A plan requires a goal and consideration of context Chapter 2 which reviews the. scientific method discusses the scientific aspects of both goals and contexts An important. point is that a scientific experiment has to have the possibility of more than one result The. hypotheses behind the experiment should each be specific enough to be contradicted by one. of the possible results In other words scientific hypotheses have to be falsifiable. A major differentiation in study design is between experiments which manipulate or. treat objects with the intention of inducing a change and observational studies or surveys. which do not Survey measurements may cause unintentional and even undesirable changes. but these are not the focus of the study An experiment concerning the effect of treatments. must involve a new treatment that would not have been applied if the study were not done. Observation of the outcome of standard treatments that were or would be applied anyway. without the study is a survey, Since conservators take the composition of art materials and objects as given. composition studies of actual objects are surveys Composition method studies may involve. active experiments Deterioration studies of real art objects are usually surveys One can. experiment by placing objects of a class in an environment hypothesized to retard. deterioration but definitive results may take too long Deterioration experiments with. surrogate objects are more feasible because of the freedom to use accelerated aging Surveys. of treatment outcomes have uses in conservation as in medicine such as indicating areas. where improvement is most needed Treatment experiments are also possible with real. objects Chapter 3 shows how planned experimentation can be done with single objects that. are to be treated It is therefore particularly relevant for practicing art conservators. 1 3 3 Major Aspects of Experimental Design, Given the goal or question to be answered by a study the major aspects of study design. discussed in detail in Chapter 4 are, Objects Number source and method of selection or sampling.
grouping of experimental units into homogeneous blocks to. reduce the experimental error in the comparison of. treatments or populations, Variables Number measurement protocol repetition units recording. and reduction, Treatments Number organization and replication assignment to. experimental units in the design blocks application protocol. The answers to the questions implied by the list above such as How many objects largely. make up a design In this sense Chapter 4 is a step by step guide to experimental design. Unfortunately cookbook answers are not possible For example there is no simple. answer to the question of how many objects to study It depends on the variability of objects. treatments and measurements and on the desired precision of the answer Workers in. various fields develop rules of thumb Such rules should be based upon relevant experience. and statistical consideration of that experience A general answer is to use as many objects. or samples as required to get an answer that is both statistically and scientifically meaningful. Statistically more is better Scientific considerations usually give an upper limit because the. detection of very small differences is often unimportant For instance conservators would. typically not consider it worthwhile to do enough samples to detect a 1 difference in decay. half life between two treatments At some point it is scientifically more worthwhile to finish. and publish the experiment and go on to the next Economic and career considerations also. come into play, Chapter 5 gathers discussions of some particular points of statistical analysis related. to the major aspects of experimental design These include problems of measurement. repetitions estimation of curve parameters inference and hypothesis testing tests based on. normal distributions tests based on ranks and working with statisticians It is not a full. discussion of statistical analysis It can easily be supplemented by any of the numerous books. on statistical analysis available in libraries There is also additional material in Statistical.

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