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A Critique of Political Economy,Volume III,The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole. Edited by Friedrich Engels, Written Karl Marx 1863 1883 edited by Friedrick Engels and completed by him 11 years after. Marx s death,Source Institute of Marxism Leninism USSR 1959. Publisher International Publishers NY n d,First Published 1894. On Line Version Marx org 1996 Marxists org 1999, Transcribed in 1996 by Hinrich Kuhls Dave Walters and Zodiac and by Tim Delaney and M Griffin.
in 1999 HTML Markup Zodiac 1996 Tim Delaney and M Griffin in 1999. Proofed and Corrected by Chris Clayton 2006 7 Mark Harris 2010. Table of Contents,Preface Engels 1894 5, Part I The Conversion of Surplus Value into Profit and of the Rate of Surplus Value into. the Rate of Profit 19,Chapter 1 Cost Price and Profit 19. Chapter 2 The Rate of Profit 28, Chapter 3 The Relation of the Rate of Profit to the Rate of Surplus Value 33. Chapter 4 The Effect of the Turnover on the Rate of Profit 46. Chapter 5 Economy in the Employment of Constant Capital 50. I In General 50, II Savings In Labour Conditions At The Expense Of The Labourers 56. III Economy In The Generation And Transmission Of Power And In Buildings 65. IV Utilisation Of The Excretions Of Production 71,V Economy Through Inventions 74.
Chapter 6 The Effect of Price Fluctuation 76, I Fluctuations in the Price of Raw Materials and their Direct Effects on the Rate of Profit 76. II Appreciation Depreciation Release And Tie Up Of Capital 79. III General Illustration The Cotton Crisis Of 1861 65 88. Experiments in corpore vili 104,Chapter 7 Supplementary Remarks 108. Part II Conversion of Profit into Average Profit 110. Chapter 8 Different Compositions of Capitals in Different Branches of Production and. Resulting Differences in Rates of Profit 110, Chapter 9 Formation of a General Rate of Profit Average Rate of Profit and Transformation. of the Values of Commodities into Prices of Production 118. Chapter 10 Equalisation of the General Rate of Profit Through Competition Market Prices. and Market Values Surplus Profit 130, Chapter 11 Effects of General Wage Fluctuations on Prices of Production 146. Chapter 12 Supplementary Remarks 149, I Causes Implying a Change in the Price of Production 149.
II Price of Production of Commodities of Average Composition 150. III The Capitalist s Grounds for Compensating 150, Part III The Law of the Tendency of the Rate of Profit to Fall 153. Chapter 13 The Law As Such 153,Chapter 14 Counteracting Influences 165. I Increasing Intensity Of Exploitation 165, II Depression Of Wages Below The Value Of Labour Power 167. III Cheapening Of Elements Of Constant Capital 167. IV Relative Over Population 167,V Foreign Trade 168. VI The Increase Of Stock Capital 169, Chapter 15 Exposition of the Internal Contradictions of the Law 171.
I General 171, II Conflict Between Expansion Of Production And Production Of Surplus Value 174. III Excess Capital And Excess Population 176,IV Supplementary Remarks 182. Part IV Conversion of Commodity Capital and Money Capital into Commercial Capital. and Money Dealing Capital Merchant s Capital 187,Chapter 16 Commercial Capital 187. Chapter 17 Commercial Profit 195, Chapter 18 The Turnover of Merchant s Capital Prices 208. Chapter 19 Money Dealing Capital 216, Chapter 20 Historical Facts about Merchant s Capital 221.
Part V Division of Profit into Interest and Profit of Enterprise Interest Bearing Capital 230. Chapter 21 Interest Bearing Capital 230, Chapter 22 Division of Profit Rate of Interest Natural Rate of Interest 243. Chapter 23 Interest and Profit of Enterprise 252, Chapter 24 Externalization of the Relations of Capital in the Form of Interest Bearing Capital. Chapter 25 Credit and Fictitious Capital 274, Chapter 26 Accumulation of Money Capital Its Influence on the Interest Rate 293. Chapter 27 The Role of Credit in Capitalist Production 315. Chapter 28 Medium of Circulation and Capital Views of Tooke and Fullarton 320. Chapter 29 Component Parts of Bank Capital 333,Chapter 30 Money Capital and Real Capital I 343. Chapter 31 Money Capital and Real Capital II 355,Transformation Of Money Into Loan Capital 355.
2 Transformation Of Capital Or Revenue Into Money That Is Transformed Into Loan. Capital 362,Chapter 32 Money Capital and Real Capital III 364. Chapter 33 The Medium of Circulation in the Credit System 375. Chapter 34 The Currency Principle and the English Bank Legislation of 1844 401. Chapter 35 Precious Metal and Rate of Exchange 420. I Movement Of The Gold Reserve 420,II The Rate Of Exchange 426. Rate Of Exchange With Asia 428,England s Balance Of Trade 439. Chapter 36 Pre Capitalist Relationships 443,Interest In The Middle Ages 454. Advantages Derived By The Church From The Prohibition Of Interest 457. Part VI Transformation of Surplus Profit into Ground Rent 460. Chapter 37 Introduction 460,Chapter 38 Differential Rent General Remarks 478.
Chapter 39 First Form of Differential Rent Differential Rent I 484. Chapter 40 Second Form of Differential Rent Differential Rent II 500. Chapter 41 Differential Rent II First Case Constant Price of Production 507. Chapter 42 Differential Rent II Second Case Falling Price of Production 512. I Productivity of the additional investment of capital remains the same 512. II Decreasing rate of productivity of the additional capital 517. III Rising rate of productivity of the additional capital 518. Chapter 43 Differential Rent II Third Case Rising Price of Production 523. Chapter 44 Differential Rent Also on the Worst Cultivated Soil 544. Chapter 45 Absolute Ground Rent 550, Chapter 46 Building Site Rent Rent in Mining Price of Land 565. Chapter 47 Genesis of Capitalist Ground Rent 571,I Introductory Remarks 571. II Labour rent 575,III Rent In Kind 577,IV Money Rent 579. V M tayage And Peasant Proprietorship Of Land Parcels 582. Part VII Revenues and their Sources 590,Chapter 48 The Trinity Formula 590. Chapter 49 Concerning the Analysis of the Process of Production 601. Chapter 50 Illusions Created By Competition 613, Chapter 51 Distribution Relations and Production Relations 628.
Chapter 52 Classes 633,Supplement by Frederick Engels 634. Introduction 634,Law of Value and Rate of Profit 634. The Stock Exchange 644,Preface Engels 1894, At last I have the privilege of making public this third book of Marx s main work the conclusion. of the theoretical part When I published the second volume in 1885 I thought that except for a. few certainly very important sections the third volume would probably offer only technical. difficulties This was indeed the case But I had no idea at the time that these sections the most. important parts of the entire work would give me as much trouble as they did just as I did not. anticipate the other obstacles which were to retard completion of the work to such an extent. Next and most important of all it was my eye weakness which for years restricted my writing. time to a minimum and which even now permits me to write by artificial light only in. exceptional cases Furthermore there were other pressing labours which could not be turned. down such as new editions and translations of Marx s and my own earlier works hence reviews. prefaces and supplements often impossible without fresh study etc Above all there was the. English edition of the first volume of this work for whose text I am ultimately responsible and. which consequently consumed much of my time Whoever has in any way followed the colossal. growth of international socialist literature during the last ten years particularly the great number. of translations of Marx s and my own earlier works will agree with me that I have been lucky. that the number of languages in which I could be of help to the translators and therefore could. not refuse in all conscience to review their work is very limited But the growth of literature was. merely indicative of a corresponding growth of the international working class movement itself. And this imposed new obligations upon me From the first days of our public activity it was Marx. and I who shouldered the main burden of the work as go betweens for the national movements of. Socialists and workers in the various countries This work expanded in proportion to the. expansion of the movement as a whole Up to the time of his death Marx had borne the brunt of. the burden in this as well But after his death the ever increasing bulk of work had to be done by. myself alone Since then it has become the rule for the various national workers parties to. establish direct contacts and this is fortunately ever more the case Yet requests for my assistance. are still far more frequent than I would wish in view of my theoretical work But if a man has. been active in the movement for more than fifty years as I have been he regards the work. connected with it as a bounden duty that brooks no delay In our eventful time just as in the 16th. century pure theorists on social affairs are found only on the side of reaction and for this reason. they are not even theorists in the full sense of the word but simply apologists of reaction. In view of the fact that I live in London my party contacts are limited to correspondence in. winter while in summer they are largely personal This fact and the necessity of following the. movement in a steadily growing number of countries and a still more rapidly growing number of. press organs have compelled me to reserve matters which permit no interruption for completion. during the winter months and primarily the first three months of the year When a man is past. seventy his Meynert s association fibres of the brain function with annoying prudence He no. longer surmounts interruptions in difficult theoretical problems as easily and quickly as before It. came about therefore that the work of one winter if it was not completed had to be largely begun. anew the following winter This was the case with the most difficult fifth part. As the reader will observe from the following the work of editing the third volume was. essentially different from that of editing the second In the case of the third volume there was. nothing to go by outside a first extremely incomplete draft The beginnings of the various parts. were as a rule pretty carefully done and even stylistically polished But the farther one went the. more sketchy and incomplete was the manuscript the more excursions it contained into arising. side issues whose proper place in the argument was left for later decision and the longer and. more complex the sentences in which thoughts were recorded in statu nascendi In some places. handwriting and presentation betrayed all too clearly the outbreak and gradual progress of the. attacks of ill health caused by overwork which at the outset rendered the author s work. increasingly difficult and finally compelled him periodically to stop work altogether And no. wonder Between 1863 and 1867 Marx not only completed the first draft of the two last volumes. of Capital and prepared the first volume for the printer but also performed the enormous work. connected with the founding and expansion of the International Workingmen s Association As a. result already in 1864 and 1865 ominous signs of ill health appeared which prevented Marx from. personally putting the finishing touches to the second and third volumes. I began my work by dictating into readable copy the entire manuscript which was often hard to. decipher even for me This alone required considerable time It was only then that I could start on. the actual editing I limited this to the essential I tried my best to preserve the character of the. first draft wherever it was sufficiently clear I did not even eliminate repetitions wherever they. as was Marx s custom viewed the subject from another standpoint or at least expressed the same. thought in different words Wherever my alterations or additions exceeded the bounds of editing. or where I had to apply Marx s factual material to independent conclusions of my own if even as. faithful as possible to the spirit of Marx I have enclosed the entire passage in brackets and. affixed my initials Some of my footnotes are not enclosed in brackets but wherever I have. initialled them I am responsible for the entire note. As is only to be expected in a first draft there are numerous allusions in the manuscript to points. which were to have been expanded upon later without these promises always having been kept I. have left them because they reveal the author s intentions relative to future elaboration. Now as to details, As regards the first part the main manuscript was serviceable only with substantial limitations. The entire mathematical calculation of the relation between the rate of surplus value and the rate. of profit which makes up our Chapter III is introduced in the very beginning while the subject. treated in our Chapter I is considered later and as the occasion arises Two attempts at revising. each of them eight pages in folio were useful here But even these did not possess the desired. continuity throughout They furnished the substance for what is now Chapter I Chapter II is. taken from the main manuscript There was a series of uncompleted mathematical calculations for. Chapter III as well as a whole almost complete note book dating from the seventies which. Karl Marx Capital A Critique of Political Economy Volume III The Process of Capitalist Production as a Whole Edited by Friedrich Engels Written Karl Marx 1863 1883 ed

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