Pollinating Bees Crucial To Farming Wildflower Seed For U-Books Pdf

Pollinating bees crucial to farming wildflower seed for U
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50 Bee Provided Delivery Services, r Pollinating Bees Crucial to Farming Wildflower Seed 51. by western land managers to rehabilitate the hundreds of thousands of hectares that southeast They were chosen in part for being regionally widespread common within. annually burn in the Great Basin and adjacent biomes Scott Lambert National Seed native plant communities broadly adapted at mid and lower elevations tolerant offire. Coordinator Bureau of Land Management 2007 personal communication The sage and palatable to wildlife and for having practical promise for farming e g mechanical. grouse is hoped to be a major beneficiary this endemic bird is otherwise fast becoming harvest By harnessing the efficiencies and reliability of modern agriculture the hope is. endangered Native shrub seed for such restoration continues to be harvested directly to dramatically boost seed production while slashing seed costs. from nature Though cost effective for shrubs wild harvest is impractical and unreliable. for native wildflowers as it yields paltry quantities of expensive seed For example wild. harvested seed of Hedysarwll boreale was recently being marketed for US 110 per kilo Applied Pollination Paradigms. gram and that of Sphaeralcea ambigua for US 180 per kilogram Budgetary constraints. and harvest inefficiencies will forever limit the volumes of most wild harvested wild For the successful farming of wildflower seed each flowering crop s pollination needs. flower seed that can be bought to satisfy these reseeding programs must be understood and satisfied by practical means Three of the four approaches to. A cadre of iunovative commercial growers are farming fields of the native grasses agricultural pollination are relevant and context specific 1 renting hives of managed. and more recently experimentally farming several of the native wildflower species honey bees 2 managing nesting of nonsocial bees in provided substrates and 3 prac. desired for restoration seed With the advent of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection ticing on farm pollinator stewardship to favor unmanaged nesting populations oflocal. and Increase Project in 2001 farming practices are being developed for 16 eudicot wild bee communities The fourth alternative which is purchasing disposable hives of. flowering species table 4 1 native to the Intermountain Region especially the Great bumble bees will likely prove impractical for reasons discussed herein A novel mix of. Basin but including the Columbia Plateau to the north and the Colorado Plateau to the these pollination strategies is being developed for farmed wildflowers. Applied pollination ecology is practiced in two traditional arenas agriculture and. wildflower conservation Their unusual marriage in this program brings novel chal. Table 4 1 Wildflower species desired for rangeland rehabilitation lenges and opportunities In agriculture extensive mono cultures of food forage and. in the U S Intermountain West fiber crops are farmed far beyond their geographic points of origin Most pollinated. crops are either herbaceous annuals or woody perennials such as orchard fruits Each. Family Species crop s pollination needs and benefits are generally well understood Free 1993 Klein. Apiaceae et al 2007 Most crops are derived from decades if not centuries of artificial selec. Lomatill111 dissectum Nntt Math Const, tion and sometimes controlled hybridization Prolonged plant breeding often modified. L triternatum Pnrsh Coult Rose their reproductive biologies inadvertently or intentionally eliminating physiological or. Asteraceae Balsamorhiza sagittata pnrsh Nutt mechanical barriers to selfing while favoring passive autopollination The wild progeni. Crepis acuminata Nutt tors of a few crop species are extinct e g onions Allium cepa and with them knowl. Cleomaceae edge of their former natural pollinator faunas. Cleome lutea Hook, Farming Great Basin wildflowers for restoration seed contrasts sharply with farming. C serrulata Pnrsh our traditional crops with profound consequences for pollination needs and pollinator. Fabaceae Astragalus jilipes Torr management Only two of the species are annuals the rest are perennial but herbaceous. Dalea ornatll1ll Dougl Barrieby They are being grown in or near their native geographic ranges We are ignorant of their. pollination needs and benefits often for entire genera sometimes even for tribes Cane. D searlsiae Gray Barneby, 2005 2006a or families e g Cleomaceae The Association of Seed Certification Agencies. Hedysarum boreale Nutt AOSCA has promulgated new standards and protocols for native seed collection and cer. Lupinus argenteus Pnrsh tification called the source identified class It dictates 5 generations in cultivation before. 1 sericeus Pursh returning to geographically explicit wild seed sources Artificial and inadvertent selection. Malvaceae are being minimized and genetic diverSity maintained in order to retain regional adapta. Sphaeralcea grossularifolia H A Rydb, tions relevant for wildflower establishment once seeded back into wildlands These objec.
S munroana Dougl Spach tives strategies and problems have no precedent in agriculture although the tools and. Plantaginaceae Penstemon speciosus Dougl farming practices are mostly borrowed and adapted from traditional agriculture. Polygonaceae Eriogonum umbellatll1ll Torr The second realm of applied pollination ecology addresses the breeding and polli. nation biology of wildflowers in a context of species conservation Most of the funding. 52 Bee Provided Delivery Services, focuses on specific threatened or endangered plant species growing in situ Failed sexual. reproduction has been a tenable explanatory hypothesis for rarity of endangered wild Gleome serrulala. flowers but more recent accumulating evidence implicates other factors primarily hab Gleome Jutea. itat loss for the endangerment of most continental flowering species that are pollinated Eriogonum umbel alum. by insects Tepedino 2000 Unlike crop plants these rare wildflowers enjoy adequate Penslemon speciasus. natural pollination service partly because their floral densities fall far short of those. Balsamorhiza sagittala, experienced in cropped monocultures and so the densities of unmanaged wild pollina. Astragalus filipes, tors typically suffice Many ecologically important plant genera lack such endangered. species or they have not been studied Consequently studies of endangered wildflowers. leave us surprisingly ignorant of the breeding biologies and pollinators of the numerous Lomalium. Daleadisseclum, native wildflowers that dominate plant communities targeted for ecological restoration Hedysarum boreale. Cane 2006a including those of the Great Basin Thus neither agricultural nor con. servation contexts for applied pollination research provide a satisfactory blueprint to o 20x 40x 60x BOx 100x 120. address pollination needs of farmed native wildflowers whose harvested seed will later Reproductive Gain With Pollinators. be used to rehabilitate and restore native plant communities. Figure 4 2 Western wildflowers grown for rangeland resto ation and their requirements. for pollinators Using seed yield per inflorescence reproductive gam was c alculated as the. average yield of seeds from flowers open to pollinator visits divided by the YIeld from flowers. Pollination Needs bagged in mesh netting that excluded pollinators but allowed wind poll ation and autopol. lination Treatluents were either paired within plants or randomly asslgned among plants. Pollinator numbers were not supplemented Note that the abscissa is a multiplier not a. None of these Great Basin wildflowers that are under study in this project is wind pol percentage. linated and none proliferates vegetatively Only one species Crepis acuminata can set. considerable seed without pollinators most of its populations include numerous poly. ploid individuals that can reproduce asexually through apomixis Babcock Stebbins. 1938 Even for the more self fertile species comparatively little seed results from auto. pollination unaided pollen transfer figure 4 2 The two Cleome species constitute a par. fI II II 1, tial exception as mechanical jostling of densely grown flowering stands nearly doubled.
Hedysarum boreale p, fruit set in cages 37 vs 19 Cane 2008 Nevertheless all nine species studied at my. laboratory have produced dramatically more seed with pollinator visitation see figure Gleome lulea. 4 2 Northern sweetvetch Hedysarum boreale sets no fruit or seed at all if pollinators are. excluded from its flowers Swoboda 2007 The species also vary in their degrees of self Gleame serrulala 1111111111. fertility a trait useful for colonization Outcrossing has yielded more modest gains in Balsamorhiza sagittala. seed or fruit prodUction figure 4 3 These gains are nonetheless substantial For exam. Penslemon speciosus, ple outcrossing by Astragalus jilipes doubles seed yields and could thereby halve seed. prices from the same field For a few cases such as H boreale flowers pollinated freely Dalea purpurea. by bees set more seed than even our manual outcrossing treatments suggesting further. Astragalus fiJipes, nuances for maximal seed set Swoboda 2007 Overall if literally tons of wildflower. seed will be produced cheaply and profitably then fruit and seed set mustbe maximized 3 0. 0 0 0 5x 1 0x 1 5x 2 0x 2 5x, through judicious use of reliably abundant and effective pollinators. Reproductive Gain With Cross Pollination, Pollinator guilds of each of these wildflower species consist exclUSively of insects For.
12 species I have systematically sampled 1 6 floral visitor guilds in 1 3 states along Figure 4 3 Self fertility of western wildflowers grown for rangeland restoration in the. with any bees in our experimental common garden in Logan Utah Native bees some Western United States Flowers netted or caged to exclude insect visits were manually pol. times joined by honey bees dominate most of the guilds with up to 29 bee species repre linated with pollen from either the same or a different plant Plants 8 25 per species were. sented in pooled guild samples of no more than 200 individuals The small floral visitor grouped for each replicate treatluent. 54 Bee Provided Delivery Services r Pollinating Bees Crucial to Farming Wildflower Seed 55. guild at Penstel11ol1 speciOSLlS constitutes one exception Its two specialist OSl11ia bees are 5 Lastly honey bees may be ineffective pollinators for a given wildflower species For. joined by another prominent visitor and likely pollinator the pollen wasp Pseudol11asaris these reasons honey bees will be impractical pollimitors for some native wildflower. vespoides Masaridae which frequents flowers of this genus Tepedino 1979 The two seed crops. Cleol11e species are again exceptional too their prodigious and accessible nectar attract. ing diverse nectarivorous insects primarily butterflies bees and wasps Their wild pop For a few traditional crops nontraditional bees are s perior pollinators and can be. ulations have yet to be systematically sampled Curiously although these Cleol11e flowers effectively managed in the large numbers that are needed Sometimes these alternative. are visited and readily pollinated diurnally I have found that their anthers dehisce and pollinators are useful only in particular cultural or economic contexts for a given crop. stigmas become receptive nocturnally Cane 2008 In desert basins but not at the such as the use of OSl11ia comifrons Megachilidae to pollinate apples only in Japan or. common garden their flowers might also be visited by moths The other wildflowers are the use of several BOl11bus species whose commercial colonies are shipped great distances. all diurnally pollinated Overall it has become clear that each of these wildflower spe to pollinate tomatoes in North America Europe and the Mediterranean but only in. cies needs pollinators Bees are the predominant and diverse group of visitors populat greenhouses see chapters 3 and 9 this volume Whatever the pollinator economics and. ing nearly all of their floral guilds Bees seem likely therefore to be generally essential practical considerations for managing the bees and the crop constrain our options for. for these wildflowers seed prodUction, reliably supplying large numbers of dedicated pollinators to a given crop monoculture. Pollinator Options Bumble Bees, My bee surveys revealed bumble bees to be often ubiqUitous and sometimes common. Honey Bees members of these wildflowers pollinator guilds They avidly visit and effectively pol. The European honey bee Apis l11ellifera continues to be the versatile workhorse of agri linate two of the four species of legumes Astragalus jilipes and Hedysarwn boreale In. cultural pollinators In many developed countries hives of honey bees are typically our common garden and in trial cultivation plots unmanaged bumble bees also have. rented from profeSSional migratory beekeepers who transport palletized hives to pol proven to be excellent pollinators of Penstel110n speciosus although they were not seen at. linate sequentially flowering crops Honey bees are therefore the obvious default choice this Penstel110n in the wild Stewardship of unmanaged humble bee populations in and. to pollinate farm fields of wildflowers too Even at a rental cost of US 100 per hive a around native seed farms see chapter 2 this volume might therefore pay dividends in. strong colony s 10 000 foragers are cheap each rented forager costing the grower seed yields to growers However commercial bumble bee colonies are costly for open. In response federal agencies distributed more than 6 500 metrIC tons of seed Since the 19 70s the reseeding mixes have consisted of about one third each of exotic grasses native grasses and native shrubs Monsen amp Shaw 2001 Nativeflo er seed constituted a mere 0 5 of the mix most of that being a native yarrow Achillea millefolium L Dramatically more wildflower seed about 150 tons

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