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Politeness Ideology in Thai Computer mediated Communication
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in Thai CMC How is Thai culture affected by the rising use of CMC and how this affection can be seen in. the usage of linguistic politeness Finally how does this affection tell us about some of the theories of. CMC politeness and culture, We looked at a number of computer mediated texts at various discussion tables at pantip com. and found that the Thai members of this community show a significant amount of politeness toward one. another This is rather surprising given that CMC usually entails a greater chance for impoliteness to occur. Flaming is a well known phenomenon in this genre Perhaps this is due to the guiding hands of the. moderator and the web master However it appears that most participants prefer things to be this way as they. are active in reporting messages that violate the rules to the web master Politeness therefore appears to be. consciously maintained It is as Gino Eelen argues a part of social reality which is consciously built up and. maintained through interaction among human beings Eelen 2001 245 247. In this paper we begin by offering a discussion of the various theories of politeness and relevant. works particularly those dealing with CMC Then we present the data and offer our analysis of them We will. try to show that there is a sense in which the universalist and particularistic tendencies in looking at. politeness can be reconciled and politeness as a means by which a group maintains their solidarity exists. simultaneously at both levels,2 Theoretical Construction of Politeness. There is the notion of politeness among the common people who are engaged in their everyday. business and counter polite or impolite interactions To these people politeness is what they find pleasing. or what they find in manner rulebooks On the other hand the notion has become a technical one a subject. of scholarly debates Watts Ide and Ehlich 1992 have called this first order and second order politeness. respectively Ideally the two notions should be able to merge into one as the subject studied should reflect. what is going on in the real world of human interaction However as the technicality of the investigation. increases there are chances that the two notions do not necessarily reflect each other. The tendency for empirical description and theoretical idealization to branch out is a case in. point for politeness research The empirical description focuses on what people actually do when they are. polite to one another and what they take politeness to be The theoretical idealization e g Lakoff 1973. Leech 1983 Brown and Levinson 1978 1987 Meier 1995 Arundale 1999 aims largely at comprehending. the situation proposing models with which one could gain a general insight which would be supported by. the real empirical data Ideally there should be a balance between the theorization and the empirical data. That is the theory should fit the data perfectly However the perfect fit is itself a theoretical construction as. no theory could ever fit all the possible data perfectly If it did it would just cease to be a theory. Nevertheless the theory cannot be too remote from the data for what we are now doing is to investigate. politeness as it actually appears in real human interaction not as an idle game of speculation The. requirement is only that the theory be adequate to the data involved. The reason why we have discussed the role and distinction between theory and data here is that. as politeness can be both common sense and theoretical notion one is likely if one is unaware to confuse. between the two Held 1992 Either one is describing what one already takes to be politeness in the data or. one is theorizing on what politeness should actually be based on what one takes politeness to be a priori. The common example in Thai of performing formal behaviors to one s friends using high language only to. be interpreted as being utterly impolite shows that the definition of politeness is a contested matter 2. Furthermore Brown and Levinson s model person is also a theoretical construction and as such this. notion is liable to criticism that the model person represents a Western perspective and way of talking. Ide 1989 As Kienpointner 1999 points out politeness appears to reflect an ideology and so do the. various current theories of politeness 3,3 Politeness in Computer Mediated Communication. As the Internet and CMC are becoming a fact of life politeness theories need to be reevaluated as. to their adequacy for this new medium One of the most salient aspects of CMC is the fact that participants. usually lack cues through which mistakes in understandings could be minimized Most forms of CMC. especially the most popular ones such as e mails and bulletin boards are text based 4 Though there are more. advanced technologies which have ameliorated the situation by enabling large graphics and sounds to be. transmitted the practice is still not widespread and requires a large amount of resources Thus the study of. politeness in CMC at present is limited to what is there in the texts themselves. Herring 1996 studied gender differences in CMC in the US and found that females are more. geared toward maintaining positive politeness whereas males are more attuned to the adversarial or. anarchistic nature of the medium Both groups moreover appear to be roughly equal in terms of. maintaining negative politeness Herring s findings appear to reflect the cultural bias of the US If one agrees. that politeness is itself an ideology then Herring s findings seem to be circumscribed by contemporary. American culture Simmons 1999 agrees with Herring in that negative politeness appears to be maintained. in American CMC He argues that list moderators play a crucial role in creating the identity of the list. Simmons 1999 540 5, Both works show that although CMC is an impoverished medium there exists at least a level. of politeness and that negative politeness is to be found more often than its positive counterpart More. recently Ulla Bunz and Scott Campbell have shown that e mail messages that contain politeness indicators. are more likely to elicit polite responses Bunz and Campbell 2002 However the data for these findings. are all based on discussions by Americans This is understandable because Americans have dominated the. Internet to a very large extent and it is only recently that other countries have come to the scene Thus any. theoretical constructions on CMC have so far been based on assumptions and values of American culture. Hence data from CMC in other languages and obtained from cultures different from the American one are. necessary if one is to found a universal theory on CMC politeness. 4 Netiquettes at Pantip com, As politeness is traditionally linked to social norms or etiquettes it is fitting to examine.
politeness in cyberspace through their counterparts or the netiquettes Pantip com also has its own set of. netiquettes translated as follows, 1 Messages critical of the King and his royal family are absolutely prohibited. 2 Do not post messages which contain foul language and sexually explicit content. 3 Do not post messages which are intended to cause a person to be insulted hated by others. without citing a clear source of reference, 4 Do not post messages which are challenging or inciting with the intention of causing. quarrels or chaos on this web site whereas the source of these quarrels or chaos is not due to. free expression of opinions by a self respecting person. 5 Do not post messages which attack or criticize in a negative way any religions or the. teachings of any religion, 6 Do not use pseudonyms which resemble somebody else s real name with the intention of. misleading others to think that the original owner of the name will be damaged or lose his or. her reputation, 7 Do not post messages which might cause conflicts among educational institutions. 8 Do not post messages containing the personal data of others such as pager number e mail. addresses or telephone numbers with the intention of causing troubles to the owner of the. data Posting of pager number is especially prohibited since this is the easiest way for others. to cause troubles, Source http pantip inet co th cafe frame rule html.
Herring 1996 132 137 finds that the netiquettes of an online group embody the cultures and. values of that group Hence it is quite clear that these eight netiquettes embody the culture and values of the. pantip com community It is also clear that they embody the peculiarities or uniqueness of Thai culture The. first rule the injunction against criticisms of the King and the royal family is serious and strictly enforced. Since the King is always regarded with highest respect this rule can be seen as a reflection of the value. system of the Thai people This obligatory rule may be regarded as an instance of discernment operating in. Thai culture The second rule concerns what Thai people observe to be a level of civility one shows toward. another Refraining from foul language corresponds to what ordinary people call politeness. These netiquettes may be classified according to which kind of politeness each of them is. enhancing Rules 1 and 5 could be seen as reflections of the uniquely Thai culture and value system and. may perhaps be considered as part of the Thai politeness ideology As Thais hold the King and Buddhism. and other religions very high politeness in this case naturally at least involves respecting these rules Rule. 2 also concerns the value system as sex and foul language are not acceptable to most Thai participants. Rules 3 4 6 and 8 could be regarded as a means by which negative politeness is maintained All of them are. related to not violating the private space of others in one way or another Rule 7 reflects the peculiar Thai. situation Most Thai surfers are young and they are still in high schools or colleges The students are so. strongly attached to their schools or colleges to the extent that arguments and disagreements concerning. educational institutions can flare up and become violent rather easily. The emphasis on the content whether it is the monarchy religion school or sex shows that the. notion politeness should not only be limited to linguistic forms and strategies but include topics of talks. which are generally considered polite in the discourse community What is considered polite is what is not. contradictory to what people believe To criticize the King is considered impolite in Thai culture no matter. how attenuated or how mitigated one s talk is One positive strategy posited by Brown and Levinson pay. notices to the hearer s needs wants attentions and interests is indeed essential in Thai culture. 5 Politeness in Pantip com, As mentioned earlier our data are drawn from discussion tables at pantip com The one we are. most interested in is Waakor Table which raises a number of more serious issues dealing with problems. about science life politics and religions The reason we pay a special attention to this table is because its. contributions are substantial and as it is a forum for serious topics it is interesting to see how participants. criticize one another The table works by an interested writer posing a krathuu question or discussion. point to the table Each krathuu is in form of a short question or a short statement followed by an. explanation Some krathuus are short lived they attract only one response or no response at all. Interestingly successful krathuus such as 1 drew as many as 42 interactions lasting for four consecutive. days The Thai data are omitted here for brevity,Does Buddhism teach irrationality. The topic sure attracts a lot of interest doesn t it laugh. Buddhism teaches that everyone was born to pay for their past karmas and to create. new ones There are both good karmas and bad ones These karmas are the reasons why. we were born into the condition we are in today If the causes heet made by us are. good then we receive good effects phon but if the causes are bad then we get bad. things However it is our cycles are only limited to creating causes and getting effects. and creating new causes again What do we have to do to stop rebirths To do that we. need to understand the causes the causes that we make because we are deluded into. thinking that they are good We are deluded into believing that the world and our. emotions are real When we truly understand the causes when we understand that what. we take to be ours our selves our husbands our wives our homes are only our own. constructions then we will stop creating new causes That is we will stop the greed. anger and delusion because we will know that in reality there is absolutely nothing. that is ours When the mind is indifferent to the causes then the effects will not. happen That person will then be released from the samsara This is why I said that. Buddhism teaches us not to be rational actually not to create the cycle of causes. and effects anymore, Sip Et Luuk Maak Phyayom 27 October B E 2542 1999 19 24 32. There are two characteristics with this post First it is exceptionally long Second it is ambiguous The first. characteristic does not seem to annoy participants 6 None of them commented on this issue They all paid. attention to the second point The trouble lies in the use of the word he etpho n This word means reason or. rationality however it is a compound consisting of two words he et cause and pho n effect Thus when. the raiser of this topic who carries a pseudonym Sip Et Luuk Maak Phyayom hearafter SEL said that. Buddhism teaches us not to have he etpho n he is being ambiguous What he should have meant is that. Buddhism teaches us not to take hold of the relation between causes and effects. The ambiguity leads to intense discussions Many participants attack SEL for apparently. insulting Buddhism,1 I read your krathuu and was amazed. 2 But when I finished I found that what you,thought was very shallow.
3 If you say that what you are thinking is only a,playful thing then I won t say anything. 4 But if you really believe what you are writing,then I think you need to go back and read. theTripitaka the Buddhist canon,5 I believe that you are not saying that our. religion is irrational,6 But please be careful of the wording in your. Templar 27 Oct B E 2542 20 32 45, It is quite obvious that SEL s krathuu is not intended as a troll which is known in the Net.
community as incendiary messages posted on the board just to elicit heated responses and no serious. exchanges of views and ideas SEL appeared rather serious in his opinions However Templar T accused. him for having shallow thought He mitigated his remark by phrasing the comment in a if clause he could. bear with the krathuu if SEL was not serious about what he thought But it is interesting to note that SEL s. message is not interpreted by any participants as violating to Rule 5 of the above mentioned netiquettes T. adds that he does not believe that SEL means what he apparently said. 1 Hey friend read it carefully to see what,he etpho n here means laugh. 2 he etpho n here is not reason or rationality,3 But it is he et cause and pho n effect. separately,4 We call it cause and effect,5 Buddhism has reasons. 6 But it teaches people not to have causes and,Sip Et Luuk Maak Phyayom 27 Oct B E 2542. Explaining what he really meant SEL tried not to let the atmosphere become too heated We can see this in. the use of the injunction hey a marker of surprise in the opening of the message He also addressed his. addressee as a ph an friend This word can be used as a term of address when one talks to friends apart. from a wide range of pronominal devices available in the language. In 2 T represents himself as pho m a general polite pronoun for men and addresses his. addressee as khu n a polite counterpart of pho m which can be used for both men and women This pair of. pronouns is most common in all discussion tables This is not surprising given that pho m and khu n are. the most useful pronouns when the speaker does not know the identity of the addressee In general such. information as age social status degree of intimacy and type of situation is needed in order to determine. which pronominal choice is appropriate However this information is utterly missing in mediated. In line 2 in 3 SEL calls T s attention by addressing him as tha n instead of khu n tha n or tha an. is a formal second person pronoun which can be used as either a singular or plural marker It is mostly. found in writing and is often used as an impersonal pronoun for example in addressing general readers or. audiences In conversation it is employed as a term of reference when the speaker wants to refer to someone. who is respectable In 3 SEL manipulates the use of this pronoun It is not used as a formal marker Instead. it indicates the speaker s playful mood and his attempt to befriend with the addressee but at the same time. respects him, Interestingly we found that several contributors expressed their sympathies with SEL.
1 I sympathize with the topic raiser, 2 Many people can t get hold of the differences between your two words he etpho n. and he et pho n,3 Bear with it pal,4 Anyway take a good care of your. Song 28 Oct B E 2542 00 03 55, In 4 it is clear that Song is solacing SEL by mentioning that he feels smypathetic with him and he asks the. latter to be patient He addresses SEL as a pal thus emphasing comraderie within the group Moreover his. admonition for SEL to take care of his lu uk ma ak prostate glands which is part of his pseudonym. mimicking the title of a Chinese movie is a humorous one which lessens the impact of the disagreements. and the verbal attacks being levelled against him,1 I come to give you moral support Than. 2 You almost paid it all up for the karma which,you intended to confuse other people.
3 Be patient laugh, 4 But I Maya got it as soon as I first glanced at it. that Khun Phyayom set up the krathuu to,excite people. 5 And then when I saw our friends attack him a,6 I thought to myself whether they attacked just. for the fun of it,7 to respond to what the raiser of the krathuu. wanted to see,8 I also did that too sometimes laugh.
Maya 28 October B E 2542 13 16 02, Similarly Maya in 5 states clearly that she is writing to give SEL s moral support What is. striking in this example is how she addresses herself She refers to herself using the first name Maya First. names and nicknames in Thai are hardly used in formal situations and first encounters That this writer opts. to refer to herself as Maya is a clear indication that she does not consider SEL and we believe other. participants as well a stranger, There is a high sense of camaraderie in theis web site This is confirmed by the existence of such. labels as chaaw pantip and chaaw waakor constantly used among the participants and by the web master. The prefix chaaw marks a group of people as in the word chaaw thai Thai people Chaaw waakor may. not know one another and it is possible that they will never meet in life Because of the varied backgrounds. of Net users the situation at pantip com is not like academic discussion lists of which subscribers may get. opportunities to meet at annual conferences 7 Thus the fact that they are concerned about the other party s. feelings is certainly surprising We would expect long term relationship to play an important role in. determining how people should behave towards one another However we do not find it to be an. instrumental factor here Internet communities are textually mediated social life to use Chouliaraki and. Fairclough s 1998 term There is no social contract that obligates Net users to be very nice towards one. another They can attack one another s ideas baldly. However we found that the situation at this web site is contrary to the expectation The. participants perform various kinds of face balancing acts to restore the state of equilibrium in the course. of heated discussions For example they comfort and encourage the addressee as we have seen in 4 and 5. above They also resort to joking This can be done by several strategies such as saying funny things. talking about something which is not relevant to the topic discussed being playfully ironic and using. funny pseudonyms and smilies as well as laughter expressions 6 7 demonstrate some of these joking. strategies, 1 You know how to play thaanluukmaak Mr Prostate Gland. 2 If we don t read your krathuu carefully,perhaps we ll feel pain at our prostrate glands. Khon Chood 29 October B E 2542 01 23 39, The comment in 6 that SEL s krathuu if not read carefully can cause prostrate glands ache is meant to.
amuse the readers,1 You play with a dog so he licks your mouth. 2 This is what old people say,3 Are you confused,Intreg 28 October B E 2542 11 06 51. This is another example which shows how jokes operate in Thai CMC discourse The writer of 7. quotes this proverb which is not relevant to the topic discussed which is about the incident when several. police dogs bit tapioca farmers who were demonstrating in front of the Government House in October 1999. This writer knows that what he is saying is not relevant that is why he asks if the readers are confused line. 3 What he really meant is to say something funny, Another face balancing act is that the participants often admit that they are simply kidding or are. not serious about what they write or think ki t le n le n think playfully or ki t ch i ch i think plainly. They are afraid that their discussants will get angry with them This is clearly seen in 8. 1 Buddhism talks more about abstract things,2 Ten rebirths what have them Lord Buddha. was born as various forms of animals,3 Is this possible.
4 Most people think that this is more like a,fairy tale. 5 In my opinion Christianity is most rational,6 Uh Don t get angry with me. 7 I just expreessed my view,Thong 28 October 1999 02 29 00. The writer begs the addressees not to get angry with him and emphasizes that he simply expresses his. opinion lines 6 7 below His comment that Christianity is the most rational religion and that Buddhism. contains incredible stories should have stirred up a lot of attacks by devout Buddhists But none of the. participants pays attention to this point Everyone seems to take the writer s words into consideration i e. he just expressed what he thought he did not really mean it. These face balancing acts illustrated here are not performed merely because the participants want. to avoid confrontations or understate their differences of opinions but they are aimed to establish. solidarity among the participants despite the fact that they do not know each other personally and that they. may not have an opportunity to talk face to face,6 Contested Ideologies Thick and Thin Politeness. Eelen 1999 discusses three types of ideologies centering on the notion of politeness The first. and second one correspond to first order and second order politeness in Watts Ide and Ehlich 1992 3 The. third type concerns the social and cultural one As politeness has been shown in much of the literature to be. embedded in the cultural practices of a community this type of ideology is an important one and appears to. be indispensable in any attempt to account for what politeness actually is. The relation between politeness and its socio cultural milieu is a two way process On the one. hand politeness can provide a window by which some aspects of the respective cultures can be understood. Thus one understands an aspect of Thai culture through a look at what is going on when Thais are being. polite to one another On the other hand the socio cultural milieu itself can provide a context by which the. various politeness strategies being employed can be interpreted What has emerged from the examination of. the data in the above section shows that Thais have their own ways of maintaining politeness one of which. is to express their sympathy and positive feelings towards other participants even when they argue with. each other This trait appears to give the tone and the atmosphere of the Thai web board its distinctive. When compared with what is usually happening in CMC in the West such as the Usenet and the. global electronic mailing lists the difference is clear Members of the Western or international computer. mediated groups tend to be more agonistic toward one another They usually want to assert their own. identities vis vis others and often at the expense of others The Thai CMC on the other hand tend to be. much less individualistic This is not to say that there are no heated arguments in the Thai CMC but those. arguments are very often tempered by the need to find a common ground and are not characterized by the. desire to win When the members debate about whether Buddhism is irrational the situation could well. have burst into flagrant flames but we have seen that the humorous tone soon pervades the atmosphere and. at the end no real disagreement is found This is typical of the Thai way of communication and culture. Furthermore it is noticeable that although the members typically do not use real names thus effectively. hiding the identities of those sitting in front of computer screens they act as if the web board itself is a kind. of community to which they all belong, That Thai identity evidenced in the use of politeness strategies is present in these computer.
mediated discourses show that Thai culture is resilient enough to withstand the tide of globalization. coming through the use of Internet technologies The web board at pantip com is more like traditional Thai. coffee shops where Thais hang out and discuss about everything which interests them See also. Hongladarom 1999 What happens is appropriating what Walzer 1994 1 19 has proposed with regards to. moralities at home and abroad that there is the thin culture of global messages and systems which. spreads around the world and the thick local culture which contains its rich myths narratives and. histories that make up its identity 8, The implication for politeness is clear There is the thin notion of politeness the kind. discussed in theories Thus one finds notions such as politeness rules and maxims positive and negative. faces the model person politeness strategies and so on On the other hand these universal theories need to. be tempered by and supplemented with empirical data and concrete particularities coming from the world s. various cultures These particularities then constitute the thick notion of politeness Current research. shows that politeness does operate in CMC Herring 1996 Simmons 1999 But it is often the kind that. corresponds to what Brown and Levinson calls negative politeness Our data suggest that Thai CMC. participants also adhere to the politeness principle but it is the positive aspect the attempt to avoid. confrontations and make the addressee feel that he or she is part of the community that is more at issue. here not the negative one This exemplifies the different thick versions of politeness in the two cultures. However when one looks globally presupposing that both Thais and Westerners are all humans and as such. have the same set of values such as the need for maintaining social relationship what emerges is then a kind. of thin politeness,7 Conclusion, Politeness is a culturally embedded notion The extensive literature on this line of argument. supports this well To examine the actual manifestations of politeness in various languages and cultures is. just to look at social behaviors of the speakers of those languages what these speakers do when they. communicate to one another and what their values are Hence the theory that aims at finding universal. characteristics in politeness actually is glossing over the differences among cultures and is based on the. assumption that humans are the same regarding their rationality and face That is this type of theory. provides a model to explain the politeness phenomena The model is constructed based on the assumption. that as humans use language and as they are rational the manifestations of their rationality in this case. their polite use of language should be the same throughout However this universality is always. mitigated by the localities involved Perhaps humans anywhere desire to be liked and approved of by their. peers but the ways such desire is actually realized in the concrete situations of language use differ. If this is so then there should be a way to reconcile between the two positions If the thick and. the thin approach is taken into consideration then perhaps we could see that the universal tendency. corresponds to the thin and the local strategies correspond to the thick That is there is not a real. conflict between the two It is not that one always has to choose either of the two The universal and the local. go together Since the universal is applicable anywhere it lacks the real content that must be taken into. account as soon as one peers into the actual use Therefore politeness as a culturally embedded notion both. relates to human culture and to the various local cultures As a part of human culture politeness is an aspect. of humans when they are rational and desire solidarity As a part of the local strategies on the other hand. such rationality and desire for solidarity express themselves differently 9. Finally there are two points we would like to suggest for further research First there is currently. a dearth of works done on CMC discourses in the emerging economies as most research works have focused. on the CMC in the developed countries This line of works would substantiate or shed more light on the idea. of cultural embeddedness of politeness Secondly as politeness appears to be a very slippery concept. relating to many other factors beyond language itself certainly more interdisciplinary work is called for It. is likely that insights from the neighboring disciplines could clear up some murky issues and provide wider. perpectives on this phenomenon itself, 1 A similar phenomenon is taking place in anothor channel of communication During these past. few years two radio stations were set up in Bangkok with main aims to inform vehicle users of the traffic. situation and to report immediate local news e g fires building collapses and other kinds of accidents. Not only have Jor Sor 100 and Ruam Duay Chuay Kan Let s help each other become most popular stations. for Bankokians particularly among taxi drivers but they also are another form of virtual community that.

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