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TABLE OF CONTENTS,TABLE OF CONTENTS 2,1 0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4. 2 0 INTRODUCTION 6,3 0 PROJECT OBJECTIVES 7,4 0 METHODOLOGY 7. 4 1 Study Overview 7,4 2 Equipment and Facilities 7. 4 2 Study Design 8,4 2 1 Primary Study 8,4 2 1 Shear force study 11. 4 3 Analysis of Samples 11,4 3 1 Purge 11,4 3 2 Ultimate PH 11.
4 3 3 TBARS Content 12,4 3 4 Retail Colour 12,4 3 5 Shear Force Measurement 12. 4 3 6 Protein oxidation 12,4 3 7 Microbial Load 13. 4 4 Statistical Analysis 13,5 0 PROJECT OUTCOMES 14. 5 1 Hypobaric Chamber Operational Parameters 14,5 1 1 Humidity 14. 5 1 2 Chamber Pressure 14,5 1 3 Temperature 15,5 2 Sample Results 15.
5 2 1 Purge loss Lipid Oxidation Ultimate pH and Carbonyl content 15. 5 2 2 Retail Colour 16,5 2 3 Microbiology 17,5 2 4 Shear Force 18. 6 0 DISCUSSION 19,6 1 Chamber Parameters 19, 6 1 1 Relative Humidity of the Residual Atmosphere 19. 6 1 2 Chamber Pressure 19,6 2 Sample Results 20, 6 2 1 Purge loss Lipid Oxidation Ultimate pH and Carbonyl content 20. 6 2 2 Retail Colour 20,6 2 3 Microbiological Samples 22. 6 2 4 Shear Force 23,7 0 CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 23.
8 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 25,1 0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, Technology for storing perishable products in a hypobaric environment has now progressed to a. point where the residual atmosphere and humidity in the container can be managed effectively and. this provides many opportunities for storage and transport of perishable food commodities including. In some of our export markets particularly for lamb and sheep meat fresh or chilled product needs. to pass through wet markets in carcase form The use of reefers constructed using hypobaric. technology could enable processed lamb and sheep carcases to be processed in Australia for export. as chilled carcases On arrival at the overseas port the reefers could be transported to wet markets. where the chilled carcases would be released This would be of benefit to the meat processing. sector in Australia and be complementary to the existing live export market. Research to ascertain whether the hypobaric technology can be successfully implemented for. transport of meat is an essential first step This study was undertaken to verify whether or not meat. lamb can be safely maintained in a hypobaric vacuum environment for 35 days without. appreciable loss of weight or spoilage, The NSW DPI currently has 6 hypobaric chamber research units at their horticultural research facility. at Ourimbah on the NSW Central Coast Two of the units located in a chiller capable of being held at. around 0 degrees Celsius were made available for this project. Lamb loins were held in a hypobaric environment using air as the residual atmosphere in one. chamber and carbon dioxide in the other chamber for 5 weeks Temperature was set at 0 degrees C. The relative humidity in the chambers was maintained at above 95 to minimise weight loss To. maintain humidity levels the chambers were set up to provide a steady flow of air or CO2 through a. humidifier and into the chamber The flow rate effectively replaced the residual atmosphere volume. every 2 hours, The endpoints measured were weight loss colour oxidative stability microbiological quality and. shear force as a measure of tenderness Samples of lamb loins were vacuum packed and held in the. chiller containing the chambers as controls For endpoints other than shear force the study included. 4 separate replications with 8 loins in each of the treatment groups and 8 loins as controls For shear. force measurement 8 loins were included in each of replicates 2 4 this was not part of the original. project but was deemed important and so added The results were aggregated for statistical. For the first replicate the internal chamber pressure was set at 30 Torr mm Hg At this pressure. mold growth was observed on the surface of loins in the air treatment group The pressure was. lowered and the mean pressure for the chambers in runs 2 3 and 4 was between 5 3 and 5 5 Torr. No evidence of mold was observed on the loins in these runs. In summary based on the findings for the endpoint data it was concluded that. The ultimate pH lipid oxidation and protein oxidation findings after storage were. equivalent to that observed with traditional wet aging using a vacuum pack. The weight loss during storage was between 6 and 7 which is higher than that observed. with wet aging 2 3, Retail colour consistent with consumer expectations breached after 2 days display following. removal from storage compared with 2 5 days for the vacuum packed controls. In terms of pathogenic bacteria the microbiological quality of meat stored with low. pressure air as the residual atmosphere in the chamber was equivalent to traditional wet. aging in a vacuum pack, In terms of spoilage bacteria meat stored with low pressure air or CO2 as the residual.
atmosphere in the chamber revealed higher levels than traditional wet aging in a vacuum. The microbiological quality of meat stored with low pressure CO2 as the residual. atmosphere in the chamber revealed some unexpected findings for the presence of. pathogenic bacteria and, In terms of tenderness as measured by shear force the ageing of the lamb in the hypobaric. chambers was equivalent to that observed using traditional wet aging in a vacuum pack. In conclusion this pilot study has effectively provided proof of concept for the potential use of. hypobaric containers for transport and storage of sheep meat Development of this concept further. will open up opportunities for transport of whole chilled sheep carcases directly into wet markets in. countries around the world but particularly into the Middle East An additional benefit will be the. ageing of the meat during transit,Recommendations for further research include. Further investigation of the microbial quality issues and where required methods to. minimise bacterial growth, Evaluation of the organoleptic aspects of various lamb and wether meat cuts as they are. currently exported live after treatment, Determination of acceptable ranges for the pressure and humidity chamber parameters. Studying the effect of shorter and longer storage timeframes and determining an upper. limit of storage time for acceptability of product from a food safety and meat quality. perspective, Investigate a suitable reefer design for hypobaric storage and transport of chilled whole.
sheep carcases including the engineering aspects required to reliably manage the. temperature humidity and pressure, It is recommended that the focus of the next stage of research be on the first two areas listed above. in the first instance It is also recommended that the use of hypobaric storage and transport of beef. be considered for research in the future,2 0 INTRODUCTION. Hypobaric storage and transport of meat and other food products was attempted in the 1980s and at. that time was reportedly unreliable The US company that was producing the hypobaric containers. ceased to do so and the use of the technology was on hold until interest in its use was revived in the. last 4 or 5 years The vacuum technology for storing perishable products in a hypobaric environment. has now progressed to a point where the residual atmosphere and humidity in the container can be. managed effectively, The technology has been shown to be very successful for the storage of cut flowers and is now used. commercially for this purpose in North America Flowers have been stored this way for 30 days and. were perfect on release with the normal expected shelf life after they were released. This project was developed in recognition of the expectation in some of our export markets. particularly for lamb and sheep meat that fresh or chilled product needs to pass through wet markets. in those countries in carcase form Successful implementation of this technology could enable. processed lamb and sheep carcases to be processed in Australia and sent to markets such as the. Middle East by ship as chilled product and then transported to and released directly into wet markets. overseas as chilled carcases As such it has the potential to benefit the processing sector in Australia. and be complementary to the existing live export market. This pilot study was designed to ascertain the potential for the use of sophisticated hypobaric. container technology for storage and transport of meat as chilled carcases sheep and lamb The. intention of the study was to verify that meat lamb can be safely maintained in a hypobaric. vacuum environment for 35 days without appreciable loss of weight or spoilage A review of the. literature revealed that there was no credibly researched information available regarding weight loss. and spoilage of meat held under hypobaric conditons. The NSW DPI is currently conducting research to establish the parameters for use of this technology. for treatment of fruit for insect pests There are 6 hypobaric chamber research units at their. research facility at Ourimbah on the NSW Central Coast Two of the units are located together in a. chiller capable of being held at around 0 degrees Celsius and were made available for this project. The project utilised the 2 vacuum research vessels to hold meat lamb in a vacuum environment and. at 1 to 0 deg C for 5 weeks The objective was to maintain the humidity in the residual atmosphere. at above 95 to minimise purge or weight loss The endpoints to be measured were colour oxidative. stability weight loss and microbiological quality In the course of the project shear force was. included as a measure of meat tenderness, Air and Carbon dioxide atmospheres were used to make up the residual gas in the chamber to. establish if there was any variation in terms of colour oxidative stability and microbiological quality. of the meat due to the different residual atmosphere Four sets of samples subjected to each. atmosphere were used to establish that the results are repeatable replicates Samples of lamb loins. were also held vacuum packed chilled outside the chambers as controls. It was intended that this pilot if successful would lead to further research to look at the organoleptic. qualities of the meat subjected to this treatment and to determine the optimum parameters for. maintaining meat in a hypobaric chamber In the long term assuming this method of storage and or. transport can be used there is an opportunity for lamb sheep carcases or beef quarters to go directly. into wet markets overseas as chilled product,3 0 PROJECT OBJECTIVES.
The project objectives were, 1 Investigation of the potential to extend the shelf life of lamb using a hypobaric chamber and. 2 Examination of the potential of hypobaric chambers for increasing the flexibility of supplying lamb. for export wet markets,4 0 METHODOLOGY,4 1 Study Overview. The study comprised two components The first or primary component was designed to address the. program of research as approved by AMPC This primary study component included 4 separate. replications or runs for the treatment groups and controls Details of study design are outlined in. After commencement of first run the opportunity to include additional loins in the remaining runs for. the purposes of shear force testing was identified This secondary component was undertaken and. the details of the study design are outlined in 4 3 2. 4 2 Equipment and Facilities, Two hypobaric research chambers acquired by NSW DPI for horticultural research purposes were. made available for this pilot study The chambers were located in a blast chiller capable of being. operated at a relatively constant temperature Each chamber consists of thick metal walls with an. opening at the front capable of forming an air tight seal with a door The chamber has a thick metal. door with a window in the centre A silicon seal located a few centimetres from the inside edge of. the door is held against the chamber opening and the airtight seal required to maintain the. hypobaric conditions is achieved by fixing the door to the chamber using specially designed bolts. Each chamber is designed to control the level of humidity and the rate of exchange refreshing of. the residual atmosphere in the chamber This is achieved by use of an inlet valve to control the flow. rate of gas entering the chamber and the placement of a water based humidifier in the gas inlet line. to control the relative humidity of the residual atmosphere in the chamber Inlet lines can be open to. the air or connected to the required source of gas for the residual atmosphere. The pressure in the chamber is reduced using a rotary vane vacuum pump and maintenance of the. pressure of the residual atmosphere is achieved by sensors in the chamber which activate a control. valve in the line between the chamber and the vacuum pump. All sensors and valves provide input to a computer program that enables the operator to set the level. of vacuum humidity and rate of refreshing of the residual atmosphere When operational the. chambers are continually monitored electronically for vacuum temperature and humidity and the. records stored electronically, Prior to commencement of the experiment a racking system for placement of lamb loins in the. chambers was designed and built, The racking system comprised an aluminium frame and food grade stainless steel racks for.
placement of the meat samples, Approximately 1 hour before each run the internal surfaces of the chambers the chamber door. probes inside the chamber and all surfaces of the racks were sanitised using a sanitiser commercially. available for food preparation areas, The internal appearance of a chamber with the racking system in place is shown in Figure 4 2 1 and. the external appearance of the chambers with the doors in place is shown in Figure 4 2 2. Figure 4 2 1 Chamber and racking system Figure 4 2 2 Chambers with doors in place. 4 2 Study Design,4 2 1 Primary Study, To provide confidence in the repeatability of the experiments four separate replications runs were. conducted using a sample size of 8 lamb loins per treatment group air and carbon dioxide as the. residual atmosphere in the chamber and 8 loins in a single control group for each run. The left and right loins from 12 carcases 24 loins were boned out and collected 4 times over a 6. month period total of 96 loins from 48 carcases Figure 4 2 3 Once boned out with the. subcutaneous fat still attached loins were uniquely identified and sections excised for 0 week. microbiology and oxidative stability tests TBARS The loins were allocated into treatment groups. Control chiller Chamber CO2,n 8 Chamber air,n 32 Run 4. n 8 Run 1 Run 2 Run 3,Run 3 n 8 n 8,n 8 Run 4 Run 2 Run 4.
n 8 Run 3 n 8,n 8 n 8 n 8, Figure 4 2 3 Flow chart representing the number of samples per treatment group and number from. each treatment group for each run, Samples from the left and right side of three carcases were randomly assigned to treatment groups. so that the left and right sides of one carcase were assigned to air and CO2 treatment groups. another left and right loin from the second carcase were allocated to air and control and loins from a. third carcase were allocated to CO2 and control treatment groups Fig 4 2 4 This was repeated 4. times within each run,Air CO2 Air Control CO2 Control. Figure 4 2 4 Allocation of left and right loins from 3 carcases into treatment groups. The full sampling procedure is summarised in Table 4 2 1 and Figure 4 2 5 Loins allocated to. treatment groups were weighed prior to placement into the vacuum chambers and loins assigned to. the control group were weighed prior to being vacuum packed and held in the chiller adjacent to the. chambers at 0 to 1 C, After 5 weeks ageing each loin in the treatment and control groups was individually removed from. the chambers and weighed Loins in the control group were removed from the vacuum pack and any. purge remaining on the surface removed prior to weighing. After each loin was weighed a 90 gm section for the 5 week microbiology testing was excised. individually identified vacuum packed and placed in a polystyrene container two thirds full of dry ice. for transport of all the samples to the laboratory The remaining section of each loin was individually. identified packed and placed in a transportable refrigeration unit for transfer to the NSW DPI Cowra. Meat Laboratory, Once transported back to the Cowra Meat Lab sections were taken for further analysis for oxidative.
stability lipid oxidation TBARS ultimate pH pHu and retail colour stability The location of the. sections taken from each loin is shown in Figure 4 2 5. Sections taken for retail colour stability were kept under retail conditions in a chiller and measured. each day using the HunterLab colorimeter over the course of 3 days before being sampled again for. TBARS 5 g and protein carbonyl content 5 g, Table 4 2 1 Summary of measured meat quality traits measuring time and the amount of muscle. Trait Time Measured Amount Required g,Microbiological Load 24 h 90 100. 5 weeks 90 100,Retail Colour 5 weeks 3 cm thick slice. TBARS 5 weeks 3 days from Retail Colour 5,Ultimate pH 5 weeks 1 2. Carbonyl Content 5 weeks 3 days from Retail Colour 5. Purge 24 h 5 weeks,TBARs carbonyl,Micro 5 weeks,Retail Colour.
Micro 24 h,TBAR 5 wks, Figure 4 2 5 Diagram of the sampling of treatment loins. Loins in the treatment groups were placed on the upper rack in each chamber A label uniquely. identifying each loin was placed on the rack beside the loin and fixed in position using a cable tie as. shown in Figure 4 2 6 Placement of loins on the rack is shown in Figure 4 2 7. Figure 4 2 6 Placement of loins on the rack Figure 4 2 7 Rack placement in chamber. 4 2 1 Shear force study, The shear force study was conducted in conjunction with runs 2 3 and 4 of the primary study The. loins used for this study were additional to the loins used for the primary study As was the case with. the primary study the sample size comprised 8 loins per treatment group air and carbon dioxide as. the residual atmosphere in the chamber and 8 loins in a single control group for each run Allocation. of loins to treatment groups or the control group was done the same way as for the primary study. For each loin a sample was collected immediately prior to placement in the hypobaric chambers or. vacuum packing of the control group ie at 1 day post mortem and then at 35 days after treatment. All shear force blocks were held frozen until subsequent analysis at the NSW DPI laboratory at Cowra. Loins in the treatment groups were placed on the lower rack in the chamber A label uniquely. identifying each loin was placed on the rack beside the loin and fixed in position using a cable tie. 4 3 Analysis of Samples,4 3 1 Purge, Purge results for each individual loin sample was the measured weight loss over the 5 weeks. expressed as a percentage of the weight at day 0 The weight of each individual loin after sectioning. to remove the day 0 samples required for analysis was recorded as was the weight of the loin after. the 5 week experimental period Any excess fluid present on the surface of each loin was removed. prior to recording the 5 week weight,4 3 2 Ultimate PH. The ultimate pH of the m longissimus thoracis et lumborum pHuLL was measured after 35 days of. ageing Approximately 1 g of tissue was removed from each still frozen sample and then. homogenised at 19 000 rpm for 2 bursts of 15 s Ystral homogeniser Series X10 25 Ystral Germany. in 50 mL Falcon tubes containing 6 mL of buffer solution Dransfield Etherington Taylor 1992. The samples were placed in a water bath at 20 C and the pH measured using a pH meter. smartCHEM CP TPS Pty Ltd Brisbane Australia with a polypropylene spear type gel electrode. Ionode IJ 44 calibrated using two pH buffers pH 4 01 and pH 6 86 Duplicate pH measures were. recorded and a third was taken if 2 readings differed by more than 0 03. 4 3 3 TBARS Content, TBARS content determination was adapted from Hopkins Clayton Lamb van de Ven Refshauge.
Kerr Bailes Lewandowski Ponnampalam 2014 with a 50 0 mg sample added to 500 0 L RIPA. buffer no 10010263 RIPA buffer concentrate Cayman Chemicals Michigan USA and homogenised. using micro tube pestles Supernatant was then analysed as per the OXltek TBARS assay kit technical. bulletin Zeptometrix 2016 and absorbance read at 532 nm on a bench top spectrophotometer. Results were expressed as mg malondialdehyde MDA per kg fresh meat. 4 3 4 Retail Colour, Following their prescribed ageing period a cutting guide was used to section the LL samples to a. uniform 3 cm thickness with the myofibrils perpendicular on the measured surface These sections. were then individually placed on black foam trays and overwrapped with PVC food film wrap 15 m. and permitted to bloom for 45 min before colorimetric analysis Colorimetric measurements were. taken over four display time intervals 0 24 48 and 72 h during which all samples were displayed. under simulated retail lighting mean 851 lx and refrigeration mean 1 6 C A HunterLab. spectrophotometer Miniscan Model 45 0 L Reston VA USA with a 25 mm aperture was calibrated. as per manufacturer guidelines X 80 4 Y 85 3 Z 91 5 This was set to illuminant D 65 and. viewing angle 10 At each reading measurements were replicated after rotating the. spectrophotometer 90 in the horizontal plane The oxymyoglobin metmyoglobin ratio R630 580. was estimated by dividing the captured light reflectance at wavelength 630 nm by that at. wavelength 580 nm AMSA 2012,4 3 5 Shear Force Measurement. Samples to determine the effect of storage in hypobaric chamber on shear force were collected at 1. day post mortem prior to treatment in hypobaric chambers and at 35 days after treatment from. each loin This was undertaken for 3 replications after it became apparent there was space in the. chambers for additional loins and it would be useful to establish any effects on this important trait. All shear force blocks were held frozen until analysis Determination of shear force values was. conducted using shear force blocks mean weight 66 g s d 2 55 g cooked at 71 C for 35mins. and analysed using a Lloyd texture analyser with a vee blade as described by Hopkins Toohey Kerr. van de Ven 2010 on 6 replicates per shear force block Where the co efficient of variation exceeded. 24 for the 6 replications the median of the values was reported rather than the average of the 6. repetitions Hopkins Kerr Kerr van de Ven 2012 Shear force blocks were weighed before and. after cooking to determine cooking loss calculated as a percentage of weight lost during cooking. 4 3 6 Protein oxidation, Protein oxidation was determined by measuring the stable carbonyl groups to this end. approximately 25 0 mg of sample was homogenised in 200 l of RIPA buffer no 10010263 RIPA. buffer concentrate Cayman Chemicals Michigan USA using a micro pestle. These were centrifuged at 5 600 rpm and the supernatant was analysed using the Protein Carbonyl. Assay Kit no MAK094 Sigma Aldrich Pty Ltd Missouri USA technical bulletin Sigma Aldrich. 2015 using a micro plate reader FLUOstar OPTIMA BMG Labtechnologies Victoria AUS. Absorbance was measured at 375 nm The same supernatant was also analysed using the. Bicinchoninic Acid Kit for Protein Determination no BCA1 Sigma Aldrich Pty Ltd Missouri USA. technical bulletin Sigma Aldrich 2015 protocol and measured using the same microplate reader set. to measure absorbance at 540 nm to determine the sample protein content Carbonyl content was. then calculated from these two measures and expressed as nmole mg protein. 4 3 7 Microbial Load, Microbial loads were determined at the start and end of each ageing period by taking a 90 g sample. aseptically which was diluted in 90 mL peptone salt solution 0 1 for 30 60 seconds for microbial. loading before being measured as total viable count TVC of Lactic Acid Bacteria LAB. Enterobacteriaceae ENT Brocothrix thermospacta B thermospacta Escherichia coli E coli. listeria and salmonella For LAB once samples were diluted they were plated at 0 1 mg on MRS agar. and incubated in an anaerobe jar with the addition of Campygen for 72 2 hours at 30 1 C prior to. counting Counts of ENT were conducted using 1 mL of each dilution pour plated onto VRBG agar and. overlaid with the VRBG agar prior to being incubated for 21 3 hours at 36 2 C and counted B. thermospacta was measured by plating diluted samples on an STAA spread plate and incubated for. 48 4 hours at 22 25 C For E coli 1 mL was inoculated onto a Petrifilm count plate and incubated. for 24 48 hours at 37 1 C All TVC are given as colony forming units CFU per g of meat. The presence of Listeria was detected using an Enzyme Linked Immunofluorescent Assay ELFA. VIDAS LIS Assay screening Method AOAC method 999 06 If detected the presence of Listeria was. confirmed by completing the Australian Standard method 24 1 AS 50 13 24 1 Similarly the. presence of Salmonella was also tested using an ELFA VIDAS assay method Salmonella bioMerieux. VIDAS Salmonella Assay AFNOR BIO 12 16 09 05 and confirmed using the Australian Standard. method AS 5013 10 2009 Both Listeria and Salmonella were recorded as either detected or not. detected for each sample All microbial analysis was undertaken at a commercial laboratory. 4 4 Statistical Analysis, Statistical analysis to determine whether there was a significant difference in mean traits measured.
between treatment groups was conducted using REML mixed models in Genstat ed 18 Run. replication chamber and the side of the carcase the loin was taken from where used as random. effects and were combined to determine whether there was any interaction between these terms. Colour traits measured during display were analysed using a model with treatment as a fixed effect. and time of display as a fixed effect with random terms as previously described Microbiology. variables were analysed depending on the data type by one of three methods including comparison. of 95 confidence intervals for proportions generalised linear models with poisson errors and log. link function for counts and generalised linear models with binomial errors and logit link function for. proportions,5 0 PROJECT OUTCOMES,5 1 Hypobaric Chamber Operational Parameters. Overall the operation of the chambers ran very smoothly with the exception of one incident resulting. in a short period of a few hours when the vacuum pump was not operational during run 4 The. incident related to a power failure to the vacuum pump caused by an electrical maintenance. operative needing to cut the power to that circuit for a short period due to a maintenance. requirement, This short period of 2 hours 50 minutes where vacuum was not maintained would have had. negligible impact on the results for the loins in run 4 To this end the results for the chamber. pressure for that period have been treated as outliers and have been excluded from the data set. when determining the mean and standard deviation presented here. 5 1 1 Humidity, The objective of the management of the relative humidity in the residual atmosphere in the chamber. was to keep it as high as possible and consistently above 95 to reduce the loss of moisture from the. loins Table 5 1 1 summarises the operational recordings for humidity for each chamber. Table 5 1 1 Mean and Minumum Relative Humidity for each run. Run Relative Humidity in Chamber,Mean Minimum Mean Minimum. 1 99 6 98 5 98 9 97 7,2 99 7 96 2 98 3 95 6,3 99 67 96 1 99 4 96 3.
4 98 37 93 9 97 8 95 5,5 1 2 Chamber Pressure, The mean and standard deviation for the internal operational pressure in each of the chambers for. the 4 runs is provided in Table 5 1 2, Table 5 1 2 Mean and Standard Deviation for the chamber pressure readings. Run Chamber Pressure Torr,Mean SD Mean SD,1 30 00 0 12 29 97 0 29. 2 5 37 0 32 5 43 0 27,3 5 42 0 24 5 45 0 22,4 5 45 0 23 5 43 0 25. 5 1 3 Temperature, Temperature probes were subjected to a calibration trial using the ice water method and the.
temperature of the ice water confirmed at 0 degrees Celsius using an officially calibrated. thermometer For each probe the temperature readings were adjusted by value for the temperature. recorded by the probe in the calibration trial, For each run the mean and standard deviation for the adjusted temperatures for the chamber and. loin probes are provided in table 5 1 3, Table 5 1 3 Mean and Standard Deviation for the temperature readings of the chamber and loin. probes for each run,Run Probe Temperature Deg C,Mean SD Mean SD. 1 Chamber 0 30 0 432 0 30 0 542,Loin 0 42 0 223 0 24 0 243. 2 Chamber 0 41 0 409 0 46 0 534,Loin 0 61 0 203 0 51 0 219.
3 Chamber 0 30 0 397 0 34 0 515,Loin 0 56 0 250 0 38 0 216. 4 Chamber 0 22 0 361 0 18 0 483,Loin 0 09 0 251 0 09 0 198. 5 2 Sample Results, 5 2 1 Purge loss Lipid Oxidation Ultimate pH and Carbonyl content. The means s e for each trait measured across the treatments and control groups are given in. Table 5 2 1 with the least significant differences of means. Table 5 2 1 The predicted means for each trait measured across the treatment and control groups. with the least significant differences l s d of means and the standard error s e of the mean. Trait Mean s e L S D P value,Control Air CO2,Purge Loss 3 0a 6 8b 6 4b 0 91 2 29 0 01. Lipid Oxidation MDA 1 08 1 09 1 18 0 15 0 40 ns,pHu 5 68 5 69 5 69 0 02 0 07 ns.
Carbonyl Content 4 18 4 42 3 98 0 45 0 64 ns,nmole mg protein. Means with different letters are significantly different at P 0 05.

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