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Physical Characterization and Geotechnical Properties of
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Physical Characterization and Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste. Study Area The waste samples for the tests were collected from one of the dumping landfill site located on. the Khermai Road Satna The city is located on 24 34 N latitude and 80 55 E longitudes at an altitude of 315. m above mean sea level The place is renowned for Dolomite mines and Limestone The landfill is surrounded. by some small ice factories two nursing homes a motor park four to five automobile repair workshops and. road network act as the sources of waste and pollution discharge in addition to the transported waste discharge. into the landfill The wastes deposited in the landfill are predominately solid wastes from domestic sources. including market wastes, Fig 1 Image of dumping site shown by the circle Source Google earth. II Physical Characterization Of MSW, The physical characterization of municipal solid waste is done in order to measure the quantity of the. recoverable and to study the effect of the physical composition on the strength and stability characteristics of the. MSW A number of existing classification systems are simply based on material groups e g paper plastic. metal etc or on the distinction between soil like 3 D structure and non soil like 2 Dstructure or fibrous. appearance Dixon and Langer 2006 6, Some of the classification systems are MSW component based systems that are primarily used to. facilitate physical reuse and recycle biological compost and chemical chemical additives processing of. majority of waste material US EPA 2003 European Commission 2003 Component based systems identify. MSW as 1 material type 2 product type US EPA 2001 Material type classification may include paper. and paperboard glass metals plastics rubber and leather textiles wood and others Product type classification. may include durable goods e g appliances furniture tires non durable goods e g newspaper office papers. trash bags clothing containers and packaging e g bottles cans corrugated boxes and other wastes e g. yard trimmings food scraps and miscellaneous inorganic wastes The rest of available classification systems. are used to facilitate land filling process with minimal damage to protective landfill base liner 7. Table 1 Overview of existing classification systems of municipal solid waste. Author Basis for differentiation Parameters used for differentiation. Turczynski 1988 Waste type Density shear parameters liquid plastic limit permeability. Siegel et al 1990 Material groups Part of composition. Landva and Clark 1990 Organic inorganic Materials Degradability easily slowly non shape hollow platy. elongated bulky, ADEME 1993 Particle size distribution and Size material groups moisture content and degradability. composition, Grisolia et al 1995 Degradable inert deformable Strength deformability degradability.
material groups, Kolsch 1996 Material groups Size dimension. Manassero et al 1997 Soil like Other Index properties. Thomas et al 1999 Soil like non soil like Material groups. Dixon and Langer 2006 Shape related subdivisions Material groups size shape organic inorganic soil like non. Source Dixon and Langer 2006, DOI 10 9790 1684 12121521 www iosrjournals org 16 Page. Physical Characterization and Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste. 2 1 Waste composition, Municipal solid waste is a mixture of wastes that are primarily of residential and commercial origin. Many categories of MSW are found such as food waste rubbish commercial waste institutional waste street. sweeping waste industrial waste construction and demolition waste and sanitation waste MSW contains. compostable organic matter fruit and vegetable peels food waste recyclables paper plastic glass metals. etc toxic substances paints pesticides used batteries medicines and soiled waste blood stained cotton. sanitary napkins disposable syringes MSW composition at generation sources and collection points. determined on a wet weight basis consists mainly of a large organic fraction 40 60 ash and fine earth 30. 40 paper 3 6 and plastic glass and metals each less than 1. The waste is segregated by hand sorting into paper plastics inerts rubber leather glass stones and. the organic fraction of the waste The physical characterization of the waste passing through 100 mm sieve was. done by hand sorting and on the weight basis The age of the sample was 4 5 weeks The quantity of waste. taken for composition analysis was 100 kg regarding the composition of MSW generated by the Satna City over. the entire study period The MSW samples used for all the experiments were those passing through the 20 mm. sieve and retained by the 4 75 mm sieve Therefore the composition analysis of the 4 75 mm sieve retained. waste was done and found to be pastel 39 25 paper and cardboard 20 50 plastic 17 25 cloths. 7 50 glass 2 75 stones 1 75 rubber wood metals each less than 1 and etc. Fig 2 shows waste composition of the municipal solid waste According to this figure the percentage. of the main MSW components are paste food scrap plastic and paper cardboard. Fig 2 composition of municipal solid waste, 2 2 Water content. The water content of a typical MSW may include both water held in macro or freely draining pores and. water absorbed into micro pores within individual waste component such as paper cardboard textiles food etc. In general water content of MSW within a landfill vary between its initial water content on collection and a. water content representing fully saturated conditions 8. The moisture content and organic content of the waste material smaller than 10 mm were measured. Moisture content of the waste smaller than 10 mm material was calculated as the ratio of the weight loss to the. weight that remained after heating at a temperature of 70 C until the specimen has dried to a constant mass. Moisture contents measured were ranged from 90 to 145 on dry weight basis equivalent to 47 to 51 on. wet weight basis, 2 3 Specific Gravity, Pycnometer method was employed to determine specific gravity for MSW in laboratory for finding the.
specific gravity of MSW Specific gravity of MSW in the present study was found to be 2 22 The lower value. of specific gravity can be attributed to the presence of decomposed organic matter. 3 4 Particle size distribution, In the laboratory the MSW used for the experiments were the waste passings through 10mm sieve. Most of the traditional laboratory geotechnical testing equipment cannot accommodate field MSW samples with. large particle sizes Therefore sieve analysis of the waste retained by the 4 75 mm sieve was done on weight. basis and in accordance with the ASTM D422 standards The maximum quantity of MSW retained was 34 on. the 2 36 mm sieve The maximum percent passing was 85 through the 4 75 mm sieve The results are shown. in the Fig 3 The Cu and Cc values for the samples were calculated as and 15 and 1 66 The values indicate that. DOI 10 9790 1684 12121521 www iosrjournals org 17 Page. Physical Characterization and Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste. the samples are well graded and the absence of coarse sand and clay like particles The MSW constituted of fine. sand and silt like particles, Fig 3 Particle Size Distribution of waste sample. III Geotechnical Testing Of MSW, In this study the MSW samples collected from the field and geotechnical testing was conducted using. these samples Compaction hydraulic conductivity compressibility and shear strength tests were conducted. 3 1 Compaction Test, Compaction is the process of densification of soil mass by reducing air voids The degree of. compaction is measured in terms of its dry density The degree of compaction mainly depends upon its moisture. content compaction energy and type of soil The compaction test is carried out based on ASTM D698 Standard. Proctor Test on MSW using a 100 mm diameter mould The waste is compacted with 25 blows for 3 layers. using standard Proctor hammer The test is repeated for another five determinations A dry density is plotted. against moisture content to determine the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. 3 2 Compressibility Test, Compressibility testing was carried out in an oedometer in order to determine the compressibility.
characteristics of MSW The test was performed for a water content of 45 and a bulk density 1100 kg m3 The. size of the sample was 60mm diameter and 15 mm height The maximum load applied was 800 kPa The waste. was compacted into the mould using a circular tamping plate and placed in between the porous stones Since the. MSW constituted of fine sand and silt like particles the oedometer tests were conducted. 3 3 Hydraulic conductivity, To determine hydraulic conductivity of MSW laboratory tests were conducted by constant head and. falling head methods Small scale laboratory tests were conducted to determine hydraulic conductivity by. constant head and falling head methods Fresh waste was collected from a landfill site The tests were performed. according to ASTM D2434 and ASTM D5084 2007 The waste was compacted into the mould of 85 mm. diameter and 127 3 mm height The permeability was calculated based on the Darcy s law The water content. and the bulk density of MSW were 45 and 11 kN m3 MSW samples were tested at confining pressures 50. 100 and 200 kPa, 3 4 Direct Shear tests, Shear resistance is a geotechnical parameter of primary concern in describing the properties of MSW. Direct shear tests were conducted to determine the shear strength parameters cohesion and friction angles of. municipal solid waste Tests were performed in accordance to ASTM D3080 The samples were compacted in a. square shear box of 60 mm x 60 mm The height of the box is 50 mm In the present study the direct shear tests. were performed with bulk density 1100 kg m3 and for confining pressures of 50 100 and 200 kPa The size of. sample was 60 mm in length 60 mm in width and 30 mm in height The stress strain response of the waste are. plotted and the cohesion and the friction angle values were obtained. DOI 10 9790 1684 12121521 www iosrjournals org 18 Page. Physical Characterization and Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste. IV Result And Discussion, 4 1 Compaction tests, Standard Proctor compaction test was conducted in accordance with ASTM D698 on MSW using a 100. mm diameter mould Three layers with 25 blows each were compacted into the mould The testing was. performed on samples with five initial moisture contents of 20 30 40 50 and 60 as shown in Fig 4. The maximum dry density of the MSW of particle size 10 mm are greater than those 10 mm in size The. moisture content may also vary with the age of the waste and the placement conditions in a landfill The high. maximum dry density of 1100 kg m3 obtained in the present study could be due to the presence of high. percentage of organic content and soil like particles The compaction test result gives the maximum dry density. of 1100 kg m3 at 45 optimum moisture content, Based on Reddy et al 2009 the Standard Proctor compaction conducted at fresh landfill Orchard. USA gives maximum dry density of 420 kg m 3 at 70 moisture content Hettiarachchi 2005 reported a. maximum dry density of 525 kg m3 at 62 optimum moisture content for a MSW sample generated in the. laboratory There were approximately 66 differences between the result of maximum dry density from open. dumping area and fresh landfill The difference is approximately 40 in the optimum moisture content The. samples from open dumping area are less moisturized due to the exposed of the samples to the air without any. daily cover, Fig 4 Dry density moisture content curve.
4 2 Compressibility Test, Compressibility of MSW was tested in general accordance with ASTM D2435 ASTM 2007. MSW specimen was compacted in layers with the tamper to achieve initial wet unit weight ranging from 7 8. 11 8 kN m3 The specimen was placed in the brass ring with one porous stone on the top and another one at. the bottom of the sample Compression ratio slope of strain Vs log pressure curve calculated from this study is. 0 25 Compression ratios reported in literature are summarized in Table 2 Hence the value obtained in the. present study falls in the range of values reported in the published literature. Table 2 Compressibility of SMSW and fresh MSW reported in literatures. Source Compression ratio, Reddy et al 2009, 63 mm diameter oedometer test SMSW particles were of average size 1 5 mm 10 particles 0 16 0 31. were greater than 10 mm and 35 particles were finer than 0 1 mm. Reddy et al 2008 0 24 0 33, 63 mm diameter oedometer test shredded fresh MSW maximum particle size 40 mm. Dixon et al 2008 0 30, Large scale test of size 500 x 500 x 750 mm SMSW maximum particle size 120 500mm. Hettiarachchi 2005 0 18 0 21, 63 mm Teflon cell SMSW maximum particle size approximately 5mm.
Langer 2005 0 5 x 0 5 x 0 75 m compression box shredded SMSW control samples 0 30. maximum particle size10 mm x 40 mm, Hossain 2002 0 16 0 25. 63 5 mm diameter Oedometer tests shredded relatively fresh MSW in control samples. maximum particle size 120 500 mm majority was 40 120 mm. Waif and Zeiss 1995 0 21 0 25, 570 mm diameter cell shredded fresh MSW maximum size 4 7 mm. Landva and Clark 1990 0 35, 470 mm diameter consolidometer shredded fresh MSW samples from Edmonton Canada. DOI 10 9790 1684 12121521 www iosrjournals org 19 Page. Physical Characterization and Geotechnical Properties of Municipal Solid Waste. Geotechnical properties of MSW are determined through in situ and laboratory tests and or back analysis of field performance data 3 In landfill design and stability analysis the characterization of the mechanical behavior of the MSW is necessary as well as other specific physical properties such as composition unit weight

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