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Penetration Testing and,Network Defense,Andrew Whitaker Daniel P Newman. Cisco Press,800 East 96th Street,Indianapolis IN 46240 USA. Penetration Testing and Network Defense,Andrew Whitaker and Daniel P Newman. Copyright 2006 Cisco Systems Inc,Published by,Cisco Press. 800 East 96th Street,Indianapolis IN 46240 USA, All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic.
or mechanical including photocopying recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without writ. ten permission from the publisher except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America 5 6 7 8 9 0. Fifth Printing September 2010, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Number 2004108262. ISBN 1 58705 208 3,Warning and Disclaimer, This book is designed to provide information about penetration testing and network defense techniques Every. effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible but no warranty or tness is. The information is provided on an as is basis The authors Cisco Press and Cisco Systems Inc shall have neither. liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information. contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the authors and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems Inc. Feedback Information, At Cisco Press our goal is to create in depth technical books of the highest quality and value Each book is crafted. with care and precision undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the. professional technical community, Readers feedback is a natural continuation of this process If you have any comments regarding how we could. improve the quality of this book or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs you can contact us through e mail at. feedback ciscopress com Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. Trademark Acknowledgments, All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capital.
ized Cisco Press or Cisco Systems Inc cannot attest to the accuracy of this information Use of a term in this book. should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. We greatly appreciate your assistance,Publisher John Wait. Editor in Chief John Kane,Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden. Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady,Executive Editor Brett Bartow. Production Manager Patrick Kanouse,Senior Development Editor Christopher Cleveland. Project Editor Marc Fowler,Copy Editor Karen A Gill.
Technical Editors Steve Kalman Michael Overstreet,Team Coordinator Tammi Barnett. Book Cover Designer Louisa Adair,Compositor Mark Shirar. Indexer Tim Wright,About the Authors, Andrew Whitaker has been working in the IT industry for more than ten years specializing in Cisco and security. technologies Currently he works as the Director of Enterprise InfoSec and Networking for TechTrain an interna. tional computer training and consulting company Andrew performs penetration testing and teaches ethical hacking. and Cisco courses throughout the United States and Europe Prior to teaching Whitaker was performing penetration. tests for nancial institutions across the southeastern United States He also was previously employed as a senior. network engineer with an online banking company where he was responsible for network security implementation. and data communications for e nance websites He is certi ed in the following CCSP CCNP CCNA CCDA. InfoSec MCSE CNE A CNE Network Security CEH and CEI. Daniel P Newman has been in the computer industry for more than twelve years specializing in application pro. gramming database design and network security for projects all over the world Daniel has implemented secure. computer and network solutions to a wide variety of industries ranging from titanium plants diamond mines and. robotic control systems to secure Internet banking Working across four continents he has gained expertise provid. ing secure computer network solutions within a wide range of systems Daniel is currently working as a freelance. penetration tester and a senior technical trainer teaching Cisco and Microsoft products In addition Newman spe. cializes in practicing and training certi ed ethical hacking and penetration testing In his pursuit of increased. knowledge he has become certi ed in the following A Network I Net Server Linux Security MCDST. MCSA MCSE NT 2000 2003 Security MCDBA MCT CCNA CCDA CSS1 CCSP InfoSec CEH CEI and. CISSP In his off time Newman has authored books on PIX Firewall and Cisco IDS and worked as technical editor. for books on the Cisco SAFE model,About the Technical Reviewers. Stephen Kalman is a data security trainer He is the author or tech editor of more than 20 books courses and CBT. titles His most recent book is Web Security Field Guide published by Cisco Press In addition to those responsibil. ities he runs a consulting company Esquire Micro Consultants that specializes in network security assessments. and forensics, Kalman holds CISSP CEH CHFI CCNA CCDA A Network and Security certi cations and is a member of.
the New York State Bar, Michael Overstreet is a delivery manager for Cisco Advanced Services within World Wide Security Practice He is. responsible for the delivery of security assessment and implementation services with a focus on Security Posture. Assessments SPA He has worked for Cisco for six years delivering the security services He is a graduate of. Christopher Newport University with a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Michael holds CISSP and CCNP. certi cations,Dedications,Andrew Whitaker, I dedicate this book in memory of Dr Bill R Owens and Dr Charles Braak Your legacies continue to inspire me to. pursue higher levels of excellence,And to my amazing wife Jennifer. Daniel Newman, I dedicate this book to my beautiful wife Clare No matter how close you are there is never a moment that you are. not in my thoughts and never a time that my heart is not missing you You are the light of my life that never stops. shining brighter and brighter as time goes on I just wish forever were not so short because I ll miss you when it. Your husband Daniel,Acknowledgments,Andrew Whitaker.
Many people were involved in the creation of this book First I must thank my forever supportive wife whose. encouragement kept me focused and motivated to complete this project You haven t seen much of me this past year. and I thank you for your sacri ce so that I could pursue this book I will always love you. To Dan Newman my coauthor I can only say thank you for being a great friend and colleague Despite the long. distance between us you still remain a good friend and I look forward to working with you on future projects The. dawn is coming, Two people who deserve special mention are Brett Bartow and Chris Cleveland You both have saint like patience to. allow for our habitual tardiness, Acknowledgements must also be given to our two technical editors Steve Kalman and Michael Overstreet Steve. without you this book never would have happened We are lucky to have you as an editor Michael thank you for. holding such a high standard to ensure that this book is of quality material. Several others must be mentioned for their assistance with certain chapters Jonathan Irvin and Robert Hall at Def. con 5 both shared their social engineering tactics for Chapter 4 For our chapter on buffer over ows I am very. grateful for SolarIce at CovertSystems who chatted online with me at 4 00 a m one Saturday morning to discuss. his exploit techniques Susan Brenner at the University of Dayton helped with the discussion on cybercrime and. ethics in Chapter 2 Susan your students are lucky to have you. Still others had an indirect involvement with this book I d like to thank John Almeter at NetTek a man of great. integrity who got me started in this eld I also must thank Rick Van Luvender at InfoSec Academy for teaching me. so much about penetration testing Thanks also to the Indian River Starbucks for providing me with a second of ce. Finally I must thank God for without you there would be no ethics or morality. Daniel Newman, I would like to thank Brett Bartow and Christopher Cleveland for their encouragement drive and push to help us. keep this massive project on schedule and on time Thanks guys. To our technical editors Michael Overstreet and Steve Kalman for double checking all our facts and helping us x. all our minor typos, To Andrew with whom I coauthored this book Thank you for your never ending patience with busy work sched. ules time zones and deadlines that plagued us If only there were 25 hours in the day we could accomplish so. much more You are the best of friends and I would like to thank you for the opportunity to work with you on this. project I can t wait to do 167, I would also like to thank Hannah Wee for putting up with Mom and I while we string the den with cables and.
hammer away on computer keyboards attacking systems for hours on end You always seem to nd a way to still be. involved whether it be getting coffee or just staying close by watching movies on the laptop Thanks Wee. Lastly and most importantly I would like to thank my wife Clare Thank you honey for your never ending. patience technical editing case study testing reference checking and moral support on this book You are my best. friend my peer my partner and my soul mate for life For without you this book never would have been possible. I love you my wonderful partner,Contents at a Glance. Foreword xxii,Introduction xxiii,Part I Overview of Penetration Testing 3. Chapter 1 Understanding Penetration Testing 5,Chapter 2 Legal and Ethical Considerations 21. Chapter 3 Creating a Test Plan 35,Part II Performing the Test 47. Chapter 4 Performing Social Engineering 49,Chapter 5 Performing Host Reconnaissance 77.
Chapter 6 Understanding and Attempting Session Hijacking 127. Chapter 7 Performing Web Server Attacks 177,Chapter 8 Performing Database Attacks 247. Chapter 9 Password Cracking 279,Chapter 10 Attacking the Network 321. Chapter 11 Scanning and Penetrating Wireless Networks 349. Chapter 12 Using Trojans and Backdoor Applications 367. Chapter 13 Penetrating UNIX Microsoft and Novell Servers 439. Chapter 14 Understanding and Attempting Buffer Overflows 461. Chapter 15 Denial of Service Attacks 481, Chapter 16 Case Study A Methodical Step By Step Penetration Test 501. Part III Appendixes 533,Appendix A Preparing a Security Policy 535. Appendix B Tools 547,Glossary 571,Foreword xxii,Introduction xxiii.
Part I Overview of Penetration Testing 3,Chapter 1 Understanding Penetration Testing 5. Defining Penetration Testing 5,Assessing the Need for Penetration Testing 8. Proliferation of Viruses and Worms 9,Wireless LANs 9. Complexity of Networks Today 10,Frequency of Software Updates 10. Availability of Hacking Tools 10,The Nature of Open Source 11.
Reliance on the Internet 11,Unmonitored Mobile Users and Telecommuters 12. Marketing Demands 12,Industry Regulations 12,Administrator Trust 13. Business Partnerships 13,Hacktivism 13,Attack Stages 13. Choosing a Penetration Testing Vendor 14,Preparing for the Test 16. Summary 17,Chapter 2 Legal and Ethical Considerations 21.
Ethics of Penetration Testing 21,U S Laws Pertaining to Hacking 24. 1973 U S Code of Fair Information Practices 25,1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act CFAA 25. State Laws 27,Regulatory Laws 28, 1996 U S Kennedy Kasselbaum Health Insurance Portability and Accountability. Act HIPAA 28,Graham Leach Bliley GLB 29,USA PATRIOT ACT 30. 2002 Federal Information Security Management Act FISMA 30. 2003 Sarbanes Oxley Act SOX 30,Non U S Laws Pertaining to Hacking 31.
Logging 31,To Fix or Not to Fix 32,Summary 32,Chapter 3 Creating a Test Plan 35. Step by Step Plan 35,Defining the Scope 36,Social Engineering 36. Session Hijacking 36,Trojan Backdoor 37, Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual 37. Documentation 40,Executive Summary 40,Project Scope 42. Results Analysis 42,Summary 44,Appendixes 44,Summary 44.
Part II Performing the Test 47,Chapter 4 Performing Social Engineering 49. Human Psychology 50,Conformity Persuasion 50,Logic Persuasion 51. Need Based Persuasion 52,Authority Based Persuasion 53. Reciprocation Based Social Engineering 53,Similarity Based Social Engineering 54. Information Based Social Engineering 54,What It Takes to Be a Social Engineer 55.
Using Patience for Social Engineering 56,Using Confidence for Social Engineering 57. Using Trust for Social Engineering 58,Using Inside Knowledge for Social Engineering 59. First Impressions and the Social Engineer 60,Tech Support Impersonation 61. Third Party Impersonation 62,E Mail Impersonation 64. End User Impersonation 69,Customer Impersonation 69.
Reverse Social Engineering 70,Protecting Against Social Engineering 71. Case Study 72,Summary 75,Chapter 5 Performing Host Reconnaissance 77. Passive Host Reconnaissance 78,A Company Website 79. EDGAR Filings 87,NNTP USENET Newsgroups 87,User Group Meetings 88. Business Partners 88,Active Host Reconnaissance 89.
NSLookup Whois Lookups 89,SamSpade 92,Visual Route 95. Port Scanning 96,TCP Connect Scan 98,SYN Scan 99,NULL Scan 99. FIN Scan 100,ACK Scan 100,Xmas Tree Scan 101,Dumb Scan 101. NMap Switches and Techniques 103,Compiling and Testing NMap 105. Fingerprinting 106,Footprinting 107,Detecting a Scan 109.
Intrusion Detection 109,Anomaly Detection Systems 109. Misuse Detection System 109,Host Based IDSs 110,Network Based IDSs 110. Network Switches 111,Examples of Scan Detection 112. Detecting a TCP Connect Scan 113,Detecting a SYN Scan 114. Detecting FIN NULL and Xmas Tree Scans 115,Detecting OS Guessing 117.
Case Study 118,Summary 122, Chapter 6 Understanding and Attempting Session Hijacking 127. Defining Session Hijacking 127,Nonblind Spoofing 128. Blind Spoofing 129,TCP Sequence Prediction Blind Hijacking 130. Juggernaut 131,TTY Watcher 136,T Sight 136,Other Tools 137. Beware of ACK Storms 137,Kevin Mitnick s Session Hijack Attack 139.
Detecting Session Hijacking 143, Detecting Session Hijacking with a Packet Sniffer 145. Configuring Ethereal 145,Watching a Hijacking with Ethereal 147. Detecting Session Hijacking with Cisco IDS 153,Signature 1300 TCP Segment Overwrite 156. Signature 3250 TCP Hijack 157,Signature 3251 TCP Hijacking Simplex Mode 162. Watching a Hijacking with IEV 164,Protecting Against Session Hijacking 167.
Case Study 168,Summary 173,Resources 174,Chapter 7 Performing Web Server Attacks 177. Understanding Web Languages 177,JavaScript 185,JScript 186. VBScript 186,PHP Hypertext Preprocessor 192,ColdFusion 193. Java Once Called Oak 193,Client Based Java 194,Server Based Java 194. Website Architecture 196,E Commerce Architecture 198.
Apache HTTP Server Vulnerabilities 199,IIS Web Server 199. Showcode asp 200,Privilege Escalation 201,Buffer Overflows 202. Web Page Spoofing 203,Cookie Guessing 205,Hidden Fields 207. Brute Force Attacks 209,Brutus 211,HTTP Brute Forcer 211. Detecting a Brute Force Attack 212,Protecting Against Brute Force Attacks 215.
NetCat 217,Vulnerability Scanners 218,IIS Xploit 221. execiis win32 exe 221,CleanIISLog 222,IntelliTamper 222. Web Server Banner Grabbing 223,Hacking with Google 224. Detecting Web Attacks 225,Detecting Directory Traversal 226. Detecting Whisker 228,Protecting Against Web Attacks 232.
Securing the Operating System 232,Securing Web Server Applications 234. Apache 236,Securing Website Design 236,Securing Network Architecture 237. Case Study 238,Summary 244,Chapter 8 Performing Database Attacks 247. Defining Databases 249,Oracle 250,Structure 250,Structure 251. SQL Server 252,Structure 252,Database Default Accounts 253.
Testing Database Vulnerabilities 253,SQL Injection 256. System Stored Procedures 257,xp cmdshell 259,Connection Strings 259. Password Cracking Brute Force Attacks 260,Securing Your SQL Server 261. Authentication 261,Service Accounts 263,Public Role 263. Guest Account 264,Sample Databases 264,Network Libraries 264.
Detecting Database Attacks 266,Auditing 266,Failed Logins 268. System Stored Procedures 269,SQL Injection 270,Protecting Against Database Attacks 270. Case Study 272,Summary 277,References and Further Reading 277. Chapter 9 Password Cracking 279,Password Hashing 280. Using Salts 282,Microsoft Password Hashing 282,UNIX Password Hashing 284.
Password Cracking Tools 284,John the Ripper 285,Pwdump3 287. L0phtcrack 289,Nutcracker 298,Hypnop dia 299,Snadboy Revelation 300. Boson GetPass 302,RainbowCrack 303,Detecting Password Cracking 305. Network Traffic 306,System Log Files 306,Account Lockouts 307. Physical Access 308,Dumpster Diving and Key Logging 308.
Social Engineering 308,Protecting Against Password Cracking 309. Password Auditing 309,Logging Account Logins 309,Account Locking 311. Password Settings 311,Password Length 312,Password Expiration 312. Password History 313,Physical Protection 313,Employee Education and Policy 315. Case Study 316,Summary 319,Chapter 10 Attacking the Network 321.
Bypassing Firewalls 321,Evading Intruder Detection Systems 323. Testing Routers for Vulnerabilities 324,HTTP Service 326.

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