Division 42,State and Economic Reform Civil Society. Peace Building,Crisis Prevention,and Conflict Management. Technical Cooperation in the Context of Crises,Conflicts and Disasters. Eschborn 2002,Author Dr Norbert Ropers, Dr Norbert Ropers is Director of the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin His. main areas of work are theory and practice of ethnopolitical conflict management integration of conflict manage. ment into development cooperation and humanitarian aid as well as contributions by civil society actors to. peace building with special regional focus on the southern Caucasus OSCE and Sri Lanka. Contacts in GTZ,Bernd Hoffmann, Director of Division 42 State and Economic Reform Civil Society. Telephone 49 0 61 96 79 16 51,E Mail bernd hoffmann gtz de. Dr Uwe Kievelitz, Programme Manager Crisis Prevention and Conflict Transformation. Telephone 49 0 61 96 79 13 26,E Mail uwe kievelitz gtz de. Published by Deutsche Gesellschaft f r,Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ GmbH. Postfach 5180 D 65726 Eschborn,Federal Republic of Germany. Internet http www gtz de,Responsible Bernd Hoffmann GTZ. Authors Dr Norbert Ropers,Berghof Research Centre for. Constructive Conflict Management Berlin,Chapter on Structural Stability. Dr Stephan Klingebiel,German Development Institute Bonn. Editor Melanie Seegr f GTZ,Research consultants Prof Dr Lothar Brock. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt on Main. PD Dr Brigitte Fahrenhorst,Society for International Development Berlin. Translation team John D Cochrane Suzanne George, After 11 September a set of conceptual guidelines for Technical Co. operation could barely be any more relevant than the present working. paper In the wake of the debate surrounding the implications and. consequences of the terrorist attacks development policy has assumed a. new stature and gained a fresh dimension More than ever before we are. being called upon in our work to help improve the living conditions and. prospects of people in our partner countries and increase our efforts to. prevent crises and defuse conflicts The lack of prospects for young people. is itself a fertile breeding ground for extremist views and the will to use. violence which they generate, The German Government sees development policy as global peace policy. This is based on a broad understanding of security which goes beyond. traditional security policy Development policy is mandated to fight the root. causes of poverty injustice and the destruction of the vital natural resource. base on which people depend as well as to make direct inputs to the. peaceful resolution of crises and conflicts rooted in poor development and. social transition Germany is thus one of many bi and multilateral donors. which increasingly see development cooperation as a contribution to crisis. prevention and peaceful conflict management and which are orienting their. work accordingly The present working paper seeks to conceptually under. pin this new area of work in the specific context of Technical Cooperation. At the same time it outlines GTZ s existing services in this sector. It also outlines the prospects for future tasks in this new work domain TC. possesses broad experience in implementing crisis and conflict related. measures as reflected in the activity areas and services outlined in the. present paper On the whole however individual approaches instruments. and services will need to be further developed on a continuous basis In this. context it will be necessary to continuously review and redefine the. concrete potentials and limits of crisis prevention and conflict management. The present working paper was written for a broad audience First and. foremost it is designed for all Technical Cooperation personnel It is also. intended for ministries international institutions and non governmental. agencies Finally we also hope it will meet with keen interest on the part of. all our many partners from the consulting sector to the research institutions. cooperating with us, Our thanks are due to the author of the publication Dr Norbert Ropers of. the Berghof Institute in Berlin who in his capacity as our staff member in Sri. Lanka is making a direct contribution to peace building in that war torn. Our thanks are also due to the research consultants Dr Brigitte Fahren. horst and Professor Dr Lothar Brock and to all those whose suggestions and. comments were so valuable to us,Dr Bernd Eisenbl tter Bernd Hoffmann. Director General Director of Division,List of Contents. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 7, 1 Peace building Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management. a Cross cutting Theme for GTZ 9,2 Fundamentals 11,2 1 Terminology 11. 2 2 The Current Development policy Debate 14, 2 3 Peace Policy and Crisis Prevention as Strategic Elements. of German Development Policy 19, 2 4 Peace building Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management. as Activity Areas of Technical Cooperation 22, 2 5 The Relationship between Crisis Prevention and. Conflict Management and Development oriented,Emergency Aid DEA 24. 2 6 Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management,Challenges for Reform of the State the Economy. and Society 25, 3 The Initial Context and Approaches to Crisis Prevention. and Conflict Management 27, 3 1 Crises and Conflicts within the Social Development Process 27. 3 2 Markets and Cultures of Violence 29,3 3 Forecasting Crises and Mapping Conflicts 32. 3 4 The Phases of a Conflict and Time Frame of Interventions 35. 3 5 The Levels of Social Leadership and their Regional. Differentiation 41,3 6 The Partisan Allegiances of Target Groups. and Partner Organisations 42,3 7 Promoting Structural Stability as a Basis for. Sustainable Development 43, 4 Strategies for Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management. in Technical Cooperation 45, 4 1 General Principles of Action for Crisis Prevention. and Conflict Management 47, 4 2 Promoting Structural Stability to Underpin Crisis. Prevention and Sustainable Development 51, 4 3 Strengthening the Crisis Prevention and Conflict. Management Capacities of Civil Society Groups,and Local and Regional Institutions 55. 4 4 Challenges and Dilemmas for the Design of Crisis. Prevention and Conflict Management Processes 57,5 GTZ s Services 60. 5 1 Implementation Strategy 60, 5 2 Strengthening Civil Society Groups of Strategic. Significance for Building a Peace Constituency 62,5 3 Promoting Local Institutions and Mechanisms. for Peaceful Conflict Management 64, 5 4 Promoting a Media Contribution to Crisis Prevention 65. 5 5 Developing Education and Youth Promotion Measures. to Provide Education for Peace and Conflict Prevention 67. 5 6 Post War Trauma Healing 68, 5 7 Post Conflict Reconciliation and Coming to Terms. with the Past 70,5 8 Training Measures for Crisis Prevention and. Conflict Management 73,5 9 Security Sector Reform 75. 6 Bibliography 77,List of Acronyms and Abbreviations. BMZ Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation. and Development,CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU. CPN Conflict Prevention Network, CPR Conflict Prevention and Post Conflict Reconstruction Network. CPS Civil Peace Service,DAC Development Assistance Committee of the OECD. DEA Development oriented Emergency Aid,DFID Department for International Development UK. EU European Union, GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft f r Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ GmbH. NGO Non Governmental Organisation, OECD Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development. OSCE Organization for Security and Co operation in Europe. TC Technical Cooperation,UN United Nations, UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. 1 Peace building Crisis Prevention and,Conflict Management. a Cross cutting Theme for GTZ, The Deutsche Gesellschaft f r Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ s corporate. GTZ GmbH operates as a federally owned enterprise with the objectives. development policy goal of helping improve the life opportuni. ties of people in countries of the South and the East and stabilise. the natural resource base on which life depends Its main client. is the Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and. Development BMZ Within the framework of the German. Government s development policy guidelines and objectives. GTZ is commissioned to help design plan and implement pro. grammes and projects in partner countries Other clients of GTZ. include other Federal German Ministries and institutions such as. the European Commission the World Bank United Nations. Organisations UNO UN organisations and regional develop. ment banks, Technical Cooperation TC makes a key contribution towards. strengthening the capabilities of people and organisations in. partner countries And its nature is now changing as a result. Whereas it used to identify solutions to clearly defined problems. it now delivers complex inputs to help solve complex problem. constellations Having said that any sustainable improvement in. the living conditions of people in partner countries will be. crucially dependent on the prevailing political economic and. social conditions in the country concerned, As the 21st century dawns living conditions are being signifi Increasing potential. cantly determined by the manner in which conflicts within and for conflict. between states are being managed Realistically it must be. assumed that for the foreseeable future there will be a base of 20. to 40 serious violent conflicts at any given time Furthermore. the emerging new socio economic disparities and the global. trends towards pluralisation and politicisation will ensure that the. potential for conflict is more likely to increase than diminish in. the future, Peace building crisis prevention and conflict management Peace building. have therefore become a major cross cutting theme in Technical crisis prevention and. Cooperation during the last few years The approaches and scope conflict management. for action available to TC in this connection are discussed in the. present working paper Section 2 provides an overview of the. 1 Peace building Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management a Theme. present development policy debate and sheds light on the con. text of TC inputs to peace building crisis prevention and conflict. management Section 3 deals with the points of departure frame. work conditions and key points of orientation for TC in this. activity area Section 4 presents both the principles for action. and the dilemmas associated with involvement At the same time. the two key strategies are outlined here the promotion of struc. tural stability and the creation of human and institutional. capacities for the prevention and transformation of the potential. for violent conflicts Section 5 is devoted to the relevant services. offered by GTZ These services embrace both activity areas in. which GTZ already has many years of experience and those. where GTZ s service offering is currently being established and. TC for crisis prevention The crisis preventive orientation of TC is part of a general re. orientation of German development policy towards a broader. understanding of human security Having said that it would be. inappropriate to expect too much of TC in this regard Options. for bringing external influence to bear on acutely or latently vio. lent conflicts or their underlying social structures and processes. are limited The problems encountered in Germany in seeking to. overcome xenophobic tendencies are a good example of how dif. ficult it is even for domestic actors under relatively privileged. conditions to respond effectively to social polarisation TC s. scope to influence such processes is also small since in most. countries it does not make any significant contribution towards. the financing of official development activities The options for. exerting pressure or offering incentives which influence decision. making in situations of violent conflict are therefore limited. Finally it should be pointed out that TC constitutes only a small. segment of external relations as a whole Efficient peace building. and crisis prevention requires the coherence of all policy. domains which includes arms control policy and foreign eco. nomic policy,2 Fundamentals,2 1 Terminology, Conflicts are a phenomenon associated withan inevitable What are conflicts. corollary of co existence in all societies and to some extent are. an inevitable and indeed a necessary corollary of social change. They are an expression of tensions and incompatibilities. between different mutually independent parties with regard to. their respective needs interests and values These conflicts are. liable to lead to crises and destructive escalations affecting. whole societies primarily during phases of profound socio. economic change and political transition In other words such. negative developments become likely in situations where life. opportunities and opportunities for participation are being. redistributed amongst various groups, The problem is not the conflicts per se but the way in which. they are managed and resolved The goal of development. cooperation must therefore be to help prevent or transform. violence as a means of pursuing conflicts and to support. constructive forms of conflict management If we use the ter. minology of peace in place of the terminology of conflict then. the goal here could be reformulated as the pursuit of a state of. positive peace in which the absence of violence negative. peace is supplemented by the promotion of social justice and. thus placed on a sustainable and legitimate footing. At the international level both the terminology of peace and Peace building and. the terminology of conflict are used A given preference for one conflict management. or the other terminology is rather a reflection of the political. context than a description of different spheres of action Having. said that slightly different signals are sent depending on. whether the terms used are taken from the lexicon of peace. building or from that of conflict management It is therefore. helpful to draw up a synopsis of the major terminological sub. categories see Diagram 1 conflict triad and peace triad Dia. gram 1 Conflict Triad and Peace Triad, The two terminologies converge in devising a category. defining the sphere of politico diplomatic objective conflict settle. ment peace making at the top level of leadership also termed. Track 1 Differences exist with respect to the emphasis placed. 2 Fundamentals, on peace keeping meaning the separation of the parties in. situations of highly escalated crisis e g involving blue helmets. as opposed to the emphasis placed on conflict resolution which. seeks to improve relations and communication between the par. ties also referred to as Track 2 The terms peace building and. conflict transformation are largely congruent Both emphasise. the need for long term work the need to overcome the root. causes of conflict and the need to strengthen elements which. link the parties to each other In addition conflict transformation. also accentuates more the structurally related measures and. peace building more the process related measures Track 3. embraces all levels of leadership although it is increasingly being. focused on activities at the grass roots level for further details on. the tracks see sub section 3 5, The term crisis prevention covers timely planned systematic and coherent action taken. by governments and civil societies at various levels to prevent violent conflicts Crisis. prevention measures are taken either before during or after violent conflicts in order to. reduce the potential for violent conflict and, promote the development of institutions structures and cultures of peaceful conflict. management, Conflict management is the attempt to regulate a conflict by acting to help prevent or end. violence It seeks to bring about constructive solutions from which all the parties involved. can benefit, Source GTZ Development Oriented Emergency Aid DEA Glossary 2nd Edition. Eschborn 2000, Crisis prevention In the political domain the term crisis prevention has. a key concept emerged as a key term covering both the terminology of conflict. and the terminology of peace It aims to emphasise the desired. impact of the respective measures In the present paper the. terms crisis prevention and conflict management will largely be. used The two terms designate two mutually complementary. forms of exerting influence that both differ and overlap with. respect to their points of departure and their range. 2 1 Terminology,Conflict Triad,based on Reimann,conflict settlement. at the politico diplomatic,management level Track 1. conflict resolution conflict transformation, by improving relations and by overcoming the causes of the. communication between conflict and strengthening conflict. the parties Track 2 management capacities Track 3,Peace Triad. based on Galtung,Peace making,through negotiation and. settlement of objective disputes,Peace keeping Peace building. by separating the parties and by overcoming the causes of the. through supervision conflict and strengthening,elements linking the parties. Track 2 Track 3,2 Fundamentals,2 2 The Current Development Policy Debate. Conflicts constrain There is a broad international consensus that the large number. development of violent conflicts within states remains one of the key problems. faced as the new century dawns In the course of these conflicts. millions of people have been killed displaced or robbed of their. life opportunities Almost overnight violent conflicts have. destroyed the fruits of years of development work and left the. afflicted countries with an onerous legacy Even where cease fires. have been achieved many conflicts remain deadlocked and. constitute a key constraint to development of any kind. Meightened awareness Since the Brandt report was published in 1980 the inter. of conflicts within the dependence of development and peace has repeatedly been. development community acknowledged and underlined Furthermore duringsince the. early 1990s a heightened sensitivity to conflict related issues. becamehas been evident within the development community. This heightened sensitivity must be seen in the context of the. shock generated by the massive escalation in ethno political. conflicts in preferred countries of western development cooper. ation and especially the genocide which took place in Rwanda in. 1994 It also reflects the growing orientation of development. policy towards the vision of promoting pluralistic i e potentially. conflictual democracy which emerged alongside the vision of sus. tainable global development following the end of the East West. Relationship between Today the relationship between development and peace is. development and peace being debated primarily with respect to two questions. What contribution can development cooperation make towards. the prevention containment and resolution of violent conflicts. To what extent do development cooperation and emergency. aid measures contribute inadvertently towards the exacerba. tion and or prolongation of violent conflicts, Current status The kind of answers to these questions delivered to date differ. of the debate somewhat as demonstrated by the GTZ study Crisis Prevention. and Conflict Management in Technical Cooperation An Overview. of the National and International Debate Mehler Ribaux 2000. On the basis of the experiences evaluated to date more reliable. recommendations can be provided for the prevention of undesired. impacts that exacerbate conflicts than for direct measures of. peace building crisis prevention or conflict management.
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