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IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY,GLOBAL HISTORY AND BRITISH,CONSUMER GOODS IN THE. EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, Their own steel and iron in such laborious hands become equal to the. gold and rubies of the Indies,David Hume Of Commerce 1752. In 1983 Captain Michael Hatcher a British born Australian. mounted a salvage operation on a ship in the South China Sea. He recovered what became known as the Nanking Cargo sixty. thousand pieces of Ming porcelain from one ship which had. sunk in the mid 1640s on the way from China to Batavia The. quantities of porcelain recovered caused a minor sensation in. the European art and antiquities markets and also opened his. torians eyes to the prodigious quantities of what they considered. to be high luxury wares which were being transported from Asia. to Europe via colonies such as Batavia three centuries ago The. impact of the Nanking Cargo on the media of today parallels. the effect in Holland and northern Europe of the seizure by the. Dutch of two Portuguese ships the Santiago and the Santa. Catarina in 1602 The Catarina alone yielded ten thousand pieces. of porcelain Great sales fetching extremely high prices extended. into 1604 and had an electrifying effect on Dutch traders. In the cargoes of the Portuguese ships were also to be found. pintadoes These curious painted and printed cottons were. initially imported as furnishing fabrics especially bed hangings. but from the 1660s they were increasingly marketed as a new. textile for fashionable clothing 1 Europe s East India Companies. The ideas for this article were Wrst set out in panel sessions at the ReconWguring. the British seminar at the Institute of Historical Research University of London. in 2000 at the Economic History conference in Glasgow in 2001 and in my inaug. ural lecture in 2001 at the University of Warwick Many thanks to Margot Finn. Rhys Jenkins Patrick O Brien John Robertson Andrew Sherratt and Megan. Vaughan for suggestions and critical reading and to Helen Clifford and Shelagh. Vainker for help with illustrations, Gang Deng Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development c 2100 BC. 1900 AD Westport and London 1997 115,The Past and Present Society Oxford 2004.
86 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182, found and promoted the appeal of eastern luxury goods to. western buyers This link between East and West contributed. to the wider expansion of consumption and industry in Europe. which accompanied and followed it, It was not until the later seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. that an import trade in luxury goods from India and China to. Europe was to transform the European economies themselves. For while there had long been a global trade in luxury goods. the merchants and East India Companies then discovered that. European markets for these Asian luxury goods might be far. greater than those of the traditional court luxury which had. long underpinned the trade What happened was that the global. trade in particular types of manufactured consumer goods. stimulated a programme of product innovation in Europe in. attempts to imitate and to make indigenous those products. which were at that time manufactured in the advanced consumer. societies of China and India The import trade in luxury goods. from Asia was a vital step market potentials beyond court. and aristocratic circles were identiWed in a fashion demand for. the goods supplies were increased as Asian production of more. varieties and qualities was adapted to the European market. And ultimately Europeans imitated the goods developing their. own fashion and luxury consumer goods industries, Yet while Europeans imported these products and copied. them they did not import the technologies on which they were. based Asian consumption was transferred to Europe but not. Asian production systems The adaptation of European and. especially British technologies and resources to the making of. substitute Asian luxuries was to generate a whole range of dif. ferent consumer products British new consumer goods These. became perceived by the end of the eighteenth century as the. distinctive modern alternatives to former Asian and European. luxuries Eric Hobsbawm once termed foreign trade the spark. which lit the Industrial Revolution his argument much disputed. since was based on Britain s exports and re exports 2 But it was. Europe s imports from Asia and imports especially of manu. factured consumer goods which were to provide the vital turning. point Global trade did matter to European industrialization. E J Hobsbawm Industry and Empire London 1968 50 cf Ralph Davis. The Industrial Revolution and British Overseas Trade Leicester 1979 9 11 62 76. IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY 87, but not in ways that have been set out in the standard accounts. of the Industrial Revolution and of imperialism, This article argues that imports of goods from the East made.
a difference to the subsequent development of European but. especially British consumer markets and production technologies. This was not however a straightforward story of import. substitution industrialization that is of infant industries. developed behind high tariff walls to supply domestic markets. Instead Europeans responded to Asian luxuries by learning. from their imports developing knowledge of markets and. adapting processes Importing Asian luxuries demanded the. making of consumer markets both at home and abroad for. things never before needed or even desired Responding to. Asian imported luxuries had far reaching effects in transforming. both consumption and production, This article makes the case for a connection between global. luxury European consumerism and industrialization in the. eighteenth century My case will be developed in three proposi. tions corresponding to three sections of the article First global. trade mattered especially that based on fashion and luxury. spending particularly important were imports and the effects. these had in fostering new consumer cultures The Wrst section. of the article Global trade and consumption in the eighteenth. century will accordingly review the contribution of global. history to the understanding of industrialization It examines. the signiWcance now attached to consumer culture especially. global luxury in industrial development My second argument. is that this consumer culture based on global trade had a direct. impact on production and invention in Britain Asian imports. stimulated British production of consumer goods but Asian. technologies were not transferred Thus my second section. Imports imitation and production focuses on theories of. import substituting industrialization and the characteristics. of Asian manufactured goods imported to Britain My third. proposition is that the connection between Asia and Europe. needs to be extended to Africa and the New World if we are to. understand fully the global context of the making of European. and especially British consumer goods Thus the third section. Empire and British consumer goods outlines how British. producers in imitating Asian goods drew on the resources. and markets of empire Britain s indigenous resources were. 88 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182, perceived to extend beyond her borders to include her New. World colonies from Canada to the Caribbean Imitative inven. tion adapting the use of non eastern materials made Britain s. new consumer goods indigenous not oriental,GLOBAL TRADE AND CONSUMPTION IN. THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY,Global History, The part played by global trade in the history of industrial. ization has been relatively neglected by recent generations of. economic historians These found that foreign trade accounted. for less than 10 per cent of the increase in England s total prod. uct between 1700 and 1780 and turned to internal domestic. factors for explanations of economic growth 3 The broader. impact of global trade is now however due for reconsideration. from the perspective of consumer society The recent concept. of globalization has also stimulated rethinking Eric Hobsbawm. for example perceives recent developments that fall under the. concept of globalization in terms of enormous speed up wider. access abolition of distance and time and the emancipation of. manufacturing and even agricultural products from the terri. tories in which they were produced but the modern industry. of nineteenth century Britain anticipated these developments 4. This new sense of the global has not so much led historians to. demonstrate that earlier historical epochs also had a global. dimension and to measure their effects against current global. dynamics but has rather urged them to reconsider the subjects. once studied in national regional or even purely local frame. Stanley L Engerman Mercantilism and Overseas Trade 1700 1800 in. Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey eds The Economic History of Britain since. 1700 Cambridge 1994, Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto ed E J Hobsbawm London 1998.
Introduction Refer back to Hobsbawm The Development of the World. Economy Cambridge Jl Econ iii 1979 311 17, Much of this rethinking has however concentrated on realigning the place of. empire in the development of the British economy See for example P K O Brien. Imperialism and the Rise and Decline of the British Economy 1688 1989 New. Left Rev ccxxxviii 1999 See also Kevin H O Rourke and Jeffrey G Williamson. When Did Globalisation Begin European Rev Econ Hist vi 2002 27 35. IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY 89, Our understanding of the impact of global trade has been. seen thus far through the work of world historians and theorists. of globalization Historical structuralists such as Immanuel. Wallerstein Samir Amin and more recently Giovanni Arrighi. identiWed centre periphery polarities but instead of studying. interconnections they focused on issues of domination and. ascendancy by one part of the globe the West over the other. going back to the merchant capitalism of the Wfteenth cen. tury The dependency theorists Andre Gunder Frank and Janet. Abu Lughod developed non western perspectives on core. and peripheral regions taking the analysis back to the twelfth. century but again focused on imperial domination rather than. interconnections 6, Recent global history has reopened debates on economic. transition in Europe in the eighteenth century but from the. perspective of Asia Earlier arguments for European exception. alism have been set aside in favour of conjunctural features. which in the course of the eighteenth century set in motion. a divergence in development paths between Europe and Asia. A strong case has been made by Kenneth Pomeranz for more. economic similarities than differences across Eurasia before the. later eighteenth century followed by divergence after 7 Pomeranz. argued for a basic ecological imbalance which came into play. over the course of the eighteenth century Europe s and espe. cially Britain s access to coal its development of technologies. using coal and its access to New World resources gave it the lead. over Asia that neither consumption and proto industrialization. nor labour productivity and market institutions had previously. provided A cause of divergence so singularly rooted in ecologi. cal factors has prompted an escalation of criticism focusing on. Immanuel Wallerstein Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European. World Economy New York 1974 Samir Amin The Accumulation of Capital on a. World Scale New York 1974 Andre Gunder Frank ReOrient Global Economy in. the Asian Age Berkeley 1998 Janet Abu Lughod Before European Hegemony The. World System AD 1250 1350 New York and Oxford 1989 See the discussion of. global approaches to history in A G Hopkins The History of Globalization. and the Globalization of History in A G Hopkins ed Globalization in World. History London 2002, Kenneth Pomeranz The Great Divergence China Europe and the Making of the. Modern World Economy Princeton 2000 R Bin Wong China Transformed. Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience Ithaca and London 1997. 57 R Bin Wong The Search for European Differences and Domination in the. Early Modern World A View from Asia Amer Hist Rev cvii 2002 469. 90 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182, factors from agricultural productivity to land organization and.
property relations to demography and social institutions 8 This. debate on the divergence between East and West like that on. the domination of the West over the East has not addressed. global interconnections, The divergence between Europe and Asia may have had an. ecological foundation but these resource shocks were not. random events they were historical cultural and political The. reasons for the exploitation of coal and New World resources. over the eighteenth century lie in opportunities developed for. technological creativity cultures of skill and the mercantile and. colonial policies which made New World resources available. Prasannan Parthasarathi in a recent review of the debate in this. journal makes the point that the key divide between East and. West that opened up in the eighteenth century was based not. on ecology but on technology It was not simply the presence. of coal that expanded ecological possibilities but technical. developments that made possible the widespread adoption of. coal 9 Furthermore a recognized technical sophistication in. India and China was not enough in itself Europe followed. a path of technological development whose end result was a. manufacturing revolution The innovative activities of British. cotton producers were prompted by the need to out produce. Indian textiles 10 Parthasarathi here points to the impact of. global trade in fostering new technologies in Britain global. interconnections enabled divergent development paths. Jack Goldstone The Problem of the Early Modern World Jl Econ and. Social Hist of the Orient xli 1998 265 75 See AHR Forum Asia and Europe in. the World Economy essays by Manning Pomeranz Bin Wong and Ludden. Amer Hist Rev cvii 2002 Conference European Miracle essays by van. Zanden Pomeranz Hunter Bayly Pamuk and O Brien Itinerario xxiv 2000. Kenneth Pomeranz Is there an East Asian Development Path Long Term. Comparisons Constraints and Continuities Jl Econ and Social Hist of the Orient. xliv 2001 328 36 Philip C Huang Development or Involution in Eighteenth. Century Britain and China Jl Asian Studies lxi 2002 Kenneth Pomeranz. Beyond the East West Binary Resituating Development Paths in the Eighteenth. Century World Jl Asian Studies lxi 2002, Prasannan Parthasarathi The Great Divergence Past and Present no 176. Aug 2002 282 This point on the crucial part played by technology is also made. by P H H Vries Are Coal and Colonies Really Crucial Kenneth Pomeranz. and the Great Divergence Jl World Hist xii 2001 436 8 and Jack Goldstone. EfXorescence and Economic Growth in World History Rethinking the Rise of. the West and the Industrial Revolution Jl World Hist xiii 2002 353 66. Parthasarathi Great Divergence 288,IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY 91. Technological competition however is spurred on by the. prospect of a market of consumers whose needs and desires. are there to be met or to be fostered by the prospect of new. or cheaper commodities Thus a major incentive to this shift. in producer horizons was provided by new frameworks of con. sumption Consumerism was a main driver of the global inter. connections that ultimately fostered Europe s and especially. Britain s lead over Asia after the later eighteenth century. Consumption and Luxury, Consumer society luxury and global trade played their part. over a century before this divergence in ways which we have only. recently begun to understand from the viewpoint of our current. consumer cultures This is to revive debate on connections. between consumption and the wider economy in the period. before the Industrial Revolution A consumer revolution of. the eighteenth century has been largely discounted by many. historians as a decisive turning point A consumer society of. the seventeenth century was already conceptualized by historians. who explored the genesis then of widespread new spending. patterns advertising and retailing 11 Equally historians of. Ming China and Renaissance Italy found vibrant consumer. cultures in their subjects and the ancient Greek and Roman. shopping experience contains parallels to our own 12. Neil McKendrick John Brewer and J H Plumb The Birth of a Consumer Society. The Commercialization of Eighteenth Century England London 1982 9 33 Joan. Thirsk Economic Policy and Projects The Development of a Consumer Society in Early. Modern England Oxford 1978 1 23 158 80 An extended critique of the. consumer revolution is provided by B A Holderness The Birth of a Consumer. Society Eng Hist Rev xcix 1984 122 4 A later critique is provided in John. Styles Manufacturing Consumption and Design in Eighteenth Century England. in John Brewer and Roy Porter eds Consumption and the World of Goods London. 1993 esp 535 42, Craig Clunas SuperXuous Things Material Culture and Social Status in Early.
Modern China Cambridge 1991 Richard Goldthwaite Wealth and the Demand. for Art in Italy 1300 1600 Baltimore 1993 176 242 H Van der Wee Industrial. Dynamics and the Process of Urbanization and De Urbanization in the Low. Countries from the Late Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century A Synthesis in. Herman Van der Wee ed The Rise and Decline of Urban Industries in Italy and in. the Low Countries Leuven 1988 S Ciriacono Mass Consumption Goods and. Luxury Goods The De Industrialization of the Republic of Venice from the Six. teenth to the Eighteenth Century in Van der Wee ed Rise and Decline of Urban. Industries Paul Veyne Bread and Circuses Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism. introduction by Oswyn Murray trans Brian Pearce London 1990. 92 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182, It was not consumption in general however which provided. the incentive for major shifts in productive resources but a shift. in tastes for novelties fashion goods and luxuries Jan de Vries. made this point in his concept of the industrious revolution. This is deWned as a crucial phase of reallocation of household. labour and consumption towards the market it was stimulated. not by the prospect of more of the same commodities but by. the desire for novelties and even luxuries 13 De Vries s theory. is about the impact of luxury not on the rich but on modest. and ordinary consumers It rests on intra household decisions. over labour leisure and consumption taken among husbands. wives and children De Vries charts a shift away from rela. tive self sufWciency in consumer goods towards market supplied. goods that is a shift from traditionally female supplied home. produced goods to commercially produced items The wife in. the de Vries model takes on a primary role as decision maker in. consumption and occupies a strategic place at the intersection. of reproduction production and consumption She is an active. consumer prompted to change the allocation of her labour. from household to market based production by the prospect of. buying novelties and luxuries for herself and her family We. can take this point a stage further to argue that the making. of a wide domestic market through a household reallocation. of labour was connected to the rise of new domestically. produced goods which imitated the characteristics of former. globally traded luxuries, This shift away from the discussion of consumption in. general towards an investigation of the speciWc impact of lux. uries and novelties in the period reXects the development of our. own current priorities since the 1980s There has been an. upscaling of consumer aspirations associated with luxury and. designer goods with the branding revolution described by. Naomi Klein and with this the decline of the High Street. chains and the mass consumerism which once underpinned. them The concept of luxury now features in the language of. consumerism The lifestyle choices of afXuence are associated. with distinction diversity and individuality and these are set. This refers to the consumer incentive of Jan de Vries s industrious revolution. See de Vries s critique of consumer revolution in his Between Purchasing Power. and the World of Goods in Brewer and Porter eds Consumption and the World of. Goods esp 85 9 107 15,IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY 93, within a framework of globalization 14 Consumption has become. a key marker of inclusion and exclusion as set out in a recent. Human Development Report 15 Production and marketing frame. works for designer and fashion goods are global and oriented. increasingly towards Asia 16 Even the production of Britain s. Xagship luxury chinaware Wedgwood has recently been. transferred to China 17, Luxury is central to the global history of consumption While. our own present preoccupations may have prompted us to give it. more notice luxury and its connections to world trade are cer. tainly no new development Indeed archaeologists have traced. extensive trade networks in exotics such as obsidian back to the. period before farming and extensive cereal production 18 Nei. ther is luxury a sideline relevant only to aristocrats and what. was once called the international jet set 19 The early modern. economic debates on luxury no longer seem as remote as they. once did to economic historians who simply measured the. contribution of international trade and empire to economic. growth and accorded them relatively minor parts 20 These indi. cators valuable though they are need to be placed in a context. of perceptions and responses Luxury provides a key to trade. Naomi Klein No Logo London 2000 27 62 195 230 cf the discussion of. the upscaling of consumption in Juliet Schor The Overspent American New York. 1998 and Robert Frank Luxury Fever Why Money Fails to Satisfy in an Era of. Excess New York 1999 Advertisements featuring the concept of luxury became. common from the later 1990s See for example House and Garden American edn. July 1997 and Vogue UK edn Jan 1999, Consumption in a Global Village Unequal and Unbalanced in United.
Nations Development Programme Human Development Report 1998 Consumption. for Human Development New York 1998 46 65, David Held et al Global Transformations Politics Economics and Culture. Cambridge 1999 149 87 Arjun Appadurai Modernity at Large Cultural Dimen. sions of Globalization Minneapolis and London 1998 27 84. Thousand Jobs Go as Wedgwood Opts for Cheap Chinese Output Guardian. 5 June 2003 2 China Crisis Guardian G2 11 June 2003 2. Andrew Sherratt Reviving the Grand Narrative Archaeology and Long Term. Change Jl European Archaeol iii 1995 Andrew and Susan Sherratt From. Luxuries to Commodities The Nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age Trading. Systems in N H Gale ed Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean Studies in. Mediterranean Archaeology xc Jonsered 1991, See Harvey Leibenstein Bandwagon Snob and Veblen Effects in the Theory. of Consumer Demand Quart Jl Econ lxiv 1950 and Vance Packard The. Hidden Persuaders London 1957, N F R Crafts British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution. Oxford 1985 Joel Mokyr Demand vs Supply in the Industrial Revolution in. Joel Mokyr ed The Economics of the Industrial Revolution London 1985. 94 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182, and economic policy in the early modern period A world. economy perceived during the seventeenth and eighteenth. centuries through a trade in luxuries and exotics provided a. signiWcant source of innovation in technologies products mar. keting strategies and commercial and Wnancial institutions. That world economy brought greater access to Asian consumer. societies Asian manufactured goods silks and Wne cottons. porcelain ornamental bronze and brassware lacquer ivory and. paper goods became imported luxuries in Europe These. goods were special luxuries for Europeans they were not the. ancient or Persian luxuries of corruption and vice the gold and. rubies of the Indies They were luxuries associated with a civil. ized way of life appealing especially to the middling classes. These luxuries provided a demonstration effect to Europeans. what European merchants and manufacturers learned were. lessons in diversity along with large scale production long. distance trade but high volume marketing fashion and taste. in products which relied on lifestyle settings for their con. Europe s contact with this particular type of Asian con. sumer good was debated by statesmen and intellectuals within. the framework of a long standing unease over the moral. impact of luxury expenditure on statecraft and social struc. ture along with an ancient suspicious fascination with. the East Anxieties over luxury extended from the ancient. world to the modern and were central to Asian as much as. western moral and economic debate 21 Luxury as debated. during the Enlightenment however was disentangled from its. long association with corruption and vice and transformed. into an economic concept covering production trade and the. civilizing impact of superXuous commodities Intellectuals. and statesmen across Europe debated their speciWc national. responses to luxury and the capacity of their economies. and social structures to produce and to absorb luxury goods. The terms of the debate shifted from vice and excess to com. fort and convenience enjoyment and sociability taste and. For a Wne discussion of the development of these concepts see Guido Guerzoni. Liberalitas MagniWcentia Splendor The Classic Origins of Italian Renaissance. Lifestyles in Neil De Marchi and Craufurd D W Goodwin eds Economic. Engagements with Art Durham NC and London 1999,IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY 95.
aesthetics 22 International commerce and consumer goods. provided a framework of endorsement for a new modern luxury. as against the corrupting inXuences of ancient luxury. Oriental Luxury, Anxieties over ancient luxury survived however and merged. with new worries over oriental or Persian luxury and more. broadly over Asian luxury and the fabled riches of the East. There was a long history of associating the exotica of the Orient. with the threat posed by Asian luxury in Europe Livy argued. that Rome had been contaminated with Asiatic luxuries since. by deWnition these were from Greece and the East and had. to be imported 23 The presence of Roman troops in Asia Minor. became a source of moral decline The representation of Asia. Minor was not just about its commodities but about its inhab. itants lives and it was constructed as a place of luxury The. lifestyle of the traditional Roman farmer was juxtaposed by Cato. to luxury his Italian herbs were morally superior to imported. tropical spices 24 The association of luxury with eastern exotics. in Rome built on earlier traditions of debate in Greece about. Persian luxury and in the Mesopotamian and Iranian courts. about Indian luxury A close link was made by Latin and Greek. writers between India and luxury goods whether the goods. came from India or not To Roman consumers the actual. existence of so distant a place directly visited by so few. people of note was far less important than its impact on the. imagination 25, From Pliny onwards arguments against eastern luxuries were. predicated on the Wnancial ruin of the West as silver and gold. Xowed east to purchase the treasures of the Indies Fran ois. John Robertson The Enlightenment above National Context Political Econ. omy in Eighteenth Century Scotland and Naples Hist Jl xl 1997 esp 678 83. includes discussion of national responses to luxury John Crowley connects the. debate on luxury to concepts of comfort and convenience in The Sensibility of. Comfort Amer Hist Rev civ 1999 for other treatments see the essays in. Maxine Berg and Elizabeth Eger eds Luxury in the Eighteenth Century Debates. Desires and Delectable Goods Basingstoke 2003 and Michael Kwass Ordering. the World of Goods Consumer Revolution and the ClassiWcation of Objects in. Eighteenth Century France Representations lxxxii 2003. 23 See Christopher Berry The Idea of Luxury Cambridge 1994 74 84. Grant Parker Ex Oriente Luxuria Indian Commodities and Roman Experience. Jl Econ and Social Hist of the Orient xlv 2002,96 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182. Bernier the seventeenth century French orientalist described. India as the graveyard of gold and silver 26 Bernier s views. formed a standard trope by the eighteenth century Adam. Anderson in the 1760s dedicated his Historical and Chronologi. cal Deduction of the Origin of Commerce to the Society for the. Encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce In it he. compared Rome s fatal attraction to eastern luxury with the. rise of the Britannic Empire based on peaceful commerce in. things useful and excellent for the Ease Conveniency or. Elegance of Life Julius Caesar s conquests he argued. brought home the spoils of conquered provinces, more especially eastward their proconsuls were continually sending. or bringing home immense riches not only in coin but also in gold and. silver vessels and diadems in vases also and Wne statues precious. Stones exquisite Paintings and whatever else was rare and excellent. either for their Tables or for Furniture Cloathing Equipages Libraries. Buildings At length the Sloth Luxury and Effeminacy of the. Emperors and People and the great Neglect of military Discipline etc. brought upon the Roman Empire many barbarous Invaders peaceful. Commerce likewise suffered a long and almost total Suspension in the. West the Revival and Increase whereof and of mercantile nautical and. manufactural Improvements etc will be the main Subject of the. ensuing Work 27, Like Bernier he condemned the East Indies trade as a pernicious.
trade which drains all of Europe of the silver which America. brings to it 28, But a number of the goods associated with the exotic East. were manufactured goods such as fabrics carpets ceramics and. furnishings all endowed with intriguing colour pattern and. ornament They were curiosities prefabricated images of the. East crafted in the Wrst instance for India s and China s Arab. consumers We have only relatively recently realized their. signiWcance for early modern Europeans Though Europeans. had a long acquaintance with oriental consumer goods that com. merce was to take on whole new dimensions with the extension. of maritime trade and the founding of the East India Companies. Fran ois Bernier Voyage dans l Empire Moghol 1656 1668 cited in Michel. Morineau The Indian Challenge Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries in Sushil. Chaudhury and Michel Morineau eds Merchants Companies and Trade Europe. and Asia in the Early Modern Era Cambridge 1999 249. Adam Anderson An Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce. from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time Containing an History of the Great Commercial. Interests of the British Empire 2 vols London 1764 i Introduction p i. Ibid p xxiii,IN PURSUIT OF LUXURY 97, early in the seventeenth century This was a trade which was to. change the material culture of Europe bringing with it new. objects colours patterns and Wnishes 29, The part played by luxury consumption may not have been. exceptional to Europe Indeed global historians debate levels. of consumption and the role of superXuous commodities and. exotica in China India and Japan At one level this is another. aspect of the debate on divergence with the main focus given. to the consumption of necessaries and comforts by the labouring. poor that is of food textiles fuel and housing 30 While opti. mistic perspectives now prevail on levels of consumption even. by relatively ordinary people as well as on sophisticated cul. tures of discrimination and taste many argue that Asia lacked. the incentives which oriental luxury provided to the West. There was no comparable treasure trove which the Chinese. perceived they might retrieve in the West 31 Consumer society. stopped short of attaining a critical mass in China some his. torians argue while in Europe the pace of change in fashion. continued to accelerate Similarly in India there appears to be. little evidence of the steady consumption of a middle level of. Wne goods for every noble or merchant house The older nexus. of luxury consumption in India was that of tribute giving gift. exchange and royal collecting 32 Nevertheless there is general. agreement on sophisticated urban consumer cultures provid. ing for large commercial professional and artisan groups as. well as the elites Highly developed fashion markets consumer. Edward Said Orientalism Western Conceptions of the Orient Harmondsworth. 1991 1978 J M MacKenzie Orientalism History Theory and the Arts Man. chester 1995 103 P J Marshall Taming the Exotic The British and India in. the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in G S Rousseau and Roy Porter. eds Exoticism in the Enlightenment Manchester 1990 Chandra Mukerji From. Graven Images Patterns of Modern Materialism New York 1983. See Pomeranz Great Divergence 127 65 Huang Development or Involution. in Eighteenth Century Britain and China esp 520 4 Pomeranz Beyond the. East West Binary esp 566 71 Robert Brenner and Christopher Isett England s. Divergence from China s Yangzi Delta Jl Asian Studies lxi 2002 esp 632 4. Giovanni Arrighi The Long Twentieth Century Money Power and the Origins of. our Times London 1994 35, Pomeranz Great Divergence 153 157 61 Kenneth Pomeranz Re Thinking. the Late Imperial Chinese Economy Development Disaggregation and Decline. circa 1730 1930 Itinerario xxiv 3 4 2000 33 5 S A M Adshead Material. Culture in Europe and China 1400 1800 London 1997 25 30 100 1 C A. Bayly South Asia and the Great Divergence Itinerario xxiv 3 4 2000 95. C A Bayly Archaic and Modern Globalization in the Eurasian and African. Arena c 1750 1850 in Hopkins ed Globalization in World History 52. 98 PAST AND PRESENT NUMBER 182, sensibilities and a literature on luxury and taste were as much a.
part of these cultures as they were to be of Europe s 33 The. characteristics and wider economic impact of Asian consumer. cultures remain an open question By contrast there is now no. doubt that eastern luxury had a profound impact on European. consumption, In aggregate imports from Asia looked small but their most. important characteristic was the increase in the numbers and in. the types of commodities which were brought in not as prestige. goods for collectors but for steadily expanding markets 34. The import trade in these goods provided an opportunity to. develop a new scale of marketing for what came to be seen as. semi luxury ware goods that were produced and traded in. sufWcient volumes to make them affordable to the middling. classes Some of these goods particular foodstuffs tea coffee. chocolate sugar tobacco were not just addictive but were. consumed in particular cultural sites they were part of the. revolution of sociability which accompanied the industrious. revolution 35, Manufactured imports from Asia formed part of this the. dress vessels and furnishings which enhanced the material set. tings of this sociability Indian and Chinese cottons espe. cially muslins and printed calicoes and silks porcelain tea sets. lacquer cabinets screens and tea tables wallpapers and fans. Some of these goods on their transfer to Europe found con. sumer settings in new social practices of dress display and din. ing and drinking rituals associated with porcelain cabinets. taking tea coffee house culture male drinking clubs and family. Craig Clunas Modernity Global and Local Consumption and the Rise of the. West Amer Hist Rev civ 1999 Clunas SuperXuous Things 12 33 Shelagh. Vainker Luxuries and Necessities in Early Modern China in Berg and Eger. eds Luxury in the Eighteenth Century Peter Burke Res et Verba Conspicuous. Consumption in the Early Modern World in Brewer and Porter eds Consump. tion and the World of Goods Chinese manuals of taste such as Gao Lian Eight Dis. courses on the Art of Living from the Studio where Elegance Is Valued 1590 and Wang. Zhenheng Treatise on SuperXuous Things 1615 20 are discussed by Clunas. SuperXuous Things 12 20 see also his chapter on Anxieties about Things For. Japanese writings see Saikaku Ihara This Scheming World Rutland Vt and. Tokyo 1965 Howard Hibbett The Floating World in Japanese Fiction Rutland. Vt and Tokyo 1959, Niels Steensgaard Commodities Bullion and Services in Intercontinental. Transactions before 1750 in Hans Pohl ed The European Discovery of the World. and its Economic Effects on Pre Industrial Society 1500 1800 Stuttgart 1990 13 14.

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framework for examining current policies and past as well as present treat-ment efforts established to deal with or alleviate the crime problem.

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the imperfective and perfective past tenses of the Romance languages, aspectually sensitive tenses can be found in English as well. In particular, we will see that the English present tense is an aspectual-class selector, and that many of its uses can be ascribed to this property. As observed by Langacker (1991:259-260), Smith (1997:110-112) and

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Independent personal services are employee. income is compensatory to the extent it services performed as an independent represents payment for past, present, contractor in the United States by a Required Withholding Form(s) or future services (for example,