Part 2 Magnetic Particle And Dye Hse Information About-Books Pdf

Part 2 Magnetic Particle and Dye HSE Information about
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The recommendations contained in this document were aimed specifically to improve the. inspection of conventional pressurised equipment However the drafting committee. considers that these measures can also apply to any application of Magnetic Particle and Dye. Penetrant Inspection including fairground or railway components offshore equipment and. conventional plant in nuclear installations, H Bainbridge. Gas and Chemical Process Safety, Technology Division. Health and Safety Executive, 1 INTRODUCTION, Following the successful production of the Health and Safety Executive HSE document. describing best practice for the procurement and application of manual ultrasonics Ref 1. the HSE have judged it appropriate to issue further best practice guidelines which identify. when problems can arise in the selection and application of other NDT methods and what. solutions might be adopted, The measures contained in this document are recommended by the HSE for the conduct of. magnetic particle and dye penetrant inspection1 They are intended to promote the adoption of. good practice and apply to in service inspection of existing plant and to repairs The. guidelines could also be applicable to the inspections carried out during the manufacture of. new or replacement plant They apply both to inspections carried out by the NDT department. of the company owning or manufacturing the plant and to those carried out by external NDT. organisations under contract In the latter case they are intended to assist in the procurement. process by highlighting the issues that need consideration. These measures are not intended to replace the relevant technical standards or to supersede. them in any way They identify the many factors which are important in the choice and. application of the two methods including technical ones However they do not provide any. direction on the values to be adopted for the different technical parameters This is the role of. the detailed technical standards and the specific procedures derived from them The guidelines. also identify important issues beyond those covered in standards such as organisational. matters and provide recommendations on these, The guidelines have been drawn up by a committee of experts assembled by the HSE for this.
purpose Their names and affiliations are given in Appendix 1 from which it will be apparent. that they represent a very wide range of those parts of British industry using the relevant NDT. methods In addition they have considerable expertise in and responsibility for the application. of NDT to industrial plant The recommendations contained in these guidelines are based on. two main sources The first is a literature search and subsequent review of relevant published. papers and articles regarding the reliability of the application of magnetic particle and dye. penetrant inspection The second basis for the recommendations is the collective experience. and expertise of the committee mentioned earlier Many of the members were also members. of the PANI Management Committee and the committee responsible for the best practice. document on manual ultrasonics Both sources of information support the view that if. incorrectly chosen or incorrectly applied both inspection methods can be ineffective Defects. may be overlooked or alternatively spurious indications may be mistaken for genuine. defects leading to unnecessary rejection of components or repairs As a notable example the. NORDTEST trial results Ref 2 performed on 635 surface breaking defects in a total of 133. different specimens inspected by 14 to 16 teams showed the following. 57 detection rate for defects 2 mm deep rising to 93 for defects 8 mm deep when. applying MPI, 44 detection rate for defects 10 mm long rising to 59 for defects 70 mm long when. applying MPI, 70 detection rate for defects 2 mm deep rising to 92 for defects 5 mm deep when. applying dye penetrant, 60 detection rate for defects 10 mm long rising to 65 for defects 50 mm long when. applying dye penetrant, The term inspection is commonly used to mean both NDT and inspection in its wider sense Throughout this. document it is used to mean NDT The words inspector and operator are used interchangeably throughout the. document to refer to those who apply and design NDT techniques. These results and others together with the experience of the members of the committee. provide the incentive for production of these guidelines. Section 2 of this document contains notes on the way a surface defect detection method is. chosen depending on the particular circumstances of the inspection It also describes the. different ways in which the methods can be applied in practice and the factors which. determine how the choice is made Section 3 contains a review of the current way in which. most magnetic particle and dye penetrant inspections are designed and carried out and the. way in which the quality of the inspection is assured Section 4 provides an analysis of. potential problems in method technique application together with a list of the measures. which can be adopted in response In doing this it is recognised that the extent to which it is. reasonable to include additional features in the inspection and incur additional costs as a. result depends on the role of the inspection in assuring plant safety the economics of the. inspection activity and the consequences of the inspection failing to achieve its objectives. Accordingly Section 5 contains a discussion on how the effectiveness required of the. inspection can be assessed and on how this then affects the adoption of the additional. inspection measures identified in Section 4 Finally Section 6 highlights safety issues. associated with the application of magnetic particle and dye penetrant inspections. 2 GENERAL FEATURES OF THE TWO METHODS, 2 1 Method Selection.
Magnetic particle and dye penetrant inspection are the two most common NDT methods. applied for the detection of surface breaking defects There are many other methods for. detecting surface defects such as eddy currents potential drop and AC field measurement. ACFM which may be better suited to a particular inspection problem but these methods are. not addressed in this document, If applied correctly then both MPI and dye penetrant inspections also referred to as MT and. PT respectively can be sensitive to surface defects However when the component is. magnetic and both methods can be applied the application of MPI is generally preferred to. that of dye penetrant for a number of reasons MPI has the capability to detect defects through. thin coatings Dye penetrant is less tolerant of poor surface condition and its effectiveness can. also be adversely affected by any material within a defect In addition MPI is much quicker. to apply than dye penetrant Consequently the general approach that is applied in the UK is. that if a material is magnetic then of the two methods MPI is preferred For non magnetic. materials dye penetrant must be used, In typical applications no permanent record of the inspection is automatically produced If. this is required it can easily be achieved for both inspection methods by photographing the. indications Alternatively a number of other methods are available for recording magnetic. particle indications directly from the surface These are described in reference 3 Both. inspection methods require the inspection surface to be accessible so that powders or inks can. be applied For the inspection of components where this is not possible then a method. capable of remote application such as the alternative surface methods mentioned in the first. paragraph of this section should be selected, A full list of the defect types both manufacturing and service induced which can be detected. by MPI inspection is given in reference 3 This also includes notes on the appearance of the. different defects as an aid to interpretation of indications Background information on the. capability and limitations of dye penetrant inspection can be obtained from reference 11. 2 2 Application of Methods in Practice, Both dye penetrant inspections and MPI involve a sequence of separate activities and there. are possible variations in the application of each Figure 1 shows the two processes. highlighting the common tasks, Penetrant Magnetic Particle.
Surface Surface, Preparation Preparation, Cleaning Cleaning De. Magnetisation, Application Apply Contrast, Paint if required. Dwell Time Magnetisation, Removal Application, Develop Observe. Time period Record, Magnetisation, Record if required. Cleaning Cleaning, Figure 1 The Process Tasks of MPI Dye Penetrant Inspections.
The surface preparation and cleaning are discussed in Section 4 After surface preparation and. cleaning has been performed a visual examination of the surface is usually undertaken. For MPI the magnetisation can be achieved in a variety of ways The magnetic field can be. produced either by the application of magnets to the component or by a electric current. flowing through or close to the component Common practice in the UK for in service. inspection of welds is to use an AC yoke for MPI, The main techniques available for MPI are. Technique Description, Magnets Permanent or electro magnets are placed on the. component producing a magnetic field in the component. between the poles, Current flow with The current flowing through the component induces a. electrical terminals or magnetic field, Threading cable An electric cable or cables is passed through the bore or. aperture of a component and the current flowing through. the cable induces a magnetic field in the component. Rigid Coil The component is placed within a current carrying coil and. a magnetic field parallel to the axis of the coil is induced in. the component, Flexible cable A current carrying cable is wound around or laid across a.
component inducing a magnetic field in the component. Electrical currents generating the magnetic fields can be DC AC full wave rectified or half. wave rectified Similarly the magnets can be permanent DC electro magnets or AC electro. magnets Guidance on the selection of the appropriate magnetisation technique can be found. in the Published Document PD 6513 1985 Ref 3 which supports the British Standard Ref. Both inspection methods require the application of material to the surface of the component. for MPI this is a collection of magnetic particles which can be in the form of a dry powder or. in liquid suspension Contrast paint may be applied first to improve particle visibility For dye. penetrant the material used is a suitable liquid dye Common UK practice for in service. inspection is to use red penetrant for dye penetrant inspection The alternatives are. Magnetic Particles Dry powder, Solvent based suspension. Water based suspension, Dye Penetrant Water washable penetrant. Solvent removable penetrant, Post Emulsifiable penetrant. Post emulsifiable penetrants use an emulsifier to aid removal after application either by oil or. by a water wash In all cases compatibility between the materials used for the inspection and. those under test must be assured, The use of dry magnetic powders has the disadvantage that once the particles are on the. surface they lose their mobility However they are preferred for use on rough surfaces where. the liquid inks also have problems of mobility and also on hot surfaces The liquid magnetic. inks usually have a higher sensitivity than powders due to the greater control which can be. exercised over their application The choice between solvent or water based magnetic inks. needs to consider the surface wetting capability of the ink the flammability and safety of the. solvent base and the potential corrosion effect of the water base Reference 3 provides. detailed advice on the choice and use of magnetic inks and powders. Similar considerations apply in the selection between solvent based dyes and water washable. dyes with the additional factors of their penetrating ability and the need to clean the excess. dye from the surface, Once the excess dye has been removed developer is applied to draw the dye out of the defect.
and produce the indication The developer needs to be compatible with the dye and the. component The developer needs to be left for a period of time sufficient to draw the dye out. of the type of defects requiring detection, The final task before any cleaning and de magnetisation for MPI which is necessary is the. viewing of the indications Lighting levels are important for this as discussed later and also. have safety implications The type of indication and the colour of the test surface will aid the. selection of either colour contrast or fluorescent penetrants and magnetic powders The use of. fluorescent penetrants and fluorescent magnetic inks and powders viewed under ultraviolet. light improves the visibility of fine cracks, 3 CURRENT PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND CONTROL OF INSPECTIONS. Many magnetic particle and dye penetrant inspections are designed on the basis of a national. or international standard such as BS 6072 Ref 4 for MPI and BS EN 571 1 Ref 5 for. penetrant testing The status of the various standards as of August 2001 is given in Appendix. 2 The procedure for the inspection is frequently written to reflect simply the requirements of. the standard in terms of the application of the equipment and the consumables However. Part 2 Magnetic Particle and Dye Penetrant Inspection GAS AND CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY TECHNOLOGY DIVISION April 2002 3 The recommendations contained in this document were aimed specifically to improve the inspection of conventional pressurised equipment However the drafting committee considers that these measures can also apply to any application of Magnetic Particle and Dye Penetrant

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