Pa R T V Engaging The Private Sector To Upgrade Infrastructure-Books Pdf

PA R T V Engaging the Private Sector to Upgrade Infrastructure
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CHAPTER 19,ICT in Sub Saharan Africa Success Stories. Kaoru Kimura Duncan Wambogo Omole and Mark Williams. s recently as 1998 few people in Sub Saharan Voice networks. Africa had access to a telephone and even fewer, Voice networks are expanding rapidly and the number of. had access to computers Since then this situation, people using the networks is growing Between 1998 and. has changed out of all recognition Africa has experienced a. 2008 the number of mobile cellular subscribers in Sub. continent wide revolution in the growth of the information. Saharan Africa leaped from about 4 million to 259 million. and communication technology ICT sector Networks,figure 19 1. have expanded services have been made available on a mass. Innovations in the way services are delivered have also. market basis and prices have fallen ICT is now an everyday. made ICT more accessible to customers in Africa Prepay. service for many Africans affordable to the majority rather. ment has allowed customers to control their expenditures. than the privileged few This growth continues today as. and avoid regular monthly subscription payments African. companies innovate bringing new products and services to. operators have also led the way in selling prepay credits in. the market, very small units making calling accessible to large numbers.
This chapter examines the ICT sector in Africa The first. of people including the poor, section describes the expansion of voice networks and. A combination of new technologies and sound policy. broadband Internet The second section identifies the key. choices including market liberalization by governments. factors that have contributed to the expansion of the sector. has triggered private investment which has laid the founda. The third section analyzes the impact of ICT on a variety of. tions of the connectivity revolution in Africa The global. areas including mobile banking telemedicine and agricul. standardization of mobile telephone network technology. ture The last section examines the role of the World Bank. has created international competition in both network. Group to date and in the future, equipment and customer devices pushing down costs and. lowering prices The liberalization of markets and the estab. lishment of sound regulatory frameworks have allowed pri. EXPANSION OF THE SECTOR, vate investors into the market driving the expansion of. The telecommunications sector in Africa has expanded telecommunications networks Between 1998 and 2008 total. rapidly since 1998 with both an increase in network and private sector investment in telecoms in Sub Saharan Africa. services provided At the same time prices have fallen every reached 49 billion World Bank 2010a mainly in the. where bringing telecommunications within the economic mobile market figure 19 2 This investment has resulted in. reach of the majority of Africans a rapid increase in the proportion of the population covered. Figure 19 1 Mobile Cellular Subscription in Sub Saharan Africa 1998 2008. Subscribers per 100 people,6 5 1 011 4 1 7, Mobile cellular subscriptions in Sub Saharan Africa left axis. Mobile cellular subscriptions in Sub Saharan Africa per 100 people right axis. Mobile cellular subscriptions in world per 100 people right axis. Source World Bank 2010b, Figure 19 2 Telecommunications Investment in The success of mobile communication has been very.
Sub Saharan Africa 1998 2008 scalable with large and small countries experiencing rapid. increases in network coverage and access Both Nigeria a. 12 0 country of about 150 million people and Rwanda a coun. try of about 10 million people have experienced steady. growth in network coverage figure 19 4,Billions of dollars. 8 0 At the same time as communications networks have. been expanding across Africa and the number of sub. scribers has risen the price of telecommunications services. 4 0 has been coming down The cost of mobile communica. tions fell by nearly 50 percent between 2000 and 2009 By. 2010 the average price of a mobile call in Africa was about. 0 0 0 10 a minute AICD forthcoming and prices are con. tinuing to fall as competition intensifies,Source World Bank 2010a. Broadband internet, by mobile networks which increased from about 10 percent Globally broadband Internet is becoming an important. in 1999 to 60 percent in 2009 More than 90 percent of Sub part of national economies Africa lags far behind most. Saharan Africa s urban population now lives within range other parts of the world in access to broadband Internet. of a mobile signal a remarkable transformation in only Broadband penetration in the region was 6 5 percent in. 10 years figure 19 3 2008 one quarter of the world average ITU 2010 In 2008. 4 CHAPTER 19 ICT IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA SUCCESS STORIES. Figure 19 3 Mobile Coverage in Rural and Urban Sub Saharan Africa 1999 2009. Percent 50,Total Urban Rural,Source Authors based on data from GSM Association. Note Figures show connection to GSM network, Figure 19 4 Mobile Network Coverage in Nigeria and Rwanda 2002 08.
Percent of population,Rwanda Nigeria,Source ITU 2010. fixed broadband Internet cost 100 a month in Sub KEY SUCCESS FACTORS. Saharan Africa more than three times the world average. Many factors have contributed to the success of the ICT sec. of 31 40 ITU 2010 figure 19 5, tor in Africa The most important of these has been the con. This situation is starting to change as broadband Inter. tinentwide change in sector policy from one based on. net becomes more widely available and prices begin to fall. monopoly provision of ICT services to a privately owned. Nigeria Kenya and South Africa are leading the way in. competitive market The vast majority of countries in Africa. Africa with rapidly rising numbers of broadband sub. have liberalized their telecommunications markets and that. scribers mainly through wireless handsets In most African. liberalization has spurred private investment into infrastruc. countries however broadband remains beyond the reach of. ture and created competition between operators leading to. the majority of the population, expanded availability of services and reduced prices. CHAPTER 19 ICT IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA SUCCESS STORIES 341. Figure 19 5 Monthly Price of Broadband Internet by World Region 2008. Broadband price as percent of monthly per capita income. Monthly broadband internet price dollars,22 23 23 21. Fixed broadband internet price per month left hand side. Broadband price percent of per capita income monthly right hand side. Source ITU 2010, Many governments have also privatized the incumbent The success of the ICT sector in Africa is also attribut.
telecommunications operator Privatization is significant able to innovation within the industry itself Technologies. because it removes one of the main distortionary factors and business models have been adapted to the African. in the market and allows the government to carry out market improving efficiency and tailoring services to the. its main role of regulating the market without any conflict specific needs of customers in the region Finally the. of interest political economy of the telecommunications sector has. These policies have resulted in the rapid growth of the affected government s willingness to undertake sector. mobile telecommunications segment of the market Broad policy reforms. band Internet has been much slower to take off in part. because of the inadequacy of certain segments of the. Creating competitive markets, broadband network infrastructure particularly access to. the international communications networks These bottle Competition in the telecommunications market was intro. necks have been constraining growth of broadband Inter duced in Africa in the late 1990s when mobile networks. net limiting its availability and making it prohibitively were first established there All but a handful of countries. expensive Recently the growth of the submarine fiber in Sub Saharan Africa have introduced competition in their. optic cable infrastructure has dramatically increased the mobile markets and more than half have more than two. availability of international bandwidth on the continent mobile operators ACID forthcoming This increase in. and competition between cable providers has led to rapid competition has been one of the primary drivers of the. declines in prices sector growth and network expansion. 6 CHAPTER 19 ICT IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA SUCCESS STORIES. Competition takes time to develop Countries that compete effectively with the private sector The best long. reformed early have experienced better sector performance term solution to these problems is to sell state owned. than late reformers Performance also improves as competi enterprises to create a level playing field for all players in. tion intensifies Mobile subscription penetration rates in the market. Africa grew by less than 1 percentage point a year between Realizing this governments across the region have priva. the establishment of the first mobile network and the entry tized their state owned telecommunications operators By. of the second operator By the time a fourth operator enters 2010 28 African countries had gone through this process. the market the subscriber penetration rate grows by 2 4 see annex table 19A 1 Mali completed the privatization. percentage points a year AICD forthcoming of its state owned telecommunications operator in 2009. The way in which liberalization takes place also has an box 19 1. impact In Nigeria for example the government awarded. the first three GSM Global System for Mobile communica. Overcoming infrastructure bottlenecks, tions licenses simultaneously spurring a race to expand. coverage and gain market share Nigeria now has five mobile Most mobile operators have built their own end to end net. operators and is considered one of the most competitive works overcoming infrastructure bottlenecks along the way. markets in the region With a mobile subscriber penetration As the focus of the ICT industry in Africa shifts toward. rate approaching 50 percent it is also one of the best con broadband Internet network infrastructure requirements. nected countries in Africa are changing Broadband requires networks capable of han. Competition has been the primary driving force behind dling much higher volumes of traffic than that generated by. mobile network expansion and more recently declines in voice services As much of the traffic generated by broad. the price of calls A recent study indicates that competition band crosses international borders it also requires more. could potentially continue to drive this expansion until net international network infrastructure This type of network. works cover 90 percent of Africa s population AICD 2010 infrastructure has traditionally been underdeveloped in. Africa The lack of suitable infrastructure has become a sig. nificant bottleneck contributing to the slow growth of the. Privatizing state owned enterprises,Internet in the region. State ownership of telecommunications operators distorts This situation began to change in 2009 with the develop. markets and adversely affects competition Governments ment of undersea fiber optic cables connecting Africa to the. often give state owned operators preferential treatment global communications networks By 2010 Sub Saharan. by carving out areas of exclusivity for them in the market Africa had 12 operational cables and another 5 were under. or failing to enforce regulatory rules such as interconnec construction The operational cables have a combined. tion payments At the same time these operators often capacity of more than 12 terabytes per second tbps A total. find it difficult to obtain the necessary capital and skills to of 1 7 billion is being invested in the 5 undersea cables. Box 19 1 Privatization and Sector Reform in Mali, Mali s state owned telecommunications operator rate rose to 40 percent and Maroc Telecom is now. Soci t des T l communications du Mali SOTELMA focusing on revitalizing the fixed line network and. was established in 1989 as the state owned monopoly rolling out fixed broadband Internet. operator Despite the continuous growth in the mobile This process was supported throughout by the. market in Mali led by the introduction of competi World Bank through a technical assistance project. tion in the form of a second GSM operator Ikatel in covering the privatization the reform of the legal and. 2003 the fixed line market remained underserved and regulatory framework and capacity building for the. dominated by SOTELMA government institutions A World Bank team contin. In 2009 SOTELMA was successfully privatized with ues to work with the government of Mali to further. a 51 percent stake going to Maroc Telecom At the same liberalize the telecommunication market and improve. time a new legal framework and universal access strat connectivity by developing regional links to neighbor. egy were adopted The telecommunications penetration ing countries. CHAPTER 19 ICT IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA SUCCESS STORIES 343. currently under construction which will bring an addi development of the Internet in Africa Development of. tional 9 tbps of capacity to the region figure 19 6 these networks has been much slower although the recent. The impact of this growth is already being felt In East upsurge of interest by African telecommunications compa. s recently as 1998 few people in Sub Saharan Africa had access to a telephone and even fewer had access to computers Since then this situation

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