Overview Of Types Of Organic Reactions And Basic Concepts-Books Pdf

Overview of Types of Organic Reactions and Basic Concepts
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A chemical reaction is the transformation of one, chemical or collection of chemicals into another. chemical or collection of chemicals, A chemical reaction involves making new chemical. bonds and breaking old chemical bonds, Reactions of organic compounds can be organized. broadly in two ways by, I What types of reactions and. II How these reactions occur, Dr Solomon Derese 2, Overview of Types of Organic Reactions.
The types of reactions organic compounds undergo is. divided into four categories these are, I Additions reactions. II Substitutions reactions, III Elimination reactions. IV Rearrangement reactions, Dr Solomon Derese 3, I Addition Reactions. Addition reactions occur when two starting materials. add together to form only one product with no atoms. In an addition all parts of the adding reagent appear. in the product two molecules become one, Dr Solomon Derese 4. II Substitution Reactions, Substitution reactions occur when two starting.
materials exchange groups to form two new products. In a substitution one group replaces another, Dr Solomon Derese 5. III Elimination Reactions, Elimination reactions are the opposite of addition. A single reactant is split into two two products, Elimination reactions give us a method for preparing. compounds with double and triple bonds, Two s bonds are broken and a p bond is formed. between adjacent atoms, Dr Solomon Derese 6, Addition and elimination reactions are exactly.
opposite A p bond is formed in elimination reactions. whereas a p bond is broken in addition reactions, Dr Solomon Derese 7. IV Rearrangement Reactions, Rearrangement reactions occur when one starting. material forms one product with a different, arrangement of atoms and bonds. The product is an isomer of the starting material, We have so far seen the different types of organic. reactions let s now see how reactions occur, Dr Solomon Derese 8.
Assignment 22, Classify each of the following reactions as addition. elimination substitution or rearrangement, Dr Solomon Derese 9. Basic Concepts of Organic Reactions Mechanisms, An overall description of how a reaction occurs is. called a reaction mechanism, A mechanism describes in detail exactly what takes. place at each stage of a chemical transformation, which bonds are broken and in what order which.
bonds are formed and in what order, It is detailed explanation of the electron movement in. the course of chemical reactions, A reaction mechanism must account for all reactants. used and all products formed, Dr Solomon Derese 10. A reaction mechanism is a reasonable stepwise, illustration of how the electrons in the bonds of the. reactants of a reaction are reorganized into its, products under a given set of reaction conditions.
During a course of a chemical reaction chemical, bonds in the reactants are broken and bonds in the. products are formed bonds can be broken, symmetrically one electron remains with each. product fragment or unsymmetrically bonding, electrons remain with one product fragment. The symmetrical cleavage is homolytic cleavage and. the unsymmetrical cleavage is heterolytic, Dr Solomon Derese 11. Homolytic bond cleavage, Fish hook arrow Radicals, Symmetrical bond breaking bonding electrons shared.
between the two atoms, Heterolytic bond cleavage, Double sided arrow Ions. Unsymmetrical bond breaking One of the elements, taking both bonding electrons. Dr Solomon Derese 12, Just as there are two ways in which a bond can break. there are two ways in which a covalent two electron. bond can form, Symmetrical bond making Homogenic, One bonding electron is donated by each reactant. Unsymmetrical bond making Heterogenic, Two bonding electrons are donated by one reactant.
Dr Solomon Derese 13, Curved Curly Pushing arrows indicate breaking and. forming of bonds, Arrowheads with a half head fish. hook indicate homolytic and, homogenic steps called radical. processes the motion of one electron, Arrowheads with a complete head. indicate heterolytic and heterogenic, steps called polar processes the.
motion of an electron pair, Dr Solomon Derese 14, Reactions that involve symmetrical bond breaking. and bond making are called radical reactions A, radical often called a free radical is a neutral. reactive chemical species that contains an odd, number of electrons and thus has a single unpaired. electron in one of its orbitals, Reactions that involve unsymmetrical bond breaking. and bond making are called polar reactions Polar, reactions occur between negatively charged anions.
and positively charged cations ions, Polar reactions are by far the most common reaction. Overview of Types of Organic Reactions and Basic Concepts of Organic Reaction Mechanisms SCH 102 Dr Solomon Derese 2 Reactions of organic compounds can be organized broadly in two ways by I What types of reactions and II How these reactions occur A chemical reaction is the transformation of one chemical or collection of chemicals into another chemical or collection of chemicals A

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