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Organizing Professionalism New Elites Stratification
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164 J Alvehus et al, system of practices founded in core values resulting in autonomous highly skilled. workers making intricate decisions about cases without any interference by superiors or. customers Freidson 2001 The lack of interference of hierarchy coordination follow. ing up and the reliance on the competence and value infused identity has rendered the. described situation as one of Boccupational professionalism Evetts 2013 or just. Bpure professionalism Attempts to control organize and subordinate the professional. work force have oftentimes been treated as a threat a challenge or a takeover The result. has been described as managerialism Harlow et al 2013 Borganized professions. Evetts 2013 or Bcontrolled professions Noordegraaf 2015 The controlled profes. sionalism is dominated by managers rational legal authority accountability rules and. regulation Unlike the pure professionalism stemming from inside the profession. organized professionalism is ordered from above Evetts 2013 Evans 2011 The. underlying conflict is sometimes attributed to different values and sometimes to matters. of power Abbott 1988b, A more limited but emerging literature takes a different stance Instead of positing. organization as an opposition or a threat to professionalism it views it as a feature of a. developed professionalism with a potentially productive outcome Freidson 1985. Waring 2014 Noordegraaf 2015 The label Borganizing professionalism has been. used Noordegraaf 2015 Schott et al 2016 and Bstratification Waring 2014. Freidson 1985 Stratification in this context involves fragmentizing of professions. where some professionals emerge into different kinds of elites Instead of organizing. and control from above this would represent organizing and maintaining internal. control of the profession, Within the literature on organizing professionalism two different lines of reasoning. can be observed One line follows the idea that organizing answers to the need to. coordinate and safeguard the performance and carrying out of work by the professional. work force Noordegraaf 2011 2015 In order to accomplish work at high standards it. needs to be organized The other line follows the idea that organizing is an inherent. dimension of professions It is not the autonomy of the single professional worker that. characterizes a strong profession but that they form part of a system Freidson 1985. 2001 The maintenance and development of the system presupposes coordination and. division of labor among professionals Organizing might therefore be regarded as both. a means to safeguard work processes and a means to safeguard the control over work. Some studies indicate that strong professions have been successful in their internal. organization and managed to meet new demands without losing influence Ferlie et al. 1996 Jacobs 2005 Kastberg and Siverbo 2015 Kirkpatrick and Ackroyd 2003 Still. one might expect intra professional conflict where some professionals gain influence. while some experience a loss of autonomy Some professional workers might be able to. establish an elite position and become highly influential and dominate structuration of. collegial work while others become Brank and file practitioners Waring and Bishop. 2013 Freidson 1985 There are studies indicating conflict Currie et al 2009 or. isolation Ingvarson and Chadbourne 1997 as a result whereas others show that control. exercised by fellow colleagues might be accepted and does not need to result in. conflict McDonald et al 2009 Numerato et al 2012, How new challenges are met by more intensive organizing and stratification is still. an emerging field and as illustrated the conclusions are inconclusive Numerato et al. 2012 In addition most studies are focusing the medical profession The aim of this. Organizing Professionalism New Elites Stratification and 165. study is therefore to contribute to the emerging literature on stratification and organiz. ing of professions This is done by addressing the question how division of labor is. affected by enhanced organization of a profession, The study adds just a little bit by illustrating how stratification took place and a new.
division of labor emerged within a recognized Bflat profession Swedish teachers By the. use of the concept of appropriation it is described how established tasks were taken over. but also how novel issues were covered Unlike many other studies not much conflict or. resistance regarding the new division of labor were observed It is proposed that this is. because the new division of labor did not challenge the dominance over the core domain. of teachers or of principals but rather contributed to a de hybridization or polarization in. the sense that the different parties received less diversified tasks to deal with. Calls have been made stressing the importance of widening the empirical focus and. consider different sectors Hendrikx and van Gestel 2017 and specifics of different. organizational professional intersections Waring 2014 The case in this study is. intriguing since it focuses on a reform where the state s expressed ambition is to. strengthen the teaching profession by creating a new kind of teachers BFirst. Teachers Since the initiative was state driven the case would resemble what Evetts. 2013 label Bdemanded professionalism Unlike most professions the Swedish. teaching profession might be characterized as Bflat Helg y and Homme 2007. without an internal formal hierarchy except for principals. The reform was initiated through national legislation meanwhile it is the munici. palities private school companies and third sector organizations that act as principals. There was room for local actors to design and create a local strategy for the FT. positions The reform is an attempt to make new career pathways with a significant. salary increase 60 000 SEK yr on average about 15 20 increase. Professional Work and Organizing, Definitions of professions often rely on the relationship between professional knowl. edge professional workers and clients Brante 2010 as professional work is about. applying abstract professional knowledge to specific client problems Abbott 1991. The autonomy of the individual professional worker in relation to the client case work. is often stressed as a core characteristic of professional work The complexity and the. specificity of the individual cases leave little room for procedural control or ex post. result control Hofstede 1981, Freidson 2001 puts an emphasis on how professional work is characterized by the. exercise of collegial control within the profession This can be contrasted with bureau. cratic control where control resides in an administrative hierarchy or market control. where clients ultimately decide Moreover professionalism depends on established. jurisdictions within which professionals maintain monopoly in performing tasks. There are thus recognized boundaries between the professional workers sphere and. other domains like the bureaucratic one Abbott 1988a Apart from core professional. work then Abbott ibid identifies boundary maintenance and defense as relevant. professional forms of work Such boundary maintenance is directed towards extra. professional actors protecting the monopoly of the profession autonomy is not only. upheld at the individual level but also on systemic level. 166 J Alvehus et al, Both the recognition of the systemic dimension of professions and the work that has. to be done in order to maintain or obtain autonomy stress the importance of recognizing. that a profession is not only the sum of autonomous independent practitioners but is. also defined by the extent to which it manages to create and sustain an inherent order. Freidson 1985 Drawing on the empirical example of physicians Freidson 1985. described how external pressure was handled through a re stratification internal to the. profession With more internal hierarchy and with the help of an elite acting as. advocates the medical profession managed to safeguard its boundaries Some practi. tioners lost autonomy giving it up to the elite practitioners However this was. Bcompensated by the maintenance of the autonomy of the profession as a whole. While the basic argument is that the elite represents and strengthens the profession this. is not accomplished without tensions and conflict Elites working on different levels. and with different bases in knowledge and administration will tend to develop Bmacro. perspectives on different issues while practitioners continue to be more oriented. towards Bmicro perspectives Freidson 1985 Scott 1982. Causes of enhanced organizing and internal stratification have been discussed and. several driving factors have been identified Waring and Bishop 2013 Noordegraaf. 2015 Freidson 1985 Technological change has affected how work is carried out. infusing it with a more complex technological dimension The low tech character of. professional work Mintzberg 1983 is therefore changing making co operation with. other expert staff more important Technology also brings with it an enhanced trans. parency Brank your doctor Sahlin Andersson 2006 which in turn changes the. relationship to the clients New and enhanced demands on efficiency have also caused a. pressure for change All in all professional workers face new demands regarding the. ability to be Bconnective Noordegraaf 2015 in the sense that they have to coordinate. and co operate more intensively within the profession and with other stakeholders and. competencies, Division of Labor and Intra Professional Hierarchy. The discussion this far provides a foundation for a more specific discussion on division. of work roles and stratification The basic line of reasoning is that professional work. has to be understood as consisting of layers or hierarchical levels and different kinds of. tasks While there of course is no definite order several scholars have pointed at two or. three layers in their conceptualization Waring 2014 Freidson 1985 Helg y and. Homme 2007 Noordegraaf 2015 Frostenson 2015 Alvehus 2017 At each of these. layers professional staff might control it and hence obtain autonomy Professional. workers might dominate both content and context and representatives might take on. administrative tasks and Bbuffer Ferlie et al 1996 Jacobs 2005 Another outcome is. of course that other actor groups administrators politicians or customers exercise. control challenge the autonomy of the professional workers and Bcolonize Neu. 2006 the professional domain Professional workers might end up Bco opted or. Bhybridized Kurunm ki 2004 Bejerot and Hasselbladh 2011. Noordegraaf 2015 relates the levels to the professional client case work or. Btreating cases as the starting point the Btreating of the treatment as a second. dimension and the Btreating of the treatment of case treatment as a third Although. Organizing Professionalism New Elites Stratification and 167. tongue twisting it illustrates the need for organizing and structuring professional work. beyond the direct professional client relation In a similar manner Waring 2014. building on Freidson 1985 discusses work managerial administrative and policy. levels of professional work The use of the concept of policy level adds a dimension. through pointing out the importance of recognizing the work with relating the profes. sional work to societal concerns At each level professional work is both related to the. immediate client related work and the administrative work of coordinating maintaining. and developing the profession as a system By taking control over administration. professionals take control over the context of professional work and by taking control. over knowledge production they take control over the content of professional work. Waring 2014 Both knowledge production and administration are important for the. carrying out of work yet distant from the actual professional client relationship Still. forming part of the professional system some professionals might take on tasks related. to administration or to knowledge production implementation and thereby safeguard. the profession and buffer attempts to control the profession The systematization. of knowledge production and knowledge transmission presupposes a hierarchy. Mintzberg 1983 The recognition of hierarchy indicates internal boundaries. that need to be considered as developments within a profession may lead to. new divisions of labor For example if a certain part of a profession s work. becomes routinized it may be Bhived off from the professional core Simpler tasks. sometimes referred to as Bscut work might be delegated to persons not belonging to the. profession Huising 2015, Regarding work level a focal issue is to what extent the professional worker plans.
and conducts day to day activities in an autonomous way owning decisions on mea. sures to take and efficient strategies to cope with specific situations Although not often. recognized in the literature also the client related every day work needs to be. coordinated related to other competencies and administrated When it comes to the. teaching profession the work level has been described as rather autonomous teachers. have owned the class room practice Hargreaves 2000 Helsby 1995. It is often when the collegial organizational level is focused that the context of. professional work is highlighted At this level the single treatment of cases is replaced. with a concern of a wider range of practitioners Professional work in this setting has to. Organizing Professionalism New Elites Stratification and Division of Labor Johan Alvehus1 amp Sanna Eklund2 amp Gustaf Kastberg2 The Author s 2019 Abstract

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