Operational Manual for,Mechanical Transplanting of Rice. The Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia CSISA is mandated to enhance farm. productivity and increase incomes of resource poor farm families in South Asia through the. accelerated development and inclusive deployment of new varieties sustainable. management technologies partnerships and policies The project is implemented by the. CGIAR institutions of CIMMYT IFPRI ILRI IRRI and WorldFish and is supported by the US. Agency for International Development and the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation. www csisa org,www knowledgebank irri org csisa,email cimmyt csisa cgiar org. Prepared with contributions from Joseph F Rickman Frank Mussgnug C M. Khanda Swetapadma D Satpathy Nabakishore Parida Kapil Singla Vivek. Kumar Narayan C Banik Wasim Iftikar Amit Mishra Sudhir Yadav Virender. Kumar R K Malik and Andrew J McDonald, Editorial Assistance Poornima R Shankar Preeti Bharti Anuradha Dhar and. Cynthia Mathys, Adapted from R K Malik B R Kamboj M L Jat H S Sidhu Anil Bana Vicky. Singh Y S Saharawat A Pundir Rasool Dar Sahnawaz T Anuradha N. Kumaran and Raj Gupta 2011 No till and unpuddled mechanical transplanting of. rice Operational manual Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia New Delhi India. This publication is a product of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia Phase II CSISA and copyrighted by. the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CIMMYT and International Rice Research Institute. IRRI 2015 and is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial ShareAlike 3 0. License Unported, The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of. any opinion whatsoever on the part of CIMMYT and IRRI concerning the legal status of any country person. territory city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries Where. trade names are used this does not constitute endorsement of or discrimination against any product by. CIMMYT and IRRI,1 Introduction 1,2 What is mechanical transplanting of rice 1. 3 What is mat type nursery 2,4 Preparation of mat type nursery bed 3. a Preparation of dry nursery bed 4,b Preparation of wet nursery bed 5. 5 Management of mat nursery 6,6 Mechanical transplanting guidelines 9. a Important do s 10,7 Operation of machine transplanter 13. a Machine controls 13,8 Checks for machine operation and maintenance 16. 9 Checks for planting using the transplanter 17, 10 Troubleshooting for the mechanical transplanter 18. mechanical transplanting The timeliness of, Introduction planting can be further enhanced through. Across South Asia labour scarcity is a the use of a mat type nursery system that. major problem and there is a need to can provide seedlings of the appropriate age. explore establishment methods for rice that whenever the conditions for transplanting. require less labour but still allow the crop are right By eliminating puddling soil. to be transplanted on time The use of a structure for the next non rice crop will be. mechanical transplanter is one alternative improved. to address this issue This booklet highlights the benefits of. In Odisha which is largely a rainfed rice mechanical transplanting of rice and. growing environment the timeliness of discusses some of the operational and. transplanting can be further improved by management issues that need to be. the replacement of puddling by a shallow addressed It will help extension staff. tillage operation In the absence of service providers and innovative farmers to. irrigation facilities this reduces the water use mechanical transplanting with or. requirements for land preparation which without puddling with an easy step by step. increases the options for earlier crop guide,establishment through non puddled. What is mechanical,transplanting of rice,Mechanical transplanting of rice is the. process of transplanting young rice,seedlings which have been grown in a mat. nursery using a self propelled rice,transplanter,In conventional manual transplanting. practice 8 12 labourers are required to,transplant one acre However if a self. propelled rice transplanter is used three,Manual transplanting of rice a labour intensive. people can transplant up to four acres in a, Mechanical transplanting of rice a suitable and Mat type nursery needed for mechanical. profitable alternative to manual transplanting transplanting of rice. Advantages of mechanical transplanting, Transplanting of seedlings at the optimal age 14 18 days. Uniform spacing and optimum plant density 26 28 hills m2 with 2 3 seedling per. Higher productivity 0 5 0 7 t ha compared to traditional methods where plant. spacing and density may not always be consistent, Less transplanting shock early seedling vigour and uniform crop stand. Lower stress drudgery and health risks for farm labourers. Better employment opportunities for rural youth through the development of. custom service business,Addresses the problem of labour scarcity. Increases farmers net income,What is mat type nursery. A mat type nursery is a nursery where rice,seedlings are raised on a thin layer of soil. and farm yard manure FYM or compost,mixture placed on a polythene sheet The. polythene sheet prevents the seedling roots,from penetrating the underlying soil. creating a dense mat This type of nursery is,a pre requisite for machine transplanting. The mat can be cut into desired shapes and, sizes to fit into the trays of the transplanter Seedlings raised in mats can obtain a height of. Seedlings are ready for planting within 18 20 cm in 15 days which is ideal for. mechanical transplanting,14 18 days after seeding DAS. Advantages of a mat type nursery, Uses less area when compared to the conventional nursery 30 m2 vs 400 m2 acre. Produces robust seedlings 18 20 cm tall in about 15 days. Minimizes root damage as the seedlings are not uprooted and transplanting shock is. Labour requirement for nursery raising is significantly reduced. Preparation of mat type,Preparation of mat nursery should begin. 15 20 days prior to the anticipated time of,transplanting The nursery can be. established in either a wet or dry bed, Materials required Perforated plastic sheet the holes should be. small enough to allow water but not seedling,Good quality seeds roots to pass through. Nursery bed for transplanting one,acre is 30 m 1 5 m wide x 20 m long. to suit the plastic sheet size,Plastic sheet 1 3 m wide and 20 m long. is commonly available with even,perforations,Soil cleaning sieve. Soil mixture 4 parts of sieved soil 1,part of FYM or compost vermi Ice pick. Gunny bag and water container for,seed soaking,Watering can for irrigation. 0 75 inch angle frame for a dry bed,and 0 5 inch frame for a wet bed. Use an iron frame to help maintain uniform size,and thickness of the soil. Soil sieve to remove stones twigs and other Mix soil and FYM in the ratio 4 1 and use in the. unwanted material bed for the dry type nursery,Preparation of a dry. nursery bed,Bed preparation For one acre field a,nursery bed 1 5m wide 20m long and 10. 15cm thick should be prepared on a,levelled field Between beds there should. be a furrow of 20 30 cm If possible b,establish the nursery near an irrigation. facility or water source as frequent,irrigation will be required to maintain a. good nursery,Using the plastic sheet Spread a,polythene sheet of the required size on. each bed Before spreading the sheet,perforate the sheet evenly to improve. drainage and aeration,Soil mixture For a dry bed take soil from c. a weed free field and pass it through a,2 mesh sieve Prepare a mixture of sieved. soil and farm yard manure compost in a,4 1 ratio soil FYM. Spreading the soil mixture After,thorough mixing spread the mixture. uniformly on the plastic sheet This layer,should not be more than 1 5 2 0 cm thick. To ensure an even depth place a frame,that is 1 5 2 0 cm high on the plastic sheet d. and fill with the soil mixture, Prepare a dry bed a and level it Spread the perforated polythene sheet over the bed and level b Place. the iron frame and fill with soil and FYM mixture c and level d Allow a gap of 20 30 cm for irrigation. e Spread the pre germinated seeds evenly Cover it with a thin layer of soil and FYM irrigate by. sprinkling water and cover the nursery with straw after seeding for 2 3 days if needed. Preparation of a wet,nursery bed,Bed preparation The size of bed for a. wet bed nursery is same as dry bed,nursery However the bed preparation is. different In the kharif season when there,is a large amount of rainfall a wet bed b. nursery becomes inevitable Before,preparing the nursery the field should be. ploughed puddled and levelled After,puddling leave the field to settle for 24. hours Once the soil is settled prepare a,raised bed 20 m long 1 5 m wide and 10 15. cm high Leave the bed to settle for 36 48,hours Afterwards settle the bed with a. Using the plastic sheet Spread a c,polythene sheet of the required size on. each bed Before spreading the sheet,perforate the sheet evenly to improve. Spreading the soil For a wet bed take soil,from between the beds and spread it over. the polythene sheet in a 1 25 cm thick,layer using a 1 2 inch thick iron frame. The soil should be clean and clod free,Once the soil is spread over the polythene d. sheet within the iron frame level the soil,using a plank and remove extra soil. a Prepare a raised bed b and level it c Spread the perforated polythene sheet over the bed d Place. the iron frame and fill with weed and clod free soil e Level the soil within the frame and spread the seed. evenly Cover the nursery with straw after seeding for 2 3 days. Management of mat type,The steps to establish a mat type nursery. Seed To plant one acre with 26 28 hills m2,and 2 3 seedlings hill 10 15 kg of inbred or. 8 10 kg of hybrid seed is needed 80,germination Bavistin or Vitavax at 2. g kg of seed may be used to control seed,fungal diseases. Use of healthy seeds for good nursery, Pre germinating seed Submerge the seeds establishment. in water for 10 12 hours Empty and,damaged seeds that float on the surface. should be removed,Sowing Spread the pre germinated seeds. evenly on the bed After spreading the seeds,cover the bed with a thin layer 0 5 cm of. the already prepared soil mixture Cover,the bed with a thin layer of straw or banana. leaves which should be removed after 2 3,Irrigation of nursery Irrigate the beds by. sprinkling water using a watering can for,When you soak the seeds in water empty. the initial 3 4 days until the seeds emerge seeds will usually float to the surface These. and then irrigate beds by flooding furrows should be removed. between the beds keeping the bed moist, After soaking the seeds drain and incubate for 8 12 hours in a gunny bag in a shaded area Some water may. need to be sprinkled on the outside of the gunny bag in very dry conditions. Use pre germinated seeds at the right stage, Spread the pre germinated seeds evenly on the bed Seeds can also be spread evenly using a seed spreader. may require water to be sprinkled 5 8 Vermicompost However it is advisable to. times day for the first 3 4 days Ensure apply 100 gm DAP after one week of. water retention on the top of the nursery sowing for one acre nursery bed When. bed by frequently irrigating the furrows nutrient deficiencies occur yellowing. until the seedlings are ready for use Keep apply a foliar application of 0 5 zinc. the height of levees bunds higher than sulphate 21 and 2 5 urea If. the bed height so that water can be symptoms re appear it should be. retained on the top of the beds Replace repeated after 5 7 days In case symptoms. the water with fresh water when water of iron deficiency are visible foliar. during day time becomes hot Stop application of 0 5 solution of ferrous. watering 12 hours before transplanting sulphate is recommended. and drain excess water to ensure the mat,Cutting mats When the nursery is ready. is dry for cutting and transplanting,for transplanting drain the water 12. Transplant when the seedlings are 18 20,hours prior to transplanting Mats should. cm tall which is usually 14 18 days after,be cut to the required size using a sharp. establishment,knife sickle If mats need to be, Nutrient supplement The nutritional transported they should be kept moist by. requirement of the nursery is generally sprinkling water to avoid wilting. met by the mixture of soil and FYM, Remove the straw 2 3 days after seeding a b Seedlings in a well managed nursery should be even and. have a height of approximately 8 cm after 8 days c and 16 cm after 12 days d following establishment. depending on climatic conditions To fit the specifications of the mechanical transplanter that is used. nursery mats can be cut into the desired size e h,Mechanical transplanting. guidelines,Prepare the fields to a depth of 5 7 cm. using a harrow or cultivator Puddled fields,should be levelled and the soil allowed to. settle for 12 24 hours In non puddled,conditions the soil should be tilled one to. two times using a harrow or cultivator and,then planked Prior to transplanting apply. light irrigation and drain off any excess d,water When planting maintain a uniform. depth of 1 2 cm standing water If weed,density is high a pre plant application of a. non selective herbicide such as glyphosate,should be done 24 48 hours before. Load the mats carefully onto the transplanter a,and keep moist b Maintain a shallow water depth. 1 cm at the time of transplanting by draining,excess water c Intra row spacing and seedlings. per hill can be adjusted d e Every return pass, should be parallel to the previous row to maintain.
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