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62 P I ANIN,2 LYNCH S THEORY OF URBAN FORM, In Lynch s book Image of the City 1960 1 he introduced the theory of urban form. An urban environment is a complex system of interactions between people users and. various surrounding objects Lynch describes the user as a citizen who has had long as. sociations with some part of his city and his image is soaked in memories and mean. ings He then explains users as moving elements in a city and in particular the people. and their activities are as important as the stationary physical parts Objects the. physical elements of the environment represent the perceptual form of the city in this in. teraction with users Lynch described two things important for a subsequent explanation. of the whole theory first physical elements of the city and second the psychological. mental image of the city, Lynch distinguished physical elements into natural and man made elements Natural. elements such as air sky rivers lakes ponds and hills are all elements that exist in na. ture that man uses and interpolates in his built elements Built elements are infrastruc. ture objects vehicles airplanes and so on i e all objects that man makes by his inten. tion and that physically exist in the perceived environment as static or dynamic objects. All together natural and man made elements are characterized by common characteris. tics such as color smell noise warmth and so on which build a perceptual form of the. urban environment, The visual quality of the urban environment in Lynch s theory relates to the physical. elements of the environment and the mental image of its users Users perceive an urban. environment in its fragmentation into elements and patterns All perceptions are different. and special and are related to users knowledge experience or familiarity with an urban. site Almost every sense is in action all of the time The visual qualities of some elements. and features are used as generalities in the process of navigating in the urban environ. ment Lynch considers the visual quality of the city by studying the mental image of that. city which is held by its citizens The visual quality of the city is concentrated in four. elements in Lynch s theory 1, legibility is defined as elements whose parts can be recognized and organized in a. coherent pattern or symbols, building the image image the image of a given urban environment may vary be. tween different observers users and it is an individual mental image as the result of. a two way process between the observer and his environment. structure and identity identity were defined by Lynch as an environmental image. that can be analysed into three components identity structure and meaning and they. are in reality always appear together and, imageability is defined as the quality in a physical object which gives it a high. probability of evoking a strong image in any given observer. Lynch also analyzed the effects of physical perceptible objects and from this the five. elements of the urban environment were derived In his theory he does not explain all. other influences of an urban environment on imageability such as social meaning func. tionality tradition names and so on The five elements derived from the analysis of ur. ban objects in Lynch s theory are 1, paths are the channels along which the observer customarily occasionally or po. tentially moves they may be streets walkways transit lines canals railroads. On Lynch s and Post Lynchians Theories 63, edges are the linear elements not used or considered as paths by the observe they. are the boundaries between two paths linear breaks in continuity shores railroad. cuts edges of development and walls, districts are the medium to large sections of the city conceived of as having two. dimensional extent which the observer mentally enters inside of and which are. recognizable as having some common identifying characters. nodes are points the strategic spots in a city into which an observer can enter and. which are the intensive foci to and from which he is traveling they may be primarily. junctions places of a break in transportation a crossing or convergence of paths. moments of shift from one structure to another and. landmarks are another type of point reference but in this case the observer does. not enter within them they are external and they are usually a rather simply defined. physical object building sign store or mountain some landmarks are distant ones. typically seen from many angles and distances over the tops of smaller elements. and used as radial references, After describing the basic directions of his theory Lynch carried out an analysis of. three American cities Boston Jersey City and Los Angeles In this analysis he tran. scribed the urban information into elements of a unique graphic sign system Figure 1 1. presents Lynch s process of describing syntax and relations in the visual communication. process in his theory and presents the syntax process of the mental visual system in the. process of cognitive mapping by a user of the urban environment Figure 1 1 also indi. cates two categories of maps permanent and temporal A permanent map in the sense of. Lynch s theory is a map created by graphic representation for different mostly permanent. tasks This map is traditionally presented in a two dimensional medium usually on pa. per such as a topographical or city map This map can also be a graphical representation. of the process of cognitive mapping A temporal map is the mental interpretation of im. ages objects of a particular space by a process of cognitive mapping This map is always. temporal memorized as a mental vision of a particular space in the human brain This. map is not a traditional map but it can be graphically interpreted in a traditional way. Lynch User,syn tax o f,pro cess o f th e pro cess o f syn tax o f. city grap hics co gn itive th e m en tal,an alysis sig n m app ing visu al system. cognitiv e,perm anent tem po ral, Fig 1 Syntax in the visual communication process in Lynch s theory. 64 P I ANIN,3 THE CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE MAPS, The term cognitive map was first used by Tolman 1948 2 who used it to account. for the behavior of rats in a maze that escaped and ran across the top directly to the food. source The rats had obviously integrated information about travel through the maze into a. representation of its layout It was previously thought that a maze is learnt only in terms of. left and right turns at particular points, Since Tolamn s experiment many studies on the nature of cognitive representations of. space have been carried out Here are a few theoretical models of cognitive representation. of space derived mainly from different works on visual imagery 3. literal map in the head space is represented in a spatial way in the brain. functional map in the head space is represented non spatially as propositional. knowledge but the representation functions identically to a map. unlike a map space is represented non spatially but also does not really function. as a map at all spatial events directly influence our actions in space and. hybrid representation different forms of representation are used for different areas. different scales different functions procedural representation on a large scale. The perceptual quality of the environment reflects on the human mind in many. senses Humans recognize an environment space by the reflection of shapes light and. depth Humans orient themselves in an environment by identifying the environment by its. elements and patterns Humans make a mental interpretation of an environment by. memorizing and retrieving elements of the environment and patterns in their brain This. process is defined as cognitive maps, A cognitive map is an association of the cognition of environmental structure and. properties of subjective meanings of the environment The main characteristics of envi. ronmental perception are, size and complexity the environment cannot be perceived all at once and is gener. ally so complex that it takes some time to gain full experience of it. surrounding because the environment surrounds us we experience it from within. we move around in and through the scene and are in a sense part of it and. purposive connection we generally interact with the environment with a specific. goal or plan in mind, Environmental perception is different from perception of an object Humans perceive. an object in totality all at once with all complexity of it Humans can experience an ob. ject with its surroundings and with purposive connections Humans even move objects. from one place to another and change the context of objects. Lynch made the definition of the environmental perception as that city elements oper. ate together in context The recognition of an object is as much dependent on a context. as on the form of the object itself He also defined all urban elements as arranged and in. terrelated in four structural stages 1, the various elements are free there is no structure or interrelations between parts. the structure becomes positional the parts are roughly related to each other. most often the structure is flexible and, as connections multiply the structure tends to become rigid. Lynch also proposed a method which was developed on the basis of research con. ducted in two ways first urban residents were interviewed about their city and asked to. On Lynch s and Post Lynchians Theories 65, draw sketch maps cognitive maps by the process of cognitive mapping second trained. field workers were sent out on foot to make detailed plans of the city with the five ele. ments and their interrelationships in mind All the data were analyzed to determine 1. what were the distinctive features of each city and which areas were more or less. legible and, how well the field maps compared with the aggregate maps of the interviewees. He also found that different parts of the city were differentiated in terms of their legi. bility defined as the strength of imageability of elements and of the structural interplay. between elements From these maps and from the rich detail included in the interviews. Lynch went on to outline a set of criteria for improving the legibility of elements and. Tzonis and Lefaivre 4 nicely concluded that during the 1980s the research on. spatial thinking was joined with developments in artificial intelligence and machine. based simulation of pattern recognition spatial memory problem solving and naviga. tion and Lynch s notion of cognitive mapping became a frequent reference in this devel. oping literature As these studies find their way today to a cognitive theory of design the. significance of Lynch s contribution becomes even more indisputable than ever We are. just beginning to suspect the possibilities that his pioneering method offers. 4 POST LYNCHIANS THEORIES, A scientist searches for information related to things that can be used primarily in ur. ban perception problems which can help individuals locate themselves in urban areas and. act as pointers for building images of the urban environment An individual s conceptual. structure of the urban environment will in some way conform to the physical models that. have been derived from objectively analyzing the locations of segments of the urban envi. Research into the cognitive structure of the urban environment can be subdivided into. three parts 3, micro level studies the aim of this approach is to find out how well people can lo. cate specific points in urban areas Golledge Briggs Demko 1966 Lee 1970. Briggs 1971 Passini 1984 1990, the problem of determining what metric is used to measure distances in urban ar. eas It relies on a variety of scaling techniques to extract information from data. sets The first is exemplified in the attempt to define perceptually small areas of. the city generally described using the term neighborhoods Sarrinen 1964 Zan. naras 1969 the second is an attempt to reconstruct a set of urban features which. are observed on journeys through urban areas Appleyard Lynch Meyer 1964. Carr Schissler 1969 Kosslin 1994 and, a macro level emphasis attempting to reconstruct maps of urban areas from the. knowledge that individuals have about those places Lynch 1960 1976 Kaplan. Kaplan 1982 and others, Planners architects sociologists and psychologists have been interested for various rea. sons in the perception and cognition of the larger environment Perception cannot be under. 66 P I ANIN, stood in isolation from values or behavior Looking at the city as a product of different group. perceptions three theoretical models of urban perception appear Appleyard 1976 5. operational the environment is seen as a setting for personal action and behavior. more often elements such as traffic islands signs entrances etc. responsive to the configuration of the environment J J Gibson 1979 gives the. term for this kind of perception literal and inferential and probabilistic in nature a. generalizable coding system of environmental categories concepts and relation. ships our personal urban model, Cognitive mapping is a sort of accumulation of the experience and knowledge that a. person has about a familiar environment It is knowledge for a task knowledge with a. function It guides the behavior of the owner of the map to help the individual in. whose head the map resides to be effective in the given environment Cognitive maps. store information about the environment so that a person knows what to expect and. what to do under various circumstances A representation is a formal system for mak. ing explicit certain entities or types of information together with a specification of how. the system achieves this Marr Nishihara 1978 6 To describe a representation as. a collection of salient features weighted in terms of their importance is essentially the. same as calling it an average or summary of the experience that led to it Kaplan. Kaplan 1982 7 Representation also means an internal summary of a class of stimu. lus patterns Its role is to take the place of some object in the real world i e urban ele. ments and to represent it The modeling of the material and social world and of hu. man behavior is a complex and ambitious task It demands first of all a clear distinction. between the concepts of model and simulation Modeling and simulation are two com. plementary ways of representing a process which can be either physical or cognitive. A model is essentially a theoretical description of a process or system based on a num. ber of hypotheses and simplifying principles which can be formulated as analytic or. lexicographic expressions the model language A simulation is a concrete expression. or instantiation of the model in a form that is controllable or executable for example. for a practical application or for computation Hollnagel Cacciabue Hoc 1995 8. There are many possible ways to store information to structure people s knowledge It. is exciting because the actions people take the decisions they make their hopes their. fears their aspirations are all based on their conceptions on their models of the world. Forrester 1971 9 captured the impact people s models have on their choices and ac. tions very effectively A mental image is a model All of our decisions are taken on the. basis of models All of our laws are passed on the basis of models All executive actions. are taken on the basis of models The question is not to use or ignore models The ques. tion is only a choice among alternative models, A conceptual model is a kind of system model that combines the properties and func. tionality of both a mental model and a real operating model Models of human cognition. have been developed in order to predict human behavior through computer simulation. Kjaer Hansen 1995 10, Contemporary computer based technologies can help us to solve difficult real world. problems to create new opportunities in many areas to help in analyses of the visual. quality of the urban environment according to cognitive mapping Recently some of the. Lynch s followers adopted his theory to build up new theoretical and applicable com. puter based approaches Here we will shortly introduce the three main applications The. On Lynch s and Post Lynchians Theories 67, first application is called WayMaker the second one is web based mapping and survey. tools and the third one is Design Tool All applications are interesting in the way they. use interpret and implement the theories in computer based tools. WayMaker is an application produced as a result of the research of MERL1 Way. Maker is a tool for non professionals to create digital layouts for large scale graphical. virtual environments The tool is based on Lynch s elements of city images The tool is. supports Lynch s value of participatory design while enabling an extension of his efforts. to understand how people image and think about the city From a verbal and pictorial. account WayMaker uses Lynch s elements to address a current problem in virtual envi. ronment design which is becoming commonplace WayMaker s maps and scenes depict. only the large scale structural features of a space The system transforms the user s map. design into a street level scene representing a walk through the domain WayMaker. could easily use an alternative 2D database for the walkthrough scene from real images to. very abstract ones The current depiction of scenes in WayMaker s virtual space is inde. pendent of the question of whether or how Lynch s formulations may be broadly useful as. a basis for design and construction tools for the virtual world WayMaker might be used. in social participatory contexts in the task of developing an understanding of spatial rela. tions within an urban environment, Al Kodmany 11 and urban planners and designers from the University of Illinois at. Chicago UIC were invited to be part of a participatory community planning process in. the Pilsen community Chicago The team developed a planning method based on the. work of Jack Nasar 12 by using new interactive GIS technology on the World Wide. Web WWW They created a Web based survey to show how people would respond to. urban likability and dislikability ULD for the Pilsen community Participants simply. logged on to the Website where they could view a map of the area They were asked to. identify and point out areas of their community on the map that they most liked and dis. liked by clicking on the appropriate square of the grid and to provide reasons for their re. sponses Using a Web based survey made mapping the result easy An Oracle database is. use and be linked to a GIS application This connection provides a capability for auto. matically plotting all available information from users to the map The database system. can also group the associated comments of users The survey GIS map was then created. from this data This pioneering project uses Web based technology to support participa. tory planning and design This tool has the potential to connect planners and researches. that are separated geographically even from different countries Also the survey could be. adapted to deal with other environmental aspects to be used for example in agriculture. transportation and so forth The most significant impact of the tool is in the field of trans. forming public participation efforts, Design Tool is the proposed application as the result of the PhD research2 of Predrag. i anin 3 which also has its starting point in Lynch s theory Lynch s theory of urban. form and its hierarchical structure of main urban elements were applied together with his. concept of cognitive mapping to a conceptual model of the Design Tool The concep. tual model of the Design Tool ware supported by an Object Oriented Database system. MERL Mitsubishi Electronic Research Laboratory Cambridge MA. Research is finalized at DKS research center Faculty of Architecture University of Technology Delft The. Netherlands,68 P I ANIN, OODB and a GIS database which constitute a functional model of the tool The Design. Tool is aimed at urban planners and designers with the task of analyzing an existing or. planned urban environment Design Tool can be also supportive for analyses and tests of. middle scale urban environments in very early or very late phases of the design process. The Design Tool can be used for testing the visual quality of the urban environment by. using multimedia data as input as well as output of the system and can offering the pos. sibility of accessing different remote databases via the Internet. There are some similarities between the three introduced applications The first and. main similarity is that they use the same theoretical resources Lynch and some post. Lynchins theories like Nasar s evaluative approaches theory The second similarity is the. same field of interests of the tools an urban environment and its visualization The final. possible similarity could be their use of a methodology that results in research appli. cations which could be almost directly useful in practice All three of the presented de. sign tools are still termed pioneering in the field in the period of their development. 5 CONCLUSION, This paper briefly described Lynch s theory of urban form and some other related post. Lynchians theories and the concept of cognitive maps. First we explained Lynch s theory of urban form with its main characteristics and ele. ments that belong to the visual quality of the city legibility building the image image. structure and identity identity and imageability We then briefly explained the five ele. ments of the urban environment paths edges districts nodes and landmarks In the next. part of the paper we explained the general concept of cognitive maps which play a cru. cial role in Lynch s theory which relate to individuals and their capacity for memorizing. and retrieving information about a familiar environment Last section of the paper was. shortly explained some of the main post Lynchian thinking on the topic There we indi. cate different theoretical approaches related to cognition spatial representation cognitive. mapping modeling and some other theories all appearing after the publication of Lynch s. theory The final part of the paper was introduction to the tree computer based application. derived from the Lynch s or post Lynchians theories WayMaker web based mapping. and survey tool and the third application reviewed Design Tool gave important infor. mation about what is going on in computational design tools All introduced research ap. plications are also important as extended applied knowledge in urban cognition. REFERENCES, 1 Lynch K The image of the city MIT Press Cambridge Massachusetts 1960. 2 Tolman E C Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men Psychological Review Vol 55 1948 pp 189 203. 3 Sidjanin P A Cognitive Framework for an Urban Environment Design Tool Delft DKS 2001. 4 Tzonis A Lefaivre L Thinking in forms as well as words Kevin Lynch and Cognitive Theory of the. City Design Book Review Vol 26 1994 pp 23 29, 5 Appleyard D Planning a pluralist city MIT Press Cambridge Massachusetts 1976. 6 Marr D Nishihara H K Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of three dimen. sional shapes Proceedings R S London 1978 B 207, 7 Kaplan S Kaplan R Cognition and environment Prager Publishers New York 1982. On Lynch s and Post Lynchians Theories 69, 8 Hollnagel E Cacciabue P C Hoc J M Work with Technology Some Fundamental Issues In Exper. tise and Technology Cognition Human Computer Cooperation edited by Hoc Cacciabue and Holl. nage Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers Hillsdale New Jersey 1995. 9 Forrester J W Counterintuitive behavior of social systems Technology Review 1971 pp 73 52. 10 Kjaer Hansen J Unitary Theories of Cognitive Architecture In Expertise and Technology Cognition. Human Computer Cooperation edited by Hoc Cacciabue Hollnagel Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Publishers Hillsdale New Jersey 1995, 11 Al Kodmany Using Web Based Technologies and Geographical Information Systems in Community. Planning Journal of Urban Technology Vol 7 No 1 2000 pp 1 30. 12 Nasar J L The Evaluative Image of the City Sage Publications Inc Thousand Oaks CA 1998. O LIN OVOJ I POST LIN OVIM TEORIJAMA,Predrag i anin. Polje istra ivanja prostorne kognicije se konstantno uve ava od ezdesetih godina pro log veka. Arhitekti urbani planeri geografi antropolozi i psiholozi poku avaju sa razli itih ta ki gledi ta da. okarakteri u atribute prostornog okru enja koji su za njih veliki izvor iskustava Ona su jaka. multidisciplinarna iskustva koja se na mnogim nivoima odnose na interakciju izme u ljudi i njihovog. okru enja Cilj ovog teksta je da podseti na teoriju urbanih formi Kevina Lin a postavljenu u knjizi. Slika jednog grada 1960 Ova knjiga je svakako najzna ajnija od sve literature vezane za izgled. grada U njoj nas Lin uvodi u va nost ljudske vizije a zadatak na e analize je da osvetli njen uticaj. danas Knjiga je neosporno zna ajna studija iz koje je nekoliko novih teorija razvijeno Najva nija je. svakako teorija o kognitivnoj percepciji urbanog okru enja a posebno se izvaja kognitivno mapiranje. koje pripada domenu unutar reprezentacije prostora i kognitivne psihologije Ovaj lanak izme u. ostalog obja njava koncepe kognitivnih mapa ali i prikazuje komentare na njih kroz pregled srodnih. teorija i kompjuterskih aplikacija koje se baziraju na Lin ovoj teoriji.
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