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of Malaysian Timber and Wood based Industries
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Supply Chain Mapping, of Malaysian Timber and, Wood based Industries. This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the partners and can. no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. The Project is funded by the European Union represented by the European. Commission, Published on 18 January 2016, NEPCon Tel 45 8618 0866. S ren Frichs Vej 38K Fax 45 8618 1012, 1 Sal Email info nepcon net. 8230 byh j http www nepcon net, 1 List of Abbreviations 5. 2 Introduction 6, 2 1 Background 6, 2 2 Forest governance in Malaysia 7.
2 3 Legality and sustainability risk in timber supply chains 8. 3 Objective and Research Questions 11, 3 1 Objective 11. 3 2 Research questions 11, 4 Limitations of the Study 12. 4 1 Challenge to engage the timber industry 12, 4 2 Limited on site time 12. 4 3 Barriers between regions 12, 4 4 Poor national trade data by volume 12. 5 Methodology 13, 5 1 Research methods 14, 5 1 1 Literature review 14.
5 1 2 Questionnaire 14, 5 1 3 Semi structured interview SSI and supply chain mapping 15. 5 2 Methodological framework 15, 6 Results and Discussion 16. 6 1 Domestic production import and export in Malaysian timber and wood based industries 16. 6 1 1 Domestic production 17, 6 1 2 Imports 19, 6 1 3 Exports 21. 6 2 Timber species used in Malaysian timber and wood based industries 28. 6 2 1 Threatened species 28, 6 2 2 Protected prohibited species 29. 6 2 3 Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CITES listed species 29, 6 3 Sustainability and legality certification in the Malaysian timber and wood products.
industries 32, 6 3 1 Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification PEFC 33. 6 3 2 Forest Stewardship Council FSC 34, 6 3 3 Malaysian Timber Legality Assurance Systems 34. 6 3 4 Voluntary legality verification schemes 35, 6 4 Structure of timber and wood product supply chains in Malaysia 37. 6 5 Legality and sustainability risk in Malaysian supply chains 42. 6 5 1 Risks and mitigation measures for domestic products 42. 6 5 2 Risks and mitigation measures for imported products 48. 6 5 3 Legality and sustainability risk matrix 50, 7 Future Trends 57. 7 1 Domestic production and trade 57, 7 2 Imports and exports 57.
7 3 Certification 58, 8 Recommendations 59, 8 1 Capacity building 59. 8 2 Collaboration within and across supply chains 59. 8 3 Support SFM in Sarawak 60, 8 4 Certification 60. 8 5 Building reference databases for species and origin testing 61. 8 6 Further research into the furniture and paper industry 61. 8 7 Standardised reporting of trade data 61, 8 8 Certification of Rubber Wood 62. 8 9 Due diligence regulations 62, 8 10 Environmental sustainability criteria for financial institutions 62. 8 11 Tackling corruption 63, 9 Conclusion 64, 10 Bibliography 65.
11 Appendices 71, Appendix 1 Company Overview 71, Appendix 2 Sample of Supply Chain Questionnaire 74. Appendix 3 Semi Structured Interview Questions 75, Appendix 4 Protected Prohibited Tree Plant Species in Malaysia 76. Appendix 5 Legality Verification Certification Schemes 78. Appendix 6 List of HS Codes Used for Trade Analysis 79. 1 List of Abbreviations, AILPA Australian Illegal Logging Prohibition Act. BJC Builders Joinery and Carpentry, CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CPI Corruption Perceptions Index, DDS Due Diligence System.
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment, EUTR European Union Timber Regulation. FDPM Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, FDS Forest Department Sarawak. FELCRA Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority. FELDA Federal Land Development Authority, FLEGT Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade. FM CoC Forest Management Chain of Custody, FRIM Forest Research Institute Malaysia. FSC Forest Stewardship Council, GFR Global Forest Registry.
GTA Global Trade Atlas, HCVF High Conservation Value Forest. IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature. LVL Laminated veneer lumber, MACC Malaysian Anti Corruption Commission. MPIC Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities. MPPMA Malaysian Pulp Paper Manufacturers Association. MTCC Malaysian Timber Certification Council, MTCS Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme. MTC Malaysian Timber Council, MTH Mixed Tropical Hardwoods. MTIB Malaysian Timber Industry Board, MWIA Malaysian Wood Industries Association.
MYTLAS Malaysian Timber Legality Assurance System, NCR Native Customary Rights. NGO Non Governmental Organisation, OLB Origine et L galit des Bois. PEFC Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification. PRF Permanent Reserved Forest, RISDA Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority. SFC Sarawak Forestry Corporation, SFD Sabah Forestry Department. SFM Sustainable Forest Management, SSI Semi Structured Interview.
STIDC Sarawak Timber Industry and Development Corporation. TLAS Timber Legality Assurance System, TLTV Timber Legality and Traceability Verification. VLC Verification of Legal Compliance, VLO Verification of Legal Origin. VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement, WWF World Wildlife Fund. 2 Introduction, 2 1 Background, Malaysia is a major contributor to global timber trade flows and consumption Timber and wood based products. also serve as important contributors to Malaysia s economy and utilisation of natural resources has become an. integral part of meeting the country s goal of becoming a self sufficient industrialised nation by the year 2020. known as Vision 2020 Indeed in 2011 the timber and wood based industries contributed the equivalent of 2. of Malaysia s gross domestic product and employed more than 210 000 people Hoare 2015 Malaysia is one. of the world s largest exporters of tropical timber and is the world s third largest producer of rubber and second. largest producer of oil palm ANZ 2015 MPIC 2009 Together with cocoa tobacco and pepper these. commodities dominate the growth of the natural resources sector. As Malaysia s utilisation of domestic and imported natural resources has increased so too has scrutiny over the. legality and sustainability of this trade Concern over deforestation and degradation is particularly acute in a. country where forest covers more than 50 of the land area or more than 18 million hectares Transparency. International 2015 This vast expanse of forest harbours a wealth of biodiversity and is home to a number of. Indigenous communities1 and can be threatened by unsustainable natural resource extraction Clearance of forest. land for oil palm and rubber can be a major threat to natural forest ecosystems as can degradation of forests. through unsustainable timber extraction which acts as a stepping stone to deforestation These threats are not. unique to Malaysia but occur around the world wherever fierce economic growth competes with the presence of. valuable natural resources, As such commercial companies operating in the timber and wood products sector face a number of stakeholders.
concerned about sustainability and legality risk These stakeholders include inter alia governments non. governmental organisations NGOs local communities concerned buyers and financial investors Each of these. stakeholders can variously impact upon organisations operating in the timber sector. To address these concerns and to ensure the continued commercial viability of the timber sector the Malaysian. Government introduced the National Timber Industry Policy 2009 2020 This policy was aimed at ensuring. the long term sustainability in terms of environmental resources human capital and technology development. The Malaysian Government has also supported the uptake of forest certification especially in Peninsular. Malaysia where eight states have achieved Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme MTCS certification a. national certification scheme recognised under the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification. PEFC PEFC 2015b, On the demand side governments around the world have sought to tackle deforestation by introducing illegal. logging legislation and responsible public procurement policies Legislation has been introduced in the EU. USA and Australia to halt the sale of illegally harvested timber products This places extra obligations on. Malaysian companies to provide supply chain information downstream to buyers who are legally obliged under. the regulations to demonstrate that their purchases are at low risk of having been illegally harvested Public. procurement policies in key markets such as the Netherlands and the UK have also served to promote. responsible forest management and sustainability certification The Dutch parliament is currently discussing. recognition of the MTCS system under the national timber procurement policy which is designed to ensure. utilisation of responsibly sourced timber by the Dutch public authorities MTCC 2014. NGOs have also played a key role by raising the profile of alleged unsustainable environmental practices poor. working conditions and abuse of traditional and civil rights Global Witness investigations have proved integral. in highlighting illegal harvesting in Sarawak timber concessions Global Witness 2012 2013 whilst research. Malaysia has 3 5 million Indigenous people many of whom still rely on forests for their livelihoods Yong et al 2014. by Friends of the Earth Malaysia has reported potential customary land rights violations FOE 2013 Local. communities also engage in the debate by direct action disrupting commercial activities sometimes violently. to protest for their right to free prior and informed consent and customary land rights Borneo Post 2011a. 2011b Survival International 2009 As well as the direct revenue losses from inability to harvest such. community conflicts also generate unwanted media attention and negatively impact the public image of timber. companies causing pressure for the industry to move towards legal and sustainable practices. Forest certification has played a key role globally with end users and large retailers increasingly choosing to. source wood products certified to internationally recognised sustainability schemes For example the Forest. Stewardship Council FSC certification logo was reported in 2015 to be recognised by 50 of individuals. sampled in the UK 20 in Australia and 17 in Sweden FSC 2013 2014 whilst large retailers such as Marks. Spencer and IKEA seek FSC certified wood in preference to other sources and both have the long term aim to. source 100 of their products from sustainably certified forests IKEA 2015 M S 2015. Pressures for proof of legal and sustainable practices also come from financial institutions These stakeholders. have moved towards imposing stricter rules as a prerequisite to companies obtaining funding over the past 20. years For example HSBC has implemented a Forestry Policy aimed at avoiding investment in illegal logging. This includes avoiding funding companies that are directly involved in illegal practices but also avoiding. companies involved in the purchase of illegally harvested products HSBC 2014b Indeed there are now a. number of initiatives and tools available to the financial sector aimed at raising awareness of ethical investment. in the timber industry In 2010 Pricewaterhouse Coopers released their Sustainable Forest Finance Toolkit. aimed at financial institutions PwC 2010 and in 2012 WWF released their Guide to Responsible Investment in. Agricultural Forest and Seafood Commodities Levin et al 2012 In addition a plethora of NGOs promote. integration of Environmental Social and Governance practices in financial decision making Brotto Cupit. 2014 Global Witness 2012 Stampe et al 2015, These various groups of stakeholders require robust and transparent data on supply chains on which to assess. companies performance data which are often not easily available or collated in a way which can be utilised by. stakeholders for meaningful assessment, 2 2 Forest governance in Malaysia. Malaysia has an estimated 18 06 million hectares of forested land MPIC 2014a The largest portion of this. 7 8 million ha 43 is located in Sarawak Another 5 83 million hectares 32 are located in Peninsular. Malaysia and 4 43 million hectares 25 in Sabah Many of the wood and paper products consumed and. exported by Malaysia derive from the country s own domestic and often natural forest areas. It is thought that up to 80 of the forest in Sarawak and Sabah has been heavily impacted by commercial. harvesting operations with the annual deforestation rate between 2000 and 2012 standing at 1 6 Hoare. 2015 The main drivers of degradation and deforestation are expansion of agricultural plantations for oil palm. and rubber as well as timber harvesting and commercial tree plantation for timber and pulp production Hoare. 2015 The Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities MPIC estimated that by 2014 5 4 million ha of. land in Malaysia would be planted with oil palm and over 1 million ha with rubber MPIC 2014c. Malaysia operates a federal governance system whereby implementation of forest policy and management falls. under the jurisdiction of each of the 13 states 11 in Peninsular Malaysia plus Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo. However the federal government is responsible for providing overall policy direction for the forestry se. This report has been produced by NEPCon on behalf of WWF Malaysia Field research was conducted in collaboration with the Malaysian Wood Industries Association MWIA of Malaysian Timber and Wood based Industries

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