Object Oriented Programming In C-Books Pdf

Object oriented Programming in C
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This is a teaching material about object oriented programming illustrated with use of the. programming language C The initial version was written i 2006. It is assumed as a prerequisite that the readers have some knowledge about imperative. programming preferably knowledge about C I believe that it is best to learn object oriented. programming after having learned and worked with imperative programming Thus we. adhere to an object later approach, The starting point of of this teaching material is a number of slides The slides are annotated. with explanations and additional resources The most comprehensive version of the material. has the form of a traditional textbook You can think of the textbook as grown on top of the. slide material, Almost all programs in this material have been developed together with the material. However a few programs come from other sources If the programs are not original the. source programmers are mentioned and acknowledged in an initial comment line of the. The current version of the material is complete up to and including the last chapter in. lecture about Contracts chapter 53 The final chapters corresponding to the lectures about. test and documentation only contain slide material. The teaching material is an online material represented in HTML A PDF version of the. textbook is also available In order to limit the size of the PDF files some less important. programs have been left out from the PDF edition In the web edition in HTML files the. full content is available, We have used colors to emphasize aspects of the source programs in this material It is. therefore recommeded that you read the material from a color medium. We would like to point out a couple of qualities of the web edition of the material First we. have provided for extensive cross linking of the material Whenever relevant we have. provided links from one part of the material to another We have also provided a. comprehensive subject index Finally there are separate indexes of source programs and. exercises The source program index provides links to complete textual versions of the C. programs of the material ready for you to compile and use. In the spring of 2008 the material has been used in a course where the students have a. background in imperative Visual Basic programming We have therefore added a chapter. that compares the fundamental non objected parts of Visual Basic with the similar parts of. C The chapter about Visual Basic is only available in the web version. Prior to the fall semester of 2008 selected aspects of C 3 0 have been included in the. material This includes automatic properties object initializers extension methods and. lambda expressions, The January 2009 edition includes a number of bug fixes as collected during the fall of. 2008 and some new exercises targeted at the Aalborg University OOPA spring course 2009. at the BAIT education, The February 2010 edition is a minor revision compared with the August 2009 edition The.
February 2010 edition is the last and final version of the teaching material. Kurt N rmark, normark cs aau dk, Department of Computer Science. Alborg University, February 5 2010, Colophon This material has been made with the LENO system LENO is an XML language which is. defined by an XML DTD LENO is used together with LAML LAML is a software package that makes. XML available in the Scheme programming language For this version of the material LAML version 35 0. development version has been used This setup allows us to write LENO material in the programming. language Scheme Thus the source of this material has been written in Scheme with use of the mirror. functions of LENO XML language Most illustrations have been written in an extension of SVG which. allows for high level representations of graphs Batik 1 6 has been used to rasterize the SVG images in some. versions of the material The primary target format of the teaching material is HTML LENO can be used to. produce different views of the material In the concrete material we make use of the slide view and the. thematic view the text book view The aggregated slide view is also available The PDF version of the. thematic view the text book view has been made by PDF Creator version 0 9 5 Text breaking and page. enumeration has been made in Microsoft Word 2003 via Edit with Microsoft Word in Internet Explorer. version 7 0, 1 From structured programming to object oriented programming 1. 2 Towards Object oriented Programming 7, 3 Phenomena and Concepts 13. 4 Towards Object oriented Programs 19, 5 The C Language and System 23.
6 C in relation to C 25, 7 C in relation to Java 53. 8 C in relation to Visual Basic 57, 9 C Tools and IDEs 59. 10 Classes An Initial Example 61, 11 Classes 67, 12 Creating and Deleting Objects 89. 13 Reference Types 97, 14 Value Types 103, 15 Organization of C Programs 117. 16 Patterns and Techniques 123, 17 Accessing Data in Objects 133.
18 Properties 135, 19 Indexers 147, 20 Methods 151. 21 Overloaded Operators 165, 22 Delegates 173, 23 Events 183. 24 Patterns and Techniques 189, 25 Specialization of Classes 195. 26 Extension of Classes 203, 27 Inheritance in General 209. 28 Inheritance in C 215, 29 Method Combination 241.
30 Abstract Classes Sealed Classes 245, 31 Interfaces 253. 32 Patterns and Techniques 271, 33 Fundamental Questions about Exception Handling 301. 34 Conventional Exception Handling 307, 35 Object oriented Exception Handling 311. 36 Exceptions and Exception Handling in C 313, 37 Streams 333. 38 Directories and Files 355, 39 Serialization 359.
40 Patterns and Techniques 369, 41 Motivation for Generic Types 373. 42 Generic Types 381, 43 Generic Methods 401, 44 Collections History and Overview 407. 45 Generic Collections in C 409, 46 Generic Dictionaries in C 437. 47 Non generic Collections in C 445, 48 Patterns and Techniques 447. 49 Correctness 453, 50 Specification with preconditions and postconditions 457.
51 Responsibilities and Contracts 463, 52 Class Invariants 471. 1 From structured programming to object oriented, programming. We will assume that the reader of this material has some knowledge of imperative programming and that the. reader already has been exposed to the ideas of structured programming More specifically we will assume. that the reader has some background in C programming In Chapter 6 corresponding to the second lecture of. the course we summarize the relationships between C and C. 1 1 Structured Programming, Lecture 1 slide 2, We approach object oriented programming by reviewing the dominating programming approach prior to. object oriented programming It is called structured programming A brief background on structured. programming imperative programming and more generally different schools of programming is provided. in Focus box 1 1 I will recommend that you read the Wikipedia article about structured programming wiki. str pro It captures very nicely the essence of the ideas. Structured programming relies on use of high level control structures instead of low level. Structured programming is also loosely coupled with top down programming and program. development by stepwise refinement, Structured programming covers several loosely coupled ideas As summarized above one of these is the use. of control structures such as if switch case while and for instead of gotos. Use of relatively small procedures is another idea A well structured program should devote a single. procedure to the solution of a single problem The splitting of problems in subproblems should be reflected. by breaking down a single procedure into a number of procedures The idea of program development by. stepwise refinement Wirth71 advocates that this is done in a top down fashion The items below summarize. the way it is done, Start by writing the main program.
Use selective and iterative control structures, Postulate and call procedures P1 Pn. Implement P1 Pn and in turn the procedures they make use of. Eventually the procedures become so simple that they can be implemented without introducing. additional procedures, Only few programmers are radical with respect to top down structured programming In the practical world. it is probably much more typical to start somewhere in the middle and then both work towards the top and. towards the bottom, Imperative programming Structured programming and Programming FOCUS BOX. paradigms 1 1, Imperative programming is one of the four main programming paradigms The others are functional. programming object oriented programming and logic programming. Imperative programming is closely related to the way low level machine languages work Commands are. used to change the values of locations in the memory of the computer In high level languages this is. achieved by use of assignment statements which is used to change the values of variables The assignment. statement is therefore the archetypical command in imperative programming Control structures sequence. selection and iteration come on top of that together with procedural abstractions. Programming done in the early years of the computing era before the introduction of Algol is often thought. of as unstructured programming Unstructured programming is largely characterized by use of jumping. around by means of goto commands The introduction of if and while control structures together with. procedures eliminated the need for gotos This can be shown theoretically but more important it also. holds true in the practical world of imperative programming Armed with the common control structures if. and while for instance and procedural abstraction very few programmers are tempted to use a goto. statement in the programs they write Such programming without use of goto statements is often called. structured programming, 1 2 A structured program Hangman.
Lecture 1 slide 3, In order to be concrete we will look at parts of a C program The program implements a simple and. rudimentary version of the well known Hangman game We will pretend that the program has been. developed according to the structured programming ideas described in Section 1 1. The main Hangman program main is shown in Program 1 1 The fragments shown in purple are postulated. in the sense discussed in Section 1 1 I e they are called but not yet defined at the calling time The. postulated procedures are meant to be defined later in the program development process Some of them are. shown below, 1 int main void, 2 char playerName, 3 answer again. 5 playerName getPlayerName, 6 initHangman, 8 playHangman playerName. 9 again askUser Do you want to play again, 10 while again yes. Program 1 1 The main function of the Hangman, The function getPlayerName is intended to prompt the Hangman player for his or her name As it appears in.
Program 1 2 this function only uses functions from the C standard library Therefore there are no emphasized. parts in getPlayerName, 1 char getPlayerName, 2 char playerName char malloc NAME MAX. 4 printf What is your name, 5 fgets playerName NAME MAX stdin. 6 playerName strlen playerName 1 0, 7 return playerName. Program 1 2 The function getPlayerName of main, The function initHangman calls an additional initialization function called initPuzzles which reads a. puzzle from a text file We will here assume that this function does not give rise to additional refinement We. do not show the implementation of initPuzzles, 1 void initHangman void.
2 srand time NULL, 3 initPuzzles puzzles txt, Program 1 3 The function initHangman of main. askUser is a general purpose function which was called in main in Program 1 1 We show it in Program 1 4. only on web and we see that it does not rely on additional functions. The function playHangman seen in Program 1 5 is called by main in the outer loop in Program 1 1. playHangman contains an inner loop which is related to a single round of playing As it appears from. Program 1 5 playHangman calls a lot of additional functions all emphasized but not all of them included. 1 void playHangman char playerName, 2 int aPuzzleNumber wonGame. 3 puzzle secretPuzzle, 4 hangmanGameState gameState. 5 char playersGuess, 7 initGame playerName gameState. 8 aPuzzleNumber rand numberOfPuzzles, 9 secretPuzzle getPuzzle aPuzzleNumber.
11 while gameState numberOfWrongGuesses N, 12 gameState numberOfCorrectGuesses secretPuzzle numberOfCharsToGuess. 13 gameStatistics gameState secretPuzzle, 14 presentPuzzleOutline secretPuzzle gameState printf n. 15 presentRemainingAlphabet gameState printf n, 16 if CHEATING presentSecretPuzzle secretPuzzle. 17 printf n, 18 playersGuess getUsersGuess, 19 clrconsole. 20 updateGameState gameState secretPuzzle playersGuess. 22 gameStatistics gameState secretPuzzle, 23 wonGame wonOrLost gameState secretPuzzle.
24 handleHighscore gameState secretPuzzle wonGame, Program 1 5 The function playHangman of main. In Program 1 6 only on web and Program 1 7 only on web we show two additional functions initGame. and getPuzzle both of which are called in playHangman in Program 1 5. As already brought up in Section 1 1 many programmers do not strictly adhere to structured programming. and top down refinement when coding the hangman program If you have programmed Hangman or a. similar game it is an interesting exercise to reflect a little on the actual approach that was taken duri. Object oriented Programming in C for C and Java programmers The January 2009 edition includes a number of bug fixes 12 Creating and

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