Nutrient Recovery By Biogas Digestate Processing-Books Pdf

Nutrient Recovery by Biogas Digestate Processing
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Nutrient Recovery Table of Contents,Nutrient Recovery by Biogas Digestate Processing. Technical Brochure prepared by,Bernhard Drosg,Werner Fuchs. Teodorita Al Seadi,Michael Madsen,Bernd Linke,Edited by David Baxter. Copyright 2015 IEA Bioenergy All rights reserved,First electronic edition produced in 2015. A catalogue record for this Technical Brochure is available from the British Library. ISBN 978 1 910154 16 8 eBook electronic edition,ISBN 978 1 910154 15 1 printed paper edition.
Published by IEA Bioenergy,Disclaimer, IEA Bioenergy also known as the Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research Development and Demonstration on Bioenergy functions within a. Framework created by the International Energy Agency IEA Views findings and publications of IEA Bioenergy do not necessarily represent the views or policies. of the IEA Secretariat or of its individual Member countries. Table of Contents Nutrient Recovery,Table of contents. Executive Summary 4 6 Processing of the solid fraction 20. 1 Introduction 5 6 1 Composting 20,2 Digestate 5 6 2 Drying 20. 2 1 What is digestate 5 7 Processing of the liquid fraction of digestate 21. 2 2 Digestate characteristics 6 7 1 Nitrogen recovery 22. relevant for its use as fertiliser 7 1 1 Ammonia stripping 28. 2 2 1 Total solids content TS 7 7 1 2 Ion exchange 23. 2 2 2 pH value 7 7 1 3 Struvite precipitation 23,2 2 3 Nitrogen content 7. 7 2 Nutrient concentration and water purification 24. 2 2 4 Phosphorus content 7,7 2 1 Membrane technologies 24.
2 2 5 Impurities and contaminants 8 7 2 2 Evaporation 26. 3 Digestate processing for nutrient recovery 9 7 2 3 Residue management in nutrient recovery 28. 3 1 Overview of digestate processing technologies 9 processes. 3 2 Applied processes at industrial scale 10 8 Economics of digestate processing for nutrient recovery 29. 4 Drivers for digestate processing for nutrient recovery 11 8 1 Digestate land application costs 29. 4 1 Legal frameworks 11 8 2 Detailed cost analysis of 6 digestate processing 29. 4 2 Resources management 11 scenarios for a model biogas plant. 4 3 Logistics 11 8 3 General remarks to costs 31, 4 4 Product standardisation 11 9 Concluding remarks and recommendations 32. 4 5 Other drivers 12 10 References 33, 5 Solid liquid separation 11 Glossary of terms and abbreviations 35. the first step in digestate processing 12,5 1 Screw press 13. 5 2 Decanter centrifuge 14,5 3 Belt filters 16,5 4 Discontinuous centrifuge 17. 5 5 Enhanced solids removal 17,5 5 1 Precipitation Flocculation 17.
5 5 2 Flotation 18,5 5 3 Screens and filters 19,Nutrient Recovery Executive Summary. Executive Summary, Improved yields from farming practice and food plete processing complex methods and technologies are. processing are necessary in order to sustain positive currently available with various degrees of technical. growth around the world A key element to achieve this maturity higher energy input and higher investment. aim is adequate supply of fertiliser and operating costs. Biogas plants produce along with biogas digestate The first step in digestate processing is to separate the. which is an excellent plant fertiliser rich in both organic solid phase from the liquid phase The solid fraction can. matter and in macro and micronutrients The physico subsequently be directly applied as biofertiliser in agri. chemical characteristics of digestate vary strongly culture or it can be composted or dried for intermediate. depending on the nature and composition of the digest storage and transport Depending on the consistency of. ed substrates as well as on the operational parameters of the digestate screw presses or centrifuges are most com. the biogas processes monly used for solid liquid separation. Digestate is normally used as fertiliser for crops with For complete digestate processing for nutrient recov. out any further processing substituting industrially ery membrane technology can be used such as nanofil. produced mineral fertilisers However the need for effi tration and ultrafiltration followed by reverse osmosis. cient nutrient management required by restrictions on Membrane filtration produces a nutrient concentrate. manure application in areas with high livestock density and purified process water A further possibility for. along with depletion of the global natural reserves of concentrating digestate is evaporation utilising excess. phosphorous and potassium make recovery and recy heat from the biogas plant CHP unit Nitrogen recovery. cling of plant nutrients from manure waste streams and from digestate can be carried out by ammonia stripping. other resources increasingly important for farmers tech ion exchange or struvite precipitation Whatever the. nology providers investors and decision makers technology applied complete digestate processing. This report focuses on digestate from biogas plants requires high energy input use of chemical reagents. where animal manures and slurries crop residues which along with high investment costs for appropriate. organic wastes and residues from agri food processing machinery imply considerable costs for such applications. industries and from other industrial processes are the Due to diversified support schemes in different. principal substrates countries it is not easy to generalise whether a specific. The nutrients contained in digestate can be extracted technology always is feasible in connection with a biogas. and concentrated through application of a range of tech plant Some countries stimulate biogas plant owners to. nologies and processes although there is no unified utilise excess heat through subsidies while others have. approach in the published literature about what defines not implemented such fiscal instruments. digestate processing for nutrient recovery The present The techniques for nutrient recovery from digestate. report presents the technologies that are commercially are developing rapidly aiming to improve nutrient man. available Nutrient recovery technologies are those that agement in agriculture and in waste treatment systems. result in an end product with higher concentrations of In parallel there is a general need to increase the degree. plant nutrients than the unprocessed digestate or tech of commercialisation of organic fertilisers from digestate. nologies that are capable of separating out nutrients in processing through product standardisation. mineral form or of creating another marketable end The information contained in this report should be. product suitable for recycling as biofertiliser and clos of interest to biogas and digestate producers to livestock. ing the nutrient cycle and crop farmers supplying manure to biogas plants or. Digestate processing can be partial primarily for the using digestate as fertiliser to agro food industries and. purpose of volume reduction or it can be complete other organic waste producers that supply organic. refining digestate to pure water a solid biofertiliser frac wastes to biogas plants as well as to policy makers regu. tion and fertiliser concentrates While partial processing lators investors and end consumers. uses relatively simple and cheap technologies for com. Introduction Digestate Nutrient Recovery,1 Introduction 2 Digestate. The growing awareness over the last decades about pollu 2 1 What is digestate. tion problems arising from organic waste streams and Along with biogas digestate is a product of anaerobic. manure management has led to restrictions for nutrient digestion AD and represents the effluent or digested. input per hectare in many places with intensive animal substrate which is removed from the AD reactor digest. production around the world Anaerobic digestion of er after recovery of biogas Digestate is normally liquid. animal manures and slurries is often required by nation but it can also be a solid stackable material when origi. al nutrient management regulations or environmental nating from for example a dry state AD process During. regulations in such areas aiming to close the nutrients the biogas process the substrate which can be a mixture. cycle to improve veterinary safety and to provide air of various AD substrates or a pure monosubstrate is. quality odour control At the same time depletion of retained inside the digester for several weeks During that. phosphorus and potassium reserves as well as the neces time it is sequentially decomposed by a variety of micro. sity to preserve and secure their future supply has organisms through a complex biochemical process in the. changed the focus of digestate processing from nutrient absence of oxygen anaerobic conditions Figure 1 out. removal and disposal towards nutrient recovery and recy lines the interconnections between the four major steps. cling The techniques for nutrient recovery from diges taking place during AD decomposition of organic matter. tate are developing rapidly aiming to improve nutrient during hydrolysis formation of organic acids during aci. management in agriculture and in waste treatment dogenesis formation of the main intermediate acetate. systems during acetogenesis and finally formation of methane. The report outlines the prevailing techniques for during methanogenesis from either acetate or carbon. digestate processing for the purpose of nutrient recovery dioxide and hydrogen Digested substrate is removed. The aim of the report is to provide information about from the digester tank as digestate and stored in desig. possibilities for nutrient recovery from digestate thereby nated containers What makes digestate an interesting. highlighting the potential of digestate as a sustainable product is its excellent plant fertiliser qualities based on. source of nutrients for agricultural use a rich content of plant macronutrients including nitro. The technical information provided in the report is gen N phosphorus P potassium K and sulphur S. mainly based on an existing publication on digestate various micronutrients and also organic matter Diges. processing technologies elaborated by University of tate is normally applied as fertiliser to crops without the. Natural Resources and Life Sciences Department IFA need for any further processing. Tulln in 2010 Fuchs and Drosg 2010, which was updated and completed with Suspended organic material biopolymers. new information from the IEA Bioenergy,Hydrolysis, Task 37 member countries and from avail Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins.
able technical and scientific literature,Polypeptides. Methanogenesis Acetogenesis Acidogenesis, Key words nutrient recovery digestate process LCVFA glycerine. disaccharides Peptides,ing digestate conditioning nitrogen recovery. phosphorus recovery digestate use as fertilis Organic intermediates Inorganic intermediates. er solid liquid separation SCVFA alcohols lactic acid etc CO2 H2 NH4 H2S etc. Acetic acid Carbon dioxide hydrogen, Acetotrophic methanogenesis 70 of the CH4 CH3COOH P CH4 CO2. Figure 1 Breakdown of the AD process Hydrotrophic methanogenesis 30 of the CH4 CO2 H2 P CH4 H2O. Madsen et al 2011,Nutrient Recovery Digestate, 2 2 Digestate characteristics relevant for its liser quality of digestate are outlined below.
use as fertiliser In Europe the traditional substrates are agricultural. The physico chemical characteristics of digestate livestock by products manure and slurries biogenic. vary strongly depending on the nature and composition waste food waste municipal organic waste etc energy. of the substrates as well as on the operational parameters crops maize whole crop silage sugar beet grass silage. of the AD process see Annex 1 Literature Holm by products from food and agro industries animal by. Nielsen et al 1997 Chantigny et al 2007 M ller et al products from abattoirs brewers spent grains and solu. 2008 Tambone et al 2010 Fouda 2011 indicates that bles etc More recently residues from the bioethanol. when compared with raw animal manures and slurries and the biodiesel industries are used The influence of. digestate generally has lower total solids TS and total various substrate materials on digestate characteristics is. organic carbon C content lower carbon to nitrogen illustrated in Table 1 These characteristics greatly influ. ratio C N and lower viscosity On the other hand the ence the choice of digestate processing technology. pH value and the share of ammonium NH4 are The AD process conditions also influence digestate. higher in digestate compared to raw animal manures composition as shown in Table 2. and slurries Some characteristics relevant for the ferti. Table 1 Substrate parameters influencing digestate composition adapted after Fuchs and Drosg 2010. Substrate parameter Impact on digestate composition Comments. Organic wastes low total solids TS content In general most organic wastes show high contents of organics in. low percentage of organics in TS the total solids e g 90 for food waste This however depends. on the waste type The organic content in wastes is often readily. degradable and converted to biogas hence leaving a lower amount. of inert not utilised organic matter in the digestate. High amount of abattoir high nitrogen concentration. waste high percentage of ammonia in,total nitrogen. High amount of manure low total solids TS content Some pig manure sow manure fattening pig manure will lead to. considerable nitrogen concentration relatively low total solids content however cattle manure full of. 6 1 composting 20 6 2 Drying 20 7 Processing of the liquid fraction of digestate 21 7 1 nitrogen recovery 22 7 1 1 Ammonia stripping 28 7 1 2 Ion exchange 23 7 1 3 Struvite precipitation 23 7 2 nutrient concentration and water purification 24 7 2 1 Membrane technologies 24 7 2 2 Evaporation 26 7 2 3 residue management in nutrient recovery

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