Nsw Higher School Certificate Senior Science 9 2 Lifestyle-Books Pdf

NSW Higher School Certificate Senior Science 9 2 Lifestyle
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9 2 Lifestyle Chemistry Section 4 Uses of Solvents. 9 2 4 The nature of a solvent plays an important role in the application of. 9 2 4 a Identify water and alcohol as commonly used solvents. 9 2 4 b Explain the relationship between the properties of solvents and their use. in cosmetics and external medications, 9 2 4 c Identify cosmetics and external medications where water is the solvent. 9 2 4 d Identify cosmetics and external medications where alcohol is the solvent. 9 2 4 i Perform an investigation to gather data comparing the rate at which. capsules tablets enteric coated tablets and slow release tablets dissolve. 9 2 4 ii Identify data sources gather process analyse and present information. from secondary sources to identify how sub dermal implants release their. medication into the body, C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 2. 9 2 4 a Identify water and alcohol as commonly used solvents. Common Solvents, A solvent is a liquid used to dissolve a solute and form a solution. Water is a universal solvent It is capable of dissolving more substances than any other. solvent Alcohol is another frequently used solvent It is used as a solvent because of. its ability to dissolve some substances that will not dissolve in water. Since water and alcohol readily mix with each other they are said to be miscible On. the other hand oil another frequently used solvent does not mix with water or alcohol. These liquids are said to be immiscible, Notes Questions. 1 What is a solvent, 2 Name the universal solvent, 3 Why is alcohol an important solvent.
C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 3, 9 2 4 b Explain the relationship between the properties of solvents and their use in. cosmetics and external medications, Solvent properties and their use. Cosmetics are products used to improve a person s appearance They do this by. cleaning promoting attractiveness or altering appearance External medications are. used to deliver drugs to the body through the skin. There are two basic types of solvents, Fat oil compounds Vaseline and. Water water miscible substances alcohol glycerin, Properties of solvents that affect their use in cosmetics and external medications. Ability to transport particular chemicals drugs active ingredients. Evaporation Boiling temperature, Ability to penetrate skin.
Spreadability, Washability, Occlusiveness ability to form an impermeable barrier. Occlusiveness Fats and oils are used as solvents in cosmetics and external. medications because they occlude the skin That is substances like white soft. paraffin Vaseline cover the skin and form a protective barrier occlude the skin A. consequence of this is that the moisture in the skin is prevented from escaping This. causes the skin to rehydrate itself that is absorb water Also this rehydration. increases absorption of substances by the skin Therefore drugs will be more readily. absorbed when the skin is occluded is covered by fat and oil compounds. Toxicity Water by itself is safe to use on the skin It has a neutral pH and does. not affect the skin s acid mantle The problem occurs with the substances used with or. dissolved in the water For example just about all water based cosmetics and external. medications need to have a preservative added Unfortunately these preservatives can. be irritating to the skin for a significant number of people Alcohol is also not toxic to the. skin However the drying effect of alcohol can cause problems Alcohol evaporates. quite quickly from the skin This drying effect can cause the population of beneficial. micro flora to be significantly reduced So water and alcohol are used in cosmetics. and external medications because they are non toxic to the skin. C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 4, Evaporation rate and Spreadability Alcohol and water are used in cosmetics. and external medications because they allow the active ingredient to be evenly spread. over the skin They evaporate leaving a film of the active ingredient behind Water and. alcohol are readily spread over the skin Oils on the other hand do not evaporate nor. spread easily, Ability to transport particular chemicals The main reason particular solvents are. used in cosmetics or external medications is their ability to dissolve and transport. Chemicals that will dissolve in water include, drugs such as. Antiseptic eg chlorohexidene in savlon, Local anaesthetic eg lignocane.
Anti inflammatory eg hydro cortisone and, Substances like the water soluble vitamins. Substances that will dissolve in alcohol include, Essential oils substances that provide pleasant odour. Drugs such as hydro quinone used for fading sunspots. Sunscreens substances that absorb UV light, Oils will dissolve or carry in suspension. The essential oils responsible for flavours and odours in perfumes. Fat soluble vitamins vitamins A D and E, Non HSC material. Most modern cosmetics and external medications are not simply a solvent with an. active ingredient They are complex mixtures that have bases or vehicles that carry the. useful substances Examples of such bases include fat oil bases water miscible bases. or water in oil emulsions The final product could be a cream an ointment or a powder. The useful substances are chemicals that can be absorbed into the skin or lay on top of. For example many modern cosmetics and external medications are water in oil. emulsions These have a number of advantages The water phase means the base is. easy to spread on the skin property spreadable and is easy to wash off property. washable Glycerin can be added to the water phase to soothe the skin since glycerin. is miscible with water The oil phase provides a barrier that enhances absorption by the. skin It also allows the base to be perfumed via the oil phase Together the phases can. carry a vast variety of drugs and other chemicals All this means that such a product is. acceptable to consumers, C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 5.
The complex mixtures now used for cosmetics and medications must also have. particular properties that allow them to be easily applied to the skin The table below. lists some important properties of products that have fat oil bases water miscible bases. and w o emulsions, Table Comparison of properties of fat oil bases and water miscible ointment bases. Composition Fat Oil bases Water in oil Water miscible. Properties Emulsions bases Gels, Composition Fats and oils. Eg Soft white paraffin Eg Hydrous lanolin Water, Spreadability Difficult Moderate Easy. Washable Non washable Poor to wash Washable, Ability to hold Oil soluble drugs only Solids oils and Solid and aqueous. drugs aqueous solutions of solutions of drugs, Ability to Poor Fair to good Good.
release drug, Occlusiveness Good yes Sometimes Poor no. Uses Protectants Cleansing creams Drug vehicles, Source http www unc edu courses phar0511 ointments text htm. Notes Questions, 4 What are cosmetics 2 marks, 5 Two basic types of solvents are fat and oil compounds and water and water miscible. substances Name an example of each type of solvent 1 mark. 6 Name FOUR properties of solvents that allow them to be used in cosmetics and. external medications 2 marks, 7 Fats and oils occlude the skin. a What is meant by occlusion in terms of the skin 1 mark. b What are TWO consequences of the skin being occluded 2 marks. 8 Explain the relationship between the toxicity of solvents and their use in cosmetics. and external medications 3 marks, C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 6.
9 Explain the relationship between the evaporation rate and spreadability of solvents. and their use in cosmetics and external medications 3 marks. 10 Name two drugs or other substances that can be dissolved in each of the following. a Fats and oils 1 mark, b Water 1 mark, c Alcohol 1 mark. 11 Many modern cosmetics and external medications are water in oil emulsions These. emulsions have a number of properties that make them useful as ointment and. cream bases Describe the emulsions and outline some of the advantages of. emulsions 3 marks, 12 Identify which base oil or water miscible 2 marks. a are the easiest to spread, b are the easiest to wash. c Occlude the skin well, d Are used as drug vehicles. 13 A common ointment base is a water in oil emulsion. a Name the dispersion medium in a water in oil emulsion 1 mark. b Name the dispersed phase in a water in oil emulsion 1 mark. c Name one example of the oil phase in this type of base 1 mark. d Outline how can the same emulsion base be varied for different purposes. 14 Alcohol is an important solvent It has a number of properties It is. is miscible with water, will dissolve sunscreens, will dissolve the essential oils.
is non greasy, has a drying effect on the skin drying is not significant if only used twice a week. irritates the skin particularly open skin, It also can be used to sterilize the skin and it will kill surface bacteria. For TWO properties identify a product in which alcohol is used as a solvent. C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 7, 9 2 4 c Identify cosmetics and external medications where water is the solvent. Water as a solvent, External medications that will dissolve in water include. Antiseptic eg chlorohexidene in savlon, Local anaesthetic eg lignocane.
Anti inflammatory eg hydro cortisone, Cosmetics that contain water as the solvent include. moisturing cream, foundation cream, 9 2 4 d Identify cosmetics and external medications where alcohol is the solvent. Alcohol as a solvent, Alcohol is another important solvent It has a number of specific properties Alcohol. is miscible with water, is a good solvent of sunscreens substances that absorb UV light. will dissolve the essential oils, Products where alcohol is the solvent include.
nail polish, deodorants, suntan lotions, shaving cream. hair spray, The essential oils are volatile liquids They evaporate quickly especially when heated. They are mostly insoluble in water but freely soluble in alcohol ether and vegetable and. mineral oils They are usually not oily to the touch They may be grouped into five. classes according to their chemical structure alcohols esters aldehydes ketones and. lactones and oxides, These oils are responsible for many flavours of food and other products The taste of food. flavourings such as lemon mint and vanilla extracts results from the volatile oils Volatile. oils like lemon are used to give scent to soaps and other cleaning products. C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 8, Introduction to Activity 4 1. Most drugs are given orally in solid forms tablets capsules This is mainly for. convenience economy stability and patient acceptance If drugs are taken in a solid. form they must break up before the active ingredient is available for absorption This. break up converts drug molecules from the solid state to suspension in a liquid so that. they can be dissolved Therefore a tablet needs to break up into granules then into. fine particles and then it eventually dissolves Various substances lubricants. surfactants binders dispersants are added to the tablet or capsule to assist with. break up dissolving and absorption, Tablets are combinations of drug binders and other substances compressed into hard.
masses that can disintegrate in water A tablet must first disintegrate and then dissolve. so that it is in soluble form It is then absorbed usually down a concentration gradient. by diffusion Tablets like capsules can be enteric coated or can be prepared for slow. Tablet Slow Release, The formulation of a slow release tablet allows it to dissolve slowly over time The. medication is released gradually as the medication travels through the Gastro Intestinal. Tablet Enteric coated, The tablet is covered in a coating that doesn t dissolve in the stomach That is the tablet. by passes the stomach The tablet then dissolves in the small intestine as it has a. different pH Once in the small intestine the active medication may be released. Capsules can be divided into two main groups In both kinds the gelatin coating must. first dissolve This occurs quickly in the acidic environment of the stomach. Type 1 Powder inside a gelatin cap The gelatin dissolves then the powder must. dissolve and mix with the gastric juices to form a solution and it is then absorbed. Type 2 Liquid inside a gelatin cap The gelatin dissolves and the liquid is ready to. be absorbed straight away, Capsules may be enteric coated ie made resistant to acid disintegration in the. stomach or delayed action which permit more sustained release of drug. Notes Questions, 15 What must happen to a tablet before it is absorbed. 16 What is the advantage of an enteric coated tablet. C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 9, Reviewing Risk assessment.
The Occupational Health and Safety Regulation requires an assessment to be made of. risks to health which might arise from work which involves exposure to hazardous. substances, The process known as risk assessment requires users of chemicals to identify the. hazard and then assess and control the risks from hazardous substances. For science investigations it is necessary to identify all the substances used Then it is. necessary to determine if they are hazardous this can be done using the label and the. MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet Information about the level of hazard routes of. Senior Science 9 2 Lifestyle Chemistry Section 4 Uses of Solvents C SenSc HSC Lifestyle Chemistry LC Notes 04 2 9 2 Lifestyle Chemistry Section 4 Uses of Solvents 9 2 4 The nature of a solvent plays an important role in the application of a mixture 9 2 4 a Identify water and alcohol as commonly used solvents 9 2 4 b Explain the relationship between the properties of solvents and

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