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North European LNG Infrastructure Project Date Report
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Table of contents,Table of contents 3,List of Abbreviations 9. Foreword 13,Executive Summary 15,1 Introduction 19. 1 1 Objectives 20,1 2 Methodological Approach and Limitations 20. 1 3 Limitations to the Study 22,2 Background 23,2 1 European Maritime Based Logistics 23. 2 2 Emission Control Areas 24, 2 3 Overview of the Shipping Industry in the SECA 25.
2 4 Environmental Impact of the Shipping Industry 28. 2 5 Regional Challenges within the SECA 30,2 6 On Going Activities 31. 3 Compliance Strategies Technical Possibilities to Fulfil the SECA 2015. Requirements 32,3 1 Fuel and Propulsion Alternatives 32. 3 2 Fuels for Propulsion Pros and Cons 37,3 3 Abatement Technology Solutions 37. 3 4 Fuel Cost Considerations 39, 3 5 Comparative Analysis of Compliance Strategies 41. 3 6 Vessels Suitable for LNG Propulsion 43, 4 Inventory of Existing and Planned LNG Infrastructure and Supply.
4 1 Overview of the LNG Value Chain 45, 4 2 Upstream LNG Infrastructure in Northern Europe 45. 4 3 Downstream Infrastructure in Northern Europe 48. 4 4 Example of LNG Infrastructure in Norway 52, 5 Analysis of the Potential of LNG as a Maritime Fuel in Northern Europe 55. 5 1 Bunkering of Traditional Fuels 56, 5 2 Potential Quantities of LNG in Northern Europe by 2020 59. 5 3 Future LNG infrastructure development in SECA 63. 5 4 Analysis on the Potential for LNG as a Marine Fuel 63. 6 LNG in Land Based Applications 65,6 1 Residential and Commercial Sectors 65. 6 2 Industrial Sector 65,6 3 Power Generation 66,6 4 Transportation 66.
7 Regulations and Guidelines 69, 7 1 GAP Analysis of Regulations and Guidelines for LNG Bunkering 69. 7 2 International Regulations and Guidelines 69,7 3 Required Factors 70. 7 4 Identified Gaps 71,8 Financial and Economic Instruments 73. 8 1 Economic Instruments 73,8 2 Policy measures 73. 8 3 Large Differences between Incentives in Different European Countries 73. 8 4 Financing of Port Investments 74, 9 Public Awareness and Consultation Process Experiences 77.
9 1 Experience from Existing LNG Projects in the Region 77. 10 Conclusions 79,10 1 LNG Availability in Northern Europe 79. 10 2 LNG Demand and Infrastructure in Northern Europe 79. 10 3 LNG as Fuel from a Ship Owner Perspective 80,10 4 Regulations 80. 10 5 Permit Processes for LNG terminals 80,11 Way Forward 81. References 83, Appendix I The Shipping Industry a Historical Review of Propulsion and. Fuelling Changes 89, Appendix II Fuel Alternatives and Technical Properties 93.
Appendix III LNG Storage Tanks 97, Appendix IV Examples of Vessels Suitable for LNG Propulsion 99. Appendix V LNG Infrastructure in Northern Europe 113. Appendix VI Calculation on Future Potential of LNG Demand in the SECA 123. Appendix VII International Conventions Agreements and Regulations 133. Appendix VIII Examples of Economic Instruments 171. Appendix IX National Experiences from Public Awareness and. Consultation Processes 175,List of Figures,Figure 1 Map of the Motorways of Sea MoS 24. Figure 2 SECA The Baltic Sea the North Sea and the English Channel 25. Figure 3 Ship type distribution in the SECA area based on AIS data analysis 26. Figure 4 Ship age y axis distribution in the SECA area 26. Figure 5 Total numbers of ships in the SECA in 2011 27. Figure 6 Sea routes all cargo TEN T ports 2003 28, Figure 7 Dual fuel injection system for W rtsil DF engine 33. Figure 8 High pressure gas injection 33, Figure 9 Spark ignited gas engine of W rtsil design and Rolls Royce design. respectively 34,Figure 10 Marine fuel viscosities 36.
Figure 11 European bunker fuels versus crude oil price 40. Figure 12 Comparison of annual machine related costs for various marine fuels 42. Figure 13 LNG value chain 45, Figure 14 Existing and planned production plants and LNG terminals in SECA 47. Figure 15 Different optional supply routes 49, Figure 16 Enlarged port layout of small scale LNG terminal in Norway 54. Figure 17 Overview of how AIS data is used for the preiliminary estimation of total. future LNG demand in SECA 56, Figure 18 Yearly residual demand in top 32 ports in 2009 59. Figure 19 Gas fuelled ships adoption rate in new buildings 60. Figure 20 LNG fuelled ships in the SECA area 2014 2020 61. Figure 21 LNG demand in SECA area 2015 2020 tonnes per year 62. Figure 22 LNG demand 2020 by ship type tonnes per year 62. Figure 23 Gas fuelling stations in European countries 67. Figure 24 Number of natural gas vehicles in different European countries 68. Figure 25 RoPax vessel 99,Figure 26 Tug boat 100,Figure 27 Bulk carrier 101. Figure 28 Dual fuel Retrofit of Chemical Tanker BIT VIKING 101. Figure 29 Container ship 103,Figure 30 LNG Feeder Vessel 104.
Figure 31 Typical concept design bunker vessel for LNG 105. Figure 32 Coast Guard Vessel 106,Figure 33 Offshore Supply Vessel 107. Figure 34 Fishing Vessel 110,Figure 35 Very Large Crude Carrier VLCC 111. Figure 36 Figure Design of a gas fuelled cruise vessel GasPax Project 112. Figure 37 Key gas supply routes in Europe with projected import 116. Figure 38 Volumes of LNG imported seven European countries 2001 2009 117. Figure 39 The European natural gas grid 2010 118, Figure 40 Existing planned and proposed LNG terminals and productions plants 119. Figure 41 The SECA area fleet of ships Number of unique vessels per category. only operating within the SECA area Based on statistics from AIS registrations. during two months of 2011 127, Figure 42 Age distribution of the ships in SECA 2011 128. Figure 43 New built vessels per year 128, Figure 44 Gas fueld ships adoption rate in newbuildings 129.
Figure 45 New buildings and LNG fuelled ships in the SECA area 2014 2020 130. Figure 46 LNG demand in SECA area 2015 2020 tonnes of LNG per year 131. Figure 47 LNG demand 2020 by ship type tonnes of LNG per year 132. List of tables,Table 1 Liquefied Natural Gas investments 35. Table 2 Marine Gas Oil investments 37,Table 3 Scrubber investments 39. Table 4 Comparing the alternatives LNG DME MGO and HFO 43. Table 5 Major bunker ports in Northern Europe 57,Table 6 Large European ports 58. Table 7 Types of instrument used to address different NECD pollutants 74. Table 8 Technical properties of fuel alternatives 93. Table 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gas investments 94,Table 10 DME investments 95. Table 11 Types of LNG tanks on vessels 97,Table 12 RoPax RoRo Vessel properties 99.
Table 13 Example of orders of RoPax vessels with LNG propulsion 100. Table 14 Port Tug Boats properties 100, Table 15 Coastal Tankers Bulk Carriers properties 102. Table 16 Example of orders with LNG propulsion 102. Table 17 Container ship properties 103, Table 18 Example of orders for a Container vessel with LNG auxiliary power 104. Table 19 LNG Feeder Vessel properties 104,Table 20 LNG Bunker Vessel properties 105. Table 21 Naval Coast Guard Vessel properties 106, Table 22 Orders of LNG Naval Coastal Guard Vessels with LNG propulsion 107. Table 23 Offshore supply vessel properties 108, Table 24 Example of orders for supply vessels with LNG propulsion in operation 108.
Table 25 Short Trip Passenger Car Ferry properties 109. Table 26 Example of ferries with LNG propulsion in operation 109. Table 27 Fishing Vessel properties 110, Table 28 Very Large Crude Carrier VLCC properties 111. Table 29 Cruise vessel properties 112, Table 30 Existing LNG production plants in the SECA 113. Table 31 Planned and proposed production plants in the SECA 114. Table 32 Small and medium sized LNG vessels in the world 115. Table 33 Existing LNG terminals in Europe 2011 120. Table 34 Existing small scale LNG terminals in Norway 121. Table 35 Planned and proposed terminals in northern Europe 122. Table 36 Ship groups and the total number of ship route registrations analysed in. each group 124, Table 37 Average energy use per day per ship by ship type and length MWh 0. indications in the table reflects type length intervals where no ship operations were. registered 126, Table 38 No of LNG ships in SECA area by 2020 and yearly consumption of LNG 131. Table 39 Overview of International Organisations and Authorities 133. Table 40 Overview of applicable European rules and regulations 154. Table 41 Discounts and penalties on fuels 172, Table 42 Discounts and penalties for NOX emissions 172.
Energy units,Wh Watt hour,kWh kilo Watt hour 1 000 watt hours 1kWh 3 6 MJ. MWh Mega Watt hour 1 000 000 watt hours,MJ Mega Joule 1 000 000 Joule 1MJ 0 28kWh. MBTU Million British Thermal Unit 1 MBTU 293 kWh 1 055 MJ. Power units,kW kilo Watt 1 000 Watt 1 kW 1 34 hp 3 6 MJ h. MW MegaWatt 1 000 kW 1 000 000 W,List of Abbreviations. ADN International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways. AIS Automatic Identification System is a very high frequency VHF radio. based system which enables the identification of the name position. course speed draught and cargo of ships,BLG Bulk Liquids and Gases.
BOG Boil Off Gas,BSR Baltic Sea Region,BV Bureau Veritas. CCNR Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine. CEN European Committee for Standardization,CNG Compressed Natural Gas. CO2 Chemical formula for Carbon dioxide,DNV Det Norske Veritas AS. DMA Danish Maritime Authority,DME Di Methyl Ether,ECA Emission Control Area. ECE Economic Commission for Europe,ECSA European Community Shipowners Associations.
EGCS Exhaust Gas Cleaning System SOX,EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation. EMEP European Monitoring and Evaluation Program, EMSA European Maritime Safety Agency of the European Commission. ENOVA Energy Efficiency Agency,ERS Emergency Release System. ESD Emergency Shut Down,ETS European Trading Scheme. EU European Union, EUROGAS Natural Gas Industry of the European Union.
FSRU Floating Storage and Regasification Unit,GBS Gravity Based Structure. GHG Greenhouse Gas, GIIGNL The International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importer. GL Germanischer Lloyd SE,GPS Global Positioning System. GT Gross Tonnage, HELCOM Helsinki Commission is a Baltic Sea Action Plan. HFO Heavy Fuel Oil,HVAC Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning.
IEA International Energy Agency, IFO Intermediate fuel oil IFO 380 viscosity max 380 cSt. IHO International Hydrographic Organization www iho ohi net. IKC In Kind Contributors, IMO International Maritime Organization www imo org. ISO International Organization for Standardization. ITOPF The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited. LNG Liquefied Natural Gas,LNGRV Liquid Natural Gas Regasification Vessel. LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas,LSHFO Low Sulfur Heavy Fuel Oil. MARIS Maritime Accident Response Information System of HELCOM has been. created to display different existing datasets into a common GIS format. and under a single user interface,http www helcom fi GIS maris en GB main.
MARKIS Maritime Competence and Innovation Cooperation in the Skagerrak and. MarPol The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto. MGO Marine Gas Oil,MoS Motorways of the Seas,MSC The Maritime Safety Committee. NGO Non Government Organization,NGVA Natural Gas Vehicle Association Europe. NOX Nitrogen Oxides,OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum. PM Particulate matter,PPP Public Private Partnerships. SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction, SECA SOx Emission Control Area describes an area where the adoption of.
special mandatory measures for SOx emissions from ships is required. according to Annex VI of MarPol, SIGTTO Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators. SOLAS The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974 and its. Protocol of 1988,SOX Sulphur Oxides,STS Ship to Ship. SWOT Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats,TEN T Trans European Transport Network. TEU Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit,UN United Nations,VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier. VLOC Very Large Oil Carrier,VTS Vessel Traffic Service.
WP Work Package, The Danish Maritime Authority DMA has commissioned the present study within. the context of the European Union financed TEN T programme Motorways of the. Seas The objective of the study is to address aspects of the feasibility in. establishing a maritime Liquefied Natural Gas LNG infrastructure in the Sulphur. Emission Control Area SECA covering the Baltic Sea the North Sea and the. English Channel with surrounding countries AF lead and SSPA are the. contracted consultants elaborating the study within the North European. Infrastructure Project, This report presents a baseline study which was initiated in July 2011 and. published in October 2011, The main activities following after this baseline are analyses of the most relevant. investment options for the establishment of an LNG filling station infrastructure in. the SECA covering economic and financial aspects investment models for. stakeholders as public utilities and private operators technical and operational. aspects as well as safety and security aspects, The study is conducted in close cooperation with various authorities organisations. and companies with an interest in the sector The study is co financed by a. selection of participants and also receives co financing from the TEN T funds. The participating In Kind Contributors IKCs are,Port of Zeebr gge.
Port of Hirtshals,Port of Szczecin and Swinoujscie. Port of Rotterdam,Energinet dk,Germanischer Lloyd SE. MAN Diesel Turbo,Lauritzen Kosan A S, The IKCs have contributed to valuable information in this report DNV has as well. contributed with input to the baseline report,Stockholm October 2011. F SSPA PROJECT TEAM,13 181 Baseline Report,The Steering Group members.
The Flemish Ministry of Mobility Port of Rotterdam. and Public Works Fluxys,The Danish Maritime Authority Gasnor. The Finnish Transport Safety Gasum,Agency Gasunie, The Norwegian Ministry of Trade Germanischer Lloyd SE. and Industry Energinet dk,The Swedish Maritime MAN Diesel Turbo. Administration Lauritzen Kosan A S,The Swedish Gas Association Bureau Veritas. Council of Nordic Ministers Gazprom Global LNG, Szczecin and Swinoujscie Sea Ports TEN T EA as observer.
Authority European Maritime Safety Agency,Port of Hirtshals EMSA as observer. Port of Zeebr gge,The Reference Group members,Aula Europe Sprl Danish Ministry of Transport. Baltic Energy Forum e V Ministry of Infrastructure Shipping. Baltic Ports Organization Division Netherlands, Baltic Sea Clean Shipping Nordic Council of Ministers. Belgian Federal Public Service Oiltanking Copenhagen A S. Mobility and Transport Polskie LNG S A,Danish Ministry of Transport Ports of Stockholm. Danish Ports Port of Aarhus,Danish Shipowners Association Port of Esbjerg.
Danish Society of Naval Port of Antwerp,Architecture and Marine FPS Mobility Transport. Engineering Swedish Marine Technology,Delphis N V Forum. European Community Shipowner s Royal Belgian Shipowners. Association Association,Energy Ports Rolls Royce,FDT Association of Danish Viking Line. Transport and Logistic centers Vopak LNG Holding B V. Port of Dunkerque W rtsil Ship Power Division,K zleked sm rn k szak rt Duna Express. Keppel Offshore Marine Europe,Technology Center,F SSPA PROJECT TEAM.
14 181 Baseline Report,Executive Summary, Liquefied Natural Gas LNG has the potential to become a solution for many ships. in the North Sea the Baltic Sea and the English Channel after January 2015 when. maritime fuel sulphur content is restricted to 0 1 by the International Maritime. Organisation IMO The IMO has imposed this regulation specifically to the above. mentioned area a Sulphur Emission Control Area SECA The LNG option relies on. the establishment of a maritime LNG infrastructure including both distribution and. bunkering aspects This Baseline Study aims at setting preconditions for further. analyses for the establishment of such an infrastructure. Ship owners compliance strategies to meet the sulphur regulations in. Northern Europe, Shifting from Heavy Fuel Oil HFO to LNG is seen as one possible solution for the. ships in the SECA to meet the environmental demands besides for example oil. distillates or the use of abatement technologies, Marine gas engines are proven reliable LNG as a fuel has the advantages of being. cleaner than prevailing fuels and without sulphur For some two stroke engines. LNG combustion will also require an SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction or EGR. Exhaust Gas Recirculation in order to meet the expected NOx regulations for the. SECA expected to come in force in 2016, LNG is expected to have a competitive price development in comparison to. conventional fuels On the negative side the LNG option will impose increased. capital investment costs on the ship owner it will reduce cargo capacity since tank. volumes need to be increased and it will rely on the establishment of a new. infrastructure, While a shift to oil distillates for example Marine Gas Oil MGO does not require.
much capital investment the fuel is more expensive than HFO and it will not fulfil. the expected NOx limitations for the area, The prime abatement technology option for the removal of sulphur and particulate. matters is scrubber technology in combination with either SCR or EGR for NOx. cleaning Abatement technologies will call for capital investment and uncertain. costs for e g dealing with scrubber waste and reduced cargo capacity. LNG supply infrastructure and missing links for the maritime sector. Natural gas is becoming more important in Europe and LNG import is expected to. account for a larger share of natural gas supplies In its liquefied form natural gas is. possible to transport and with this flexibility it becomes a global commodity rather. than a regional one The main demand for LNG in Europe constitutes of the.

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