Nanotechnology Based Biosensors And Diagnostics-Books Pdf

Nanotechnology Based Biosensors and Diagnostics
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116 BioNanoSci 2012 2 115 126, extensive 500 page report known as Nano2 36 The major. advances are the development of new fields of plasmonics . nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety use of. graphene for carbon based systems devising the gene . sequencing solutions based on the combinations of near . field optical physics and biochemistry development of hy . brid materials structures and use of local probes of atomic . and molecular scale structure for imaging complexity and. function at atomic levels These developments will have. substantial impact in all fields in the next decade 35 . The first major initiative for pushing nanotechnology was. taken by President Clinton in 2000 by establishing the National. Nanotechnology Initiative NNI which was a multi agency. program comprised of National Science Foundation Depart . ment of Defense Department of Energy National Institutes of Fig 2 The Gartner Hype cycle 41 . Health and National Cancer Institute The main focus of the. program was to build characterize and understand nanoscale molecular electronics as the breakthrough of the year 42 . devices However the realized economic impact was estimated The initial era of nanotechnology saw important pioneer . to be greater than a trillion US dollars in the next two decades ing studies that were highly useful for the advancement of. which led almost all countries to start intensive and dedicated this new scientific discipline However during the subse . research efforts in nanotechnology 37 40 Several tens of quent peak of inflated expectations it was observed that. billions of dollars have already been invested worldwide in unsubstantiated and even fabricated results were pub . nanotechnology thereby resulting in exponentially increased lished in highly reputed journals The trough of disillu . number of publications Fig 1 and patent applications sionment quickly followed as evident from the most. The first decade of nanotechnology from 2000 onwards infamous data falsification case of Jan Hendick Sch n at. is regarded as the hype cycle as described by Gartner Bell Laboratories who used fabricated data several times. Inc 41 Fig 2 Table 1 It consists of five phases 1 for many publications in Science and Nature 43 44 . technology trigger 2 peak of inflated expectations 3 However the quick investigation and resolution of this. trough of disillusionment 4 slope of enlightenment and scandal was highly instrumental in putting nanotechnolo . 5 plateau of productivity After the announcement of US gy again on the slope of enlightenment for the remaining. NNI the peak of inflated expectations quickly followed decade The multi billion dollar microelectronics industry . as evident from President Clinton s State of the Union based on the devised 32 nm silicon transistor technology . address The Science magazine further led to inflated clearly demonstrates the case of productive nanotechnol . expectations about molecular computing by proclaiming ogy However the applications of nanotechnology in bio . sensors diagnostics imaging and therapeutics still need. to be critically investigated and realized There is an. exclusive need of continued fundamental research in. nanotechnology in addition to the critical evaluation of. environmental health and safety of NMs , The nanotechnology products can be classified into three. categories based on the number of dimensions pushed to the. nanometer scale 1 thin films such as coatings of implants. for biocompatible purposes anticoagulant coatings of stents . and coatings of pills and other therapeutic agents have only. one dimension pushed to the scale of few tens or hundreds of. nanometers while the other two dimensions can still extend. up to millimeters 2 NMs such as carbon nanotubes CNTs . silicon nanowires nanorods and fibers have two dimensions. pushed to the nanometer scale and 3 NMs such as quantum. dots gold magnetic and polymeric nanoparticles and lip . Fig 1 Number of peer reviewed articles published on nanomaterials. osomes have all the three dimensions pushed to the nanome . during the past two decades The data is taken from ISI Web of ter scale Both the top to bottom and bottom up approaches. Knowledge on June 19 2012 have been used for the production of NMs The top to bottom. BioNanoSci 2012 2 115 126 117, Table 1 Description of the phases in the Gartner Hype cycle 41 . Phases Description, Phase 1 Technology trigger A potential technology breakthrough triggers significant publicity due to tremendous media interest But there are. usually no commercially viable products at this stage . Phase 2 Peak of inflated expectations The overenthusiasm and unrealistic expectations are generated due to the significant publicity in the. previous phase There are few successful applications of the developed technology but typically more failures . Phase 3 Trough of disillusionment The interest in the technologies fades as they do not meet the expectations due to the failures in experiments. and implementations There is usually no media interest and most of the producers generally abandon their developed technologies . However some producers still manage to secure the investments to improve their products up to the expected standards . Phase 4 Slope of enlightenment During this phase the businesses understand the benefits and applications of the developed technology which. leads to the development of highly refined products There is increased funding from the investors and usually no media interest . Phase 5 Plateau of productivity The benefits of the technology are widely demonstrated which increases its acceptability There is continuous. refinement of technology leading to the second and third generations However the final height of the plateau varies based on whether. it has broad market applicability or a niche market . approach involves micro nano machining of macroscopic integration of all assay steps and or reagents onto a. materials down to the desired nanometer scale using physical miniaturized device has led to lab on a chip Nanotech . anisotropic or chemical isotropic processes This process nology will enable the further miniaturization of bioana . includes combination of techniques such as lithography laser lytical systems by integrating sensors fluidics and. ablation ion milling and chemical etching On the other hand signal processing circuits which will provide the large . in the bottom up approach the material is built by the scale integration of different biochemical reactions on a. formation of an initial critical mass followed by the subse smaller footprint The on going development of integrated. quent accumulation of material Most commonly used techni lab on a chip devices will employ various elements of. ques for bottom up nanofabrication are molecular beam nanotechnology . epitaxy physical or chemical vapor deposition and evapora During the last decade NMs have been widely used in. tion and the bio chemical processes for the production of the fields of in vitro diagnostics imaging and therapeutics . supra molecular complexes self assembled monolayers and They have enabled the simultaneous multiplex detection of. protein polymer nanocomposites many disease biomarkers 48 49 and the diagnosis of. Several promising NMs such as carbon nanotubes diseases at a very early stage 8 19 50 They have also. CNTs graphene quantum dots QDs nanoparticles opened the possibility to explore the detection of ultra trace. NPs and nanocomposites have been used for diagnostics concentrations of target analytes and have led to ultra . and biosensors in the last decade The first major application sensitive rapid and cost effective assays requiring mini . has almost always been the glucose sensing mainly due to mum sample volume The NMs are being seen as the most. the multi billion dollar glucose monitoring market The field promising candidates for the development of high . of nanotechnology has grown by leaps and bounds in the throughput protein arrays 51 The size shape composi . last two decades However the post hype era of nanotech tion structure and other physical chemical properties of. nology 45 has posed serious challenges in the commer NMs can be tailored in order to produce the desired materi . cialization of nanotechnology based products The growing als with specific absorptive emissive and light scattering. public concerns about the safety of NMs the regulatory properties The bioconjugated NPs have also been employed. concerns in the absence of international guidelines for for signal amplification in assays and other biomolecular. assessing the safety of NMs and the industrial healthcare recognition events 49 However the most promising ap . I H requirements are the most critical issues to be plication of nanotechnology will be in the field of point of . addressed before these products become commercially via care diagnostics which will enable the primary care physi . ble This report provides the critical review of NBBD by cian and patients to perform assays at their respective set . evaluating the technology push versus the I H requirements tings The long term stability of NPs in addition to their. brightness and sharp bandwidth will be of tremendous sig . nificance to devise new methods for ultra sensitive biomark . 2 Developments in Nanotechnology Based Biosensors er discovery validation and clinical use The gold NPs. and Diagnostics GNPs tagged with short segments of DNA can be. employed to detect the genetic sequence in a sample while. The changing landscape of biomedical diagnosis 46 47 is the use of nanostructures nanopores nanowires nanopil . providing a continuous stimulus to the evolution of NBBD lars and nanogaps based devices can further provide the. The progress in miniaturization microfluidics and single molecule detection capability The identification and. 118 BioNanoSci 2012 2 115 126, characterization of single stranded genomic DNA or RNA biosensors in the last few years due to its interesting and.
without amplification has already been shown exciting properties such as high mechanical strength high. NMs such as QDs and NPs are good imaging agents due to thermal conductivity high elasticity tunable optical proper . their enhanced performance and functionality 52 They can ties tunable band gap very high room temperature electron. be targeted to the specific disease sites in the body by conju mobility and demonstration of the room temperature quantum. gating them to biomarker specific vectors The NMs based Hall effect It is a transparent material with a very low pro . imaging agents provide additional information pertaining to duction cost and low environmental impact It has been ex . the physiology and function apart from the anatomical infor tensively employed in electrochemical impedance . mation which enables more accurate and early disease diag fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence biosensors for. nosis such as the highly sensitive detection of early stage the detection of a wide range of analytes such as glucose . cancer thereby leading to better therapy Similarly the effec cytochrome c NADH hemoglobin cholesterol ascorbic ac . tiveness of treatments can be monitored more rapidly and id dopamine uric acid hydrogen peroxide horseradish per . accurately The plasmonic NPs and drug delivery will be oxidase catechol DNA heavy metal ions and gases 55 56 . employed for targeted therapeutics where the first impacts. will certainly be in treating cancer The use of NPs improves 2 3 QDs. the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of therapeutics They. take the drugs directly to the target sites of disease in the body QDs are inorganic nanocrystals approximately 1 10 nm in. by avoiding exposure of healthy tissues which increases the size with unique optical properties of broad excitation . availability of a drug at the target site and reduces the treat narrow size tunable emission spectra high photochemical. ment dose These developments in nanotechnology will be stability and negligible photobleaching They have been. highly beneficial in shifting the late stage diagnosis involving widely used 57 mainly as alternatives to fluorophores . expensive and socially burdensome treatment to early stage for the development of optical biosensors to detect ions . diagnosis relatively less expensive and less invasive The organic compounds pharmaceutical analytes and biomole . most widely used NMs in NBBD are described below cules such as nucleic acids proteins amino acids enzymes . carbohydrates and neurotransmitters They have also been. 2 1 CNTs employed for the in vivo detection of target sites in cancer . In fact they are the ideal candidates for multiplexed optical. During the past decade CNTs have been one of the most bioanalysis due to their ultra high sensitivity high specific . extensively used NMs in biosensors diagnostics tissue ity cost effectiveness miniaturized size size dependent. engineering cell tracking and labeling and delivery of emission wavelength and rapid analyte detection 48 . drugs and biomolecules 15 16 53 They are hollow cy . lindrical tubes composed of one two or several concentric 2 4 NPs. graphite layers capped by fullerenic hemispheres which are. referred to as single double and multi walled CNTs NPs have also been extensively used in various bioanalyt . respectively They have unique structures excellent electri ical applications 58 59 especially for the development of. 2 Developments in Nanotechnology Based Biosensors and Diagnostics The changing landscape of biomedical diagnosis 46 47 is providing a continuous stimulus to the evolution of NBBD The progress in miniaturization microfluidics and integration of all assay steps and or reagents onto a miniaturized device has led to lab on a chip Nanotech

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