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MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,TABLE OF CONTENT page. 1 INTRODUCTION Where who how 03,2 MUSIC PRODUCTION and ITS STAGES 9. 3 ARTISTIC and TECHNICAL CREDO 11,4 DEFINITIONS and FURTHER POINTS 14. 5 TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS 22,6 WHAT STUDENT WILL I BE 24. Note all facts concerning the Music and Music Technology courses at Keele University are. true at the time of writing Please be aware that any of the aspects concerning the cultural. offer at Keele University Music and Music Technology are subject to changes as a result of. teaching and learning needs and logistic circumstances. LIST OF ACRONIMS USED IN THIS TEXT,DAW Digital Audio Workstation. D A converter Digital to Analog converter,A D converter Analog to Digital converter. page 2 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,1 INTRODUCTION Where who how. 1 1 STUDYING MUSIC PRODUCTION at KEELE UNIVERSITY, There was a time when traditional roles were separate. The songwriter composer,The arranger,The studio session musician. The Musical Director,The Producer,The Recording technician. The Mixing engineer,The Mastering engineer, At Keele University music production is taught on the basis that the boundaries. between these roles are increasingly blurred thanks to both changes in working practices. and the momentous effects of portable and affordable music technologies Often the same. musically and technically creative individual covers several of these roles at the same time. during the unfolding of a certain music project If you study Music Production as part of. our courses you will be this multi talented musician engineer. Music Production is taught at Keele University as part of the established programmes in. Music and Music Technology The recording studios were founded in 1972 by Tim Souster. and were setup by a team of engineers led by our current studio support manager and. sound recordist Cliff Bradbury The current subject leader for Sound Recording and Music. Production at Keele University is electronic engineer and digital media artist Dr Diego. Garro Music Production is part of a vibrant multi disciplinary teaching provision in creative. music technology which focuses on many modern applications of analog and digital audio. technologies with particular emphasis on sound design sonic arts sounds for screen and. interactivity, page 3 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, Currently Music and Music Technology students can take a mini study path in the arts of. music productions which comprises the following modules and options. SOUND RECORDING Year 1,RECORD PRODUCTION in THEORY and PRACTICE Year 2. MUSIC PRODUCTION PORTFOLIO Year 3, At Keele University we consider theory and practice equally important Students learn the. basic elements of physics and acoustics that are germane to the working principles of a. microphone for example or the interaction between sound waves and a recording room or. the signal path in a recording studio Students enjoy 24 7 access to our recording studios. which is tremendously convenient considering the cost of hiring a professional recording. studio in the industry Students use the considerable amount of available studio time to. carry out recording experiments apply the principles taught in class and develop. independently entire production projects in small groups and individually. Keele University Music and Music Technology is a superb environment to learn the art and. craft of music production and to develop your existing skills in this exciting field You have. good facilities you have plenty of time to use them you can work with fellow producers. and musicians who are also studying in your courses Keele Music attracts excellent. drummers every year with its provision of competent instructors dedicated room for drum. practice and gear for drums recording including two acoustic drum kits two electronic. drum kits and dedicated software for drum sampling drums doubling and drums. replacement As a result of this conducive environment for drummers in recent years music. production students enjoyed the session studio work of very good drummers. Technical assistance is available at your fingertips Cliff Bradbury our technical support. manager is the person who sets up and maintains our recording facilities He knows the. studios inside out so he is the perfect troubleshooter for those occasions when things just. do not seem to work, An important clarification before we continue Music Production is an important and. very popular part of both the Music and the Music Technology degrees at Keele University. but it is not compulsory Students who are more interested in other aspects of music and. creative music technologies can opt out of studio production work if they so wish It is also. important to note that albeit most Music Technology students at Keele University do carry. out some music production the Music Department is not purely a Sound Recording Sound. Engineering Music Production school This means that prospective students who are. interested purely and only in a career as sound recording engineer or music producer should. consider courses delivered in other institutions and compare them with the broad cultural. offer available at Keele Music Music Technology At Keele University you have the. page 4 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, opportunity to study Music Production but you will also need to study a number of other. creative audio technology disciplines as well,1 2 THE RECORDING MIXING and MASTERING STUDIOS. There are currently two medium size recording studio areas both centered on Macintosh. DAW Digital Audio Workstations equipped with Logic Pro and various audio editing tools. There is a 16 channel audio link between the recording rooms and the Tascam digital. mixing desks that act as signal path hub and also as the main A D and D A converters A. large collection of microphones is available to students for their learning experiments and. recording projects They range form the very modern large diaphragm condenser such as. the AKG C414 or R de NT to the vintage Coles 4038 ribbon microphones There are. dedicated microphones for drums recordings including the workhorse Shure SM57 and the. AKG D112 for kick drums The microphone collection is enriched and upgraded on a yearly. Students can borrow instruments for their recording sessions such as Gretsch and Yamaha. drum kits Fender electroacoustic guitars Fender electric guitar amplifiers Roland Synth. Guitar modules and others depending on requirements and availability Keele Music also. has a collection of vintage electronic music gear which students can use when that retro. feel is needed in a particular project these include the CMI Fairlight Computer Music. System reel to reel tapes the Theremin VCS3 Analog Synthesizer and Yamaha DX7 Digital. Keyboard Synthesizer, The recording studios are available 24 7 and can be easily booked on line by all students. who are undertaking production projects as part of their coursework Students can enter. the studios using their electronic key which is given to all Music and Music Technology. students when they enroll our courses, Mixing and mastering are carried out either in the control rooms of the recording studios or. in dedicated project studios all kitted with Genelec active near field loudspeakers The. DAWs are currently equipped with the standard collection of Logic Pro native plugins but. also with additional tools for high quality audio editing and mixing These include Melodyne. pitch correction tools Drumagog drum replacement plug ins Superior Drummer and others. that are added on a yearly basis, page 5 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,1 3 WHAT YOU WILL STUDY and LEARN. As part of the undergraduate modules lecturers and demonstrators cover the use of the. facilities and the various recording and mixing techniques Lecturers demonstrators and. technicians regularly discuss with students producers the various aspects of a certain. project However the learning of music production at Keele University is strongly student. led Students themselves organise the recording sessions scout the musicians amongst the. many who gravitate around the Keele Music buildings and make things happen in the studios. in a process of learning by doing Students themselves are expected to come forward and. discuss issues relevant to their production projects with the session musicians fellow. producers and academic staff There is a vast collection of books on sound recording. microphone techniques and record production available in the Keele library where you can. also find a huge collection of recordings on CD relevant to what is being taught in the. various modules, What you will be taught study and learn The theory. Auditory perception,The principles of electroacoustic transducers. Microphones and loudspeakers,Analog and digital audio. The craft of a recorded piece of music,The soundbox. Attributes of recorded music timbre tonal balance,dynamics clarity texture. Relationship between music arrangement and production. The layers of a recorded piece of music their importance. their interaction, What you will be taught study and learn The practice. Studio techniques and signal path,Working in our recording studios. Microphone recording techniques,Mixing techniques,Mastering technique. Project management time keeping team work, page 6 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,What you will not be taught. Sequencing You are supposed to know this already or you are supposed to teach yourself using the. DAW and learning material which we provide with 24 7 access. Every detail of every single plugin These can be studied using the relevant documentation. All the details of Logic recording and mixing You will be shown some important aspect of signal flow. and other techniques in Logic but you are supposed to be familiar with the basic mechanics of a. DAW possibly Logic If you are not then you can easily catch up on your own using the DAW and. learning material which we provide, NOTE please note that tutors demonstrators and technicians at Keele University Music and Music. Technology are always ready to help and discuss any aspects of your work regardless whether or not these. are taught or not Ours is a very welcoming inclusive and friendly working environment. 1 4 WHAT WE EXPECT FROM OUR STUDENTS, Students who undertake Music Production work at Keele University are expected the. following things, They must provide themselves a good pair of studio headphones. They must commit to the rules of our Studio Code of Practice. They must have ambition that is the desire to achieve the best they can given the time and. the technology available and to always improve on their current level of ability. They must work regularly in the studios and develop their projects throughout the semesters. as opposed to rush to the studios late under the pressure of deadlines. They must network with other producers and musicians throughout their course of study. within Keele University and also outside wherever possible. They must possess already musical and aural skills at intermediate level. They must commit to expand their musical horizons and deepen their familiarity with the. musical styles they produce,MUSICAL and AURAL LISTENING SKILLS. Outstanding producers are in most cases very good or even outstanding musicians. themselves Producers recording engineers mixing engineers and mastering engineers. must be able to understand the music they are working on They are expected to be able to. converse with musicians using musical terminology They are supposed to have a firm. knowledge of the repertoire relevant to the projects they are involved in These skills can. be developed as part of a degree course but they cannot be taught from zero at University. page 7 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, you are supposed to be already musically literate upon entering our courses A basic. knowledge of music theory is expected equivalent to Grade 5 ABRSM1. Aural skills are also fostered as part of Music and Music Technology studies at Keele. University but you must be already able to recognize pitches frequency bands amplitude. levels dynamic range and spatial properties of music recorded stereophonically at least at. basic level Musical and aural skills come together and allow students to develop the. following production skills, 1 Identify the main sonic characteristics of studio recording takes and sound in. 2 Develop a critical informed and attentive predisposition towards sound mixes. 3 Identify the aspects that characterises good and bad practice in sound recording. music mixing and audio mastering, 4 Acquire the terminology to describe sound quality of a mix and discuss mixes in. collaborative creative contexts, ABRSM is the UK Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music It is an examinations board and. registered charity based in London UK which provides examinations in music at centres around the. page 8 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,2 MUSIC PRODUCTION and ITS STAGES. In the following pages you will find a summary of terminology useful to discuss the art of. Music Production, In the music industry often the mix is carried out by specialised mixing engineers under. the guidance and artistic supervision of the music producer and or artist s and or musical. director Sometimes these roles are covered by the same person but often they are not As. part of your University projects you will be required to carry out various stages of a Music. Production project Although this is highly formative and fun you should be aware that. each of these different passages require specific skills You will be directly involved in the. following activities as part of your music production projects. Pre production the draft of a musical idea a song a jingle a soundtrack and an. assessment of the resources needed to produce it Decision upon key song structure. lyrics Discussion about arrangement what to play and orchestration who plays. what Draft of a basic song outline for example guitar and voice or by means of. computer sequences Scouting of the musicians needed for the project and their. initial coaching on the music to be played Musical Director Evaluation of studio. time and studio facilities required Scouting of technical help for the various stages. These aspects are delicate and extremely important often the failure of a mix is. caused by inappropriate choices in pre production rather than technical mistakes. during recording and or mixing, Studio production the creation of audio recording takes needed to bring the. musical ideas to life This is done through one single or more often multiple studio. recording sessions Increasingly artists and producers carry out part of this stage in. home studio situations and part in professional recording facilities Production often. involves the writing and implementation of MIDI sequences that are crafted o. complement the musical arrangement emerging form the recording sessions. Editing and pre mixing choice of the recording takes to be used in the mix. Comping Pitch correction Tempo correction, Mixing the combination of tracks and parts to create the final stereophonic or. multi channel song piece It involves various complex choices relate to the. frequency spectrum equalization filtering relative amplitudes of the various. page 9 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, parts dynamics compression expansion spatial arrangement in the stereophonic. field artistic sound effects and sound textures, Mastering the detailed assessment of the mix s sonic properties and its finalisation. in view of a particular use soundtrack dissemination on CD Internet streaming. radio broadcast etc This stage typically involves fine tuning of equalization. compression and stereophonic imaging, Although modern computer technology allow a particular user to carry out all the above. stages using the same workstation and indeed the same project studio in many professional. applications the various stages are carried out by different specialists each with specific. expertise experience and dedicated technology These individuals may or may not be part. of the same team Mixing engineers may acquire materials developed elsewhere by. recording studios and carry out the mixing often in different specifically designed. studios Mastering engineers often acquire the mix down and subject it to detailed. scrutiny using specialised sound monitoring environments and dedicated software and. hardware tools For example they may use extremely sophisticated mid field loudspeakers. to assess every nuance of the sound texture and tonal balance but they may also play the. mix on cheap loudspeakers headphones and earphones to assess how the mix will sound on. common consumers playback systems living room Hi Fi portable players radio sets car. stereos etc The mastering engineer may decide to produce different mixes with. different equalisations and dynamics for different purposes. MONITORING ASSESSING SOUNDS PARTS and THE MIX, Sound monitoring is the activity of listening to sounds and sound mixes attentively and. critically in order to assess its quality sonic attributes and artistic potential It requires. good quality sound equipment concentration and training Assessing the quality of a mix is. more difficult than assessing the quality of a single sound or a single track because not. only it requires focus on the sounds that form the mix but it demands continuous attention. shifts between microscopic detail of the individual sounds and macroscopic properties of. the overall sound texture achieved as a result of mixing the various sounds both aspects. are equally important, page 10 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,3 ARTISTIC and TECHNICAL CREDO. There are various schools of thought when it comes to producing music The Internet has. provided endless forums for people of various extraction and ability to disseminate their. real or alleged wisdom Producer themselves even commercially successful ones are. sometimes carriers of very sensible and technically sound advice oftentimes though their. practice and recommendations are technically wrong or taken out of the appropriate. context or based on myth rather than facts In the following paragraphs you will find. explanations as to the technical and artistic credo that inspires the teaching and practice of. Music Production at Keele University These are not prescriptive guidelines but they. provide an important framework of references for prospective and current students to. understand the philosophy adopted in our institution As you read through these notes a. few things will become very clear, You need to acquire an understanding of the theory underpinning acoustics. recording technology and auditory perception This means attending lectures. studying and discuss with your tutors all aspects that are unclear and controversial. You need to break the closed circle of your current practices and humbly interact. with musicians producers and tutors to understand where you can improve. 3 1 Some tips on MONITORING, Do not use earphones for sound monitoring Never Although diverse in quality and. price earphones are generally poor transducers and strain your hearing system. channeling huge amount of acoustic energy directly to your eardrum Mastering. engineers may evaluate the sound of a certain mix on earphones as part of their. craft and task but recording and mixing engineers should always strive to monitor. with better transducers, Avoid monitoring only with headphones Headphones very good quality ones may. provide an intimate response especially useful to evaluate sonic and spatial details. especially in the mid high frequency range but overall they provide an artificial. page 11 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, sound staging and will never give the same broad frequency response that good. loudspeakers can provide Having said that headphones are possibly the most. common consumers sound playback technologies so both mixing and mastering. engineers should use them to assess the mixes Mixing engineers should always use. high quality studio headphones Mastering engineers should use both high end studio. headphones to craft the master and cheap headphones to test the response of low. budget consumer equipment, When you use headphones take breaks every 20min maximum. Use good near field studio monitor loudspeakers as much as possible to monitor your. Look after your hearing Use portable players with earphones sensibly using the 50 50. rule no more than 50min a day no more than 50 volume level Keep the volume. low to avoid prolonged direct blasts of energy into your eardrum Do not expose. yourself to loud noises music for long stretches of time If you work in noisy. environments including music clubs wear protective ear defender headsets. Beware of listening fatigue Take breaks Beware of over exposition to your under. construction mixes Sometimes over exposition causes you to overlook some major. faults to which you become blind Sometimes over exposition causes you to focus. stubbornly on subtle details that are almost un noticeable by the average listener. Moving away from a project for a day or two if possible can be beneficial Listening. to the opinion of other people classmates tutors is very important because it can. give a fresh perspective on the work you are carrying out. 3 2 Issues related to SOUND QUAILITY, Students and tutors at Keele University are demanding The quality of sound mixes is a. very important factor in the culture of our courses Some professional contexts have sought. roughness as a trade of a certain style For example some say punk rock mixes are. supposed to sound rough which invariably means that they are poorly crafted and sound. pretty bad Unfortunately this has given rise to and justification to generations of producers. who use such and similarly superficial aesthetic statements as an alibi for poor production. practices and unprofessional attitudes towards the crafting of music We believe that even. a rough sounding mix must have the necessary sonic attributes required to enjoy and. appreciate the music in all its artistic and technical aspects Style and quality must always. go hand in hand Stylistic references which are often based on myth and exaggeration. page 12 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, rather than reality must not be used as excuse for a slack approach to the crafting of a. music product For example drowning a mix in a deluge of loud distorted electric guitars. cannot be justified by stylistic references it is supposed to sound like this We believe. that even hardcore metal mixes to give just an example must project sufficient clarity of. the lead vocals and articulation of the drum parts despite the emphasis given to distorted. guitars in this particular style of popular music, IMPORTANT Regardless of any alleged common or good industry practices which may. be spelled out in various books or Internet fanzines or forum the mark of good handling of. dynamics compression in production projects carried out at Keele University is assumed to. be the following, All musical parts must be audible in the mix according to their role within the. musical arrangement without excessive compression or limiting. The overall mix must be crafted applying to the whole mix only mild compression. and limiting or none at all Examiners normally scrutinise this aspect listening to. the mixes and assessing the mix using a wave editor. The mixes submitted by students for assessment must have 3dB of real headroom. no artificial headroom introduced with negative gain or limiting is allowed. If you carry out mastering examiners will compare mastered and non mastered versions at. equal loudness to ascertain what your mastering choices have added to the sound quality of. Please be aware that replicating arrangements production techniques and mixing. strategies of a commercially successful track will not necessarily lead to high marks. Examiners will still make an independent judgment on the quality of production and post. production of your work and may still award low marks to mixes that sounds identical to a. million copies hit On this respect please be aware that commercial success does not. equate to a good quality production In fact a significant amount of commercially successful. music is ghastly produced For example overpowering your mix with unnecessarily loud. distorted electric guitars may be common in some current metal productions even. commercially successful ones but it still remains a poor production practice which will be. marked down If in doubt go and discuss your draft mixes with your tutor early on in the. page 13 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY,4 DEFINITIONS and FURTHER POINTS. In the following pages you will find a summary of important sonic attributes related to the. quality of studio recordings mixes and masters along with further clarifications on the. philosophy followed at Keele University Music Production. 4 1 SPATIAL PROPERTIES STEREO IMAGE, The design of the virtual sound of any arrangement stereo surround 5 1 etc is entirely. the responsibility of the student producer who is expected to craft this important element. of the music with choices that are stylistically and technically appropriate. In popular music the mixing,engineer and the producer. decide for each track the,characteristic of the virtual. sound stage as well as the,spatial behaviour of each single. sound featured in the mix In, Fig 3 1 Placement in a popular music stereo mix using the so called diagonal mix. most cases this means deciding, Source Bartlett B Bartlett J Practical Recording Techniques Focal Press 2005 the location and the image. width of each instrumental,and or vocal part, Manipulating and controlling the spatial properties is an essential skill for all. producers mixing and mastering engineers,Spatial Properties Good practice and bad practice. There should be some variety in the location stereo image and movement of. the musical parts you use in a project At least some parts instruments should. occupy different areas of the virtual sound stage, A balance between mono central and lateral positions should be sought. page 14 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated. MUSIC PRODUCTION,at KEELE UNIVERSITY, A balance between sounds parts with narrow stereo image and sounds with. wide stereo image should be sought, In music mixes it s good to be experimental but you should be aware of the. mainstream practices with regards to sound placements and stereo imaging. The overall sound stage of a mix should wherever possible and applicable be. wide and deep hence exploiting the full width of the stereo range and the full. depth and contrast between virtual proximity and virtual distance Some sounds. should suggest the idea of depth in the proximity distance axis Therefore there. should be at some point in the mix a contrast between louder and dry drier. sounds they will feel close up right on your face and quiet quieter and or. wet wetter sounds with reverberation they will suggest the idea of depth. space ambience, Several sounds all located centrally bad practice tiresome hinders. separation between musical parts and clarity, Narrow stereo image of the mix The sound texture remains focused in the. middle the extreme case being a monophonic mix mono that seems to come. from a point in the middle, In music mixes the sounds of vocals musical instruments and parts do not. normally dramatically move pan across the stereo range This is in general. considered an artificial and distracting behaviour Keep these movements to a. minimum and use them only when there is a clear artistic imperative possibly on. sound effects rather than musical parts,Examples of good sound staging. Folk Acoustic music Ian Anderson The Flower Girl,Jazz music Norah Jones Don t Know Why. page 15 2007 2016 Diego Garro Keele University unless otherwise indicated.
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