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Multiple Operating Machines Drilling Sawing Shaping
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sawing shaping some lathe operations at different Rapid wear of the slot in the yoke caused by. working centers simultaneously which implies that sliding friction and high contact pressures. industrialist will not have to pay for machine Lesser percentage of the time spent at bottom. performing above tasks individually for operating dead center reducing blow down time for two. operation simultaneously Economics of stroke engines when compared with a. manufacturing According to some economists conventional piston and crank shaft. manufacturing is a wealth producing sector of an mechanism. economy whereas a service sector tends to be wealth. consuming Emerging technologies have provided Functional Description. some new growth in advanced manufacturing The functional description of the project work is. employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt explained in brief here For better understanding the. in the United States Manufacturing provides important total project work is divided into various blocks and. material support for national infrastructure and for each block explanation is provided here The following. national defense is the description of overall function of the module. In this project generally the power is applied to the. Before starting our work we have undergone through shaft on which a bevel gear is mounted on it and a. many research papers which indicates that for a second bevel gear at a right angle to it has been. production based industries machine installation is a mounted on a drill shaft to which a drill bit is being. tricky task as many factor being associated with it such attached At one end of the shaft power is applied. as power consumption electricity bill per machine manually and other end is being joined to a circular. maintenance cost no of units produced per machine disc through this circular disc scotch yoke mechanism. i e capacity of machine time consumption and many is being performed rotator y motion is converted to. more reciprocating motion Also in between these two a. helical gear is mounted which transfer its motion to. Advantages other helical gear which is mounted on a shaft consist. Multi operations can be performed at the same time of grinding wheel. Power saving as it is manually operated, Size is compact therefore it requires less II WORKING PRINCIPLE. space There are only two major principles on which this. Time saving proposed model generally works They are. Less man power is required 1 Scotch Yoke mechanism and. Low manufacturing maintenance cost 2 Power transmission through gears. Easy machinery used Bevel gears,Fewer moving parts. Smoother operation Scotch Yoke Mechanism,The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the. Disadvantages linear motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice. it s totally manually operated versa The piston or other reciprocating part is directly. Time consuming as compared to electrical coupled to a sliding yoke with a slot that engages a pin. power on the rotating part The shape of the motion of the. piston is a pure sine wave over time given a constant. Without human effort it s not operated,rotational speed. Not fit for heavy production,The Rotary motion of drilling operation.
performed is also used for performing other,tasks like cutting and grinding simultaneously. The work pieces are to be clamped on the,work table using suitable clamping device like. vice for the three operations,After machining the work pieces are to be. removed and cleaned, Fig 1 Front view of Scotch Yoke Mechanism III COMPONENTS OF THE MACHINE. The scotch yoke mechanism is constructed with iron 1 Frame. bars Here the crank is made of wood in some length 2 Scotch Yoke mechanism. and the yoke is made of iron It is noted that the 3 Bevel gear. minimum length of the yoke should be double the 4 Bearing Ball. length of the crank The crank and yoke is connected 5 Rocker arm. with a pin Iron bars are welded to both sides of the 6 Hacksaw blade. yoke to get the reciprocating motion The yoke with 7 Tool post. the iron bars is fixed on the display board with the help 8 Drilling chuck. of square pipe that is a bit bigger than that of the iron 9 Drill tool. bars Now the crank is connected through a screw 10 Single cutting tool. mechanism to the end of the shaft of the bevel gear 11 Nut and Bolt. mechanism Now the pin on the crank is connected to 12 Other components. the yoke The pin used to connect yoke and crank is a. bolt Operations Performed By the Machine,1 Drilling.
Bevel gears are gears where the axes of the two shafts 2 Cutting. intersect and the tooth bearing faces of the gears 3 Shaping. themselves are conically shaped Bevel gears are most. often mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart but Drilling. can be designed to work at other angles as well The Drilling machine can be defined as an instrument. pitch surface of a gear is the imaginary toothless which is used to drill holes Drilling machine plays an. surface that you would have by averaging out the important role in mechanical workshops The purpose. peaks and valleys of the individual teeth The pitch of this project work is to get hold of complete. surface of an ordinary gear is the shape of a cylinder information pertaining to drilling machines A drilling. The pitch angle of a gear is the angle between the face machine comes in many shapes and sizes from small. of the pitch surface and the axis More description hand held power drills to bench mounted and finally. about gears and their drive mechanisms is provided in floor mounted models Today the Industrial growth is. the further chapters purely depends up on latest machines therefore the. subject of drilling machines is extended too widely. The working medium adopted is Mechanical because today wide varieties of drilling machines are. power designed for various applications The most advanced. version drilling machine is CNC Computer Numeric,The machine work without the help of. Control it is used for drilling the PCB s Printed,electricity. circuit boards CNC Drilling is commonly smaller and with the cutter riding a ram that moves. implemented for mass production above a stationary work piece rather than the entire. The machine used for drilling is called drilling work piece moving beneath the cutter The ram is. machine moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the. The drilling operation can also be column hydraulically actuated shapers also exist. accomplished in lathe in which the drill is, held in tail stock and the work is held by the Types. chuck Shapers are mainly classified as standard draw cut. The most common drill used is the twist drill horizontal universal vertical geared crank hydraulic. It is the simplest and accurate machine used in contour and traveling head The horizontal. production industries arrangement is the most common Vertical shapers are. The work piece is held stationary i e clamped generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved. in position and the drill rotates to make a hole surfaces to be machined same idea as in helical. planning The vertical shaper is essentially the same. Cutting thing as a slotter slotting machine although. A hacksaw is a fine tooth hand saw with a blade held technically a distinction can be made if one defines a. under tension in a frame used for cutting materials true vertical shaper as a machine whose slide can be. such as metal or plastics Hand held hacksaws consist moved from the vertical A slotter is fixed in the. of a metal arch with a handle usually a pistol grip vertical plane. with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade,IV BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT BEVEL. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin. GEARS AND DRIVE MECHANISMS,blade under tension The blade can be mounted with.
the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having. resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull. cut teeth or cogs which mesh with another toothed, stroke On the push stroke the arch will flex slightly. part in order to transmit torque in most cases with. decreasing the tension on the blade often resulting in. teeth on the one gear being of identical shape and. an increased tendency of the blade to buckle and crack. often also with that shape on the other gear Two or. Cutting on the pull stroke increases the blade tension. more gears working in tandem are called a, and will result in greater control of the cut and longer. transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage. blade life,through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a. simple machine Geared devices can change the speed. torque and direction of a power source The most,The shaping machine is used to grind flat metal.
common situation is for a gear to mesh with another. surfaces especially where a large amount of metal has. gear however a gear can also mesh with a non,to be removed Other machines such as milling. rotating toothed part called a rack thereby producing. machines are much more expensive and are more,translation instead of rotation. suited to removing smaller amounts of metal very, accurately A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses. Comparison With Drive Mechanisms, linear relative motion between the work piece and a. The definite velocity ratio which results from having. single point cutting tool to machine a linear tool path. teeth gives gears an advantage over other drives such. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe except that it is. as traction drives and V belts in precision machines. archetypal linear instead of helical Adding axes of. such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity. motion can yield helical tool paths as also done in. ratio In cases where driver and follower are proximal. helical planning A shaper is analogous to a plane but. gears also have an advantage over other drives in the. reduced number of parts required the downside is that. gears are more expensive to manufacture and their,lubrication requirements may impose a higher.
operating cost,Spur Gears, General Spur gears are the most commonly used gear Fig 3 Helical Gear. type They are characterized by teeth which are Bevel Gears. perpendicular to the face of the gear Spur gears are by General Bevel gears are primarily used to transfer. far the most commonly available and are generally the power between intersecting shafts The teeth of these. least expensive gears are formed on a conical surface Standard bevel. gears have teeth which are cut straight and are all. Limitations Spur gears generally cannot be used parallel to the line pointing the apex of the cone on. when a direction change between the two shafts is which the teeth are based Spiral bevel gears are also. required available which have teeth that form arcs Hypocycloid. bevel gears are a special type of spiral gear that will. Advantages Spur gears are easy to find inexpensive allow nonintersecting non parallel shafts to mesh. and efficient Straight tool bevel gears are generally considered the. best choice for systems with speeds lower than 1000. feet per minute they commonly become noisy above,this point One of the most common applications of. bevel gears is the bevel gear differential, Limitations Limited availability cannot be used for. Fig 2 Spur Gear parallel shafts can become noisy at high speeds. Helical Gears, General Helical gears are similar to the spur gear Advantages Excellent choice for intersecting shaft. except that the teeth are at an angle to the shaft rather systems. than parallel to it as in a spur gear The resulting teeth. are longer than the teeth on a spur gear of equivalent. pitch diameter The longer teeth cause helical gears to. have the following differences from spur gears of the. Limitations Helical gears have the major, disadvantage that they are expensive and much more Fig 4 Bevel Gears.
difficult to find Helical gears are also slightly less Worm Gears. efficient than a spur gear of the same size General Worm gears are special gears that resemble. screws and can be used to drive spur gears or helical. Advantages Helical gears can be used on non parallel gears Worm gears like helical gears allow two non. and even perpendicular shafts and can carry higher intersecting skew shafts to mesh Normally the two. loads than can spur gears shafts are at right angles to each other. A worm gear is equivalent to a V type screw thread V MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION. Another way of looking at a worm gear is that it is a Many bearings require periodic maintenance to. helical gear with a very high helix angle Worm gears prevent premature failure although some such as fluid. are normally used when a high gear ratio is desired or or magnetic bearings may require little maintenance. again when the shafts are perpendicular to each other Most bearings in high cycle operations need periodic. One very important feature of worm gear meshes that lubrication and cleaning and may require adjustment. is often of use is their irreversibility when a worm to minimize the effects of wear Bearing life is often. gear is turned the meshing spur gear will turn but much better when the bearing is kept clean and well. turning the spur gear will not turn the worm gear The lubricated However many applications make good. resulting mesh is self locking and is useful in maintenance difficult For example bearings in the. ratcheting mechanisms conveyor of a rock crusher are exposed continually to. hard abrasive particles Cleaning is of little use,because cleaning is expensive yet the bearing is. contaminated again as soon as the conveyor resumes. operation Thus a good maintenance program might, lubricate the bearings frequently but never clean them. Some bearings use thick grease for lubrication which. Fig 5 Worm Gear is pushed into the gaps between the bearing surfaces. Limitations Low efficiency The worm drives the also known as packing The grease is held in place by. drive gear primarily with slipping motion thus there a plastic leather or rubber gasket also called a gland. are high friction losses that covers the inside and outside edges of the bearing. race to keep the grease from escaping Bearings may. Advantages Will tolerate large loads and high speed also be packed with other materials Historically the. ratios Meshes are self locking which can be either an wheels on railroad cars used sleeve bearings packed. advantage or a disadvantage with waste or loose scraps cotton or wool fiber soaked. in oil than later used solid pads of cotton,Racks straight gears. General Racks are straight gears that are used to VI BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT BEVEL. convert rotational motion to translational motion by GEARS. means of a gear mesh They are in theory a gear with Bevel gears are used to transmit power between two. an infinite pitch diameter In theory the torque and non parallel shafts The shafts may be intersecting or. angular velocity of the pinion gear are related to the non intersecting Bevel gears can be described as. Force and the velocity of the rack by the radius of the conical gears as they are cut on conical blanks. pinion gear as is shown below Perhaps the most well tapered They are not interchangeable and always. known application of a rack is the rack and pinion designed in pairs The commonly used bevel gears are. steering system used on many cars in the past straight spiral and hypoid based on the geometry as. given below,Limitations Limited usefulness difficult to find. Advantages The only gearing component that, converts rotational motion to translational motion.
Efficiently transmits power Generally offers better. precision than other conversion methods,Straight Bevel Gears. The straight bevel gears are the simplest types of bevel. gears They are the important gears to transmit power. between intersecting shafts Straight bevel gears are. shown in Figure below The teeth are cut straight have. a taper and if extended inward would intersect each. other on the axis of shaft The meshing gears have line. contact Hence they are not smooth in operation,Fig 8 Spiral bevel gears. generate more vibrations and noise at high speed, Their advantages compared with straight bevel gears at. They produce thrust load on shaft bearings Straight. high speeds are a smoothness and quietness of,bevel gears are used for speed ratio 1 1 Their. operation b strength and c durability due to the, precision is as good as parallel helical gears but higher.
followings, than crossed helical gears spiral bevel gears hypoid. Longer contact length and larger contact ratio,bevel gears and worm gears. compared to straight bevel gears of same size,Teeth engage gradually the contact beginning. at one end and gradually working over other,end whereas in the straight bevel gear the. contact takes place along the entire face of the, Fig 6 Straight level Gears Mounted on shafts Left tooth at the same instant.
on loom Right on Carding Machine,Hypoid Bevel Gears. Hypoid bevel gears are used to connect shafts whose. axes do not intersect They are very similar to spiral. gears However their pitch surfaces are hyperpoloids. rather than cones As a result their pitch axes do not. intersect They permit certain amount of sliding action. along the direction of tooth element which requires. Fig 7 Thrust load on Bevel gears good lubrication Their power transmission efficiency. is poor compared to other straight and spiral bevel. Spiral Bevel Gears, gears In general hypoid gears are most desirable for. These gears are mounted on shaft whose axes are those applications requiring large speed reduction. intersecting The pitch surface is conical as shown in ratios nonintersecting shafts and also great. Figure below Spiral bevel gears have curved oblique smoothness and quietness of operation. teeth spiral which allow contact to develop gradually. and smoothly They have more contact length and area. and less power transmission efficiency compared to. straight bevel gears They are useful for high speed. applications and others requiring less noise and, vibration They are difficult to design and costly to. manufacture as they require specialized and, sophisticated machinery for their manufacture They. produce more thrust load on shaft bearings than,Fig 9 Hypoid bevel gears.
straight bevel gears, Miter and Angular Bevel Gears VII FABRICATION OF THE MACHINE. In majority of bevel gear drives the shafts of the There are few types of fabrication methods that are. meshing gears are 90 to each other If the angles done on the machine They are. between the shafts are 90 and the two gears of a pair Arc cutting. are having the same number of teeth then it is called Drilling. as Miter Gear A pair of spiral miter gears is shown Grinding. in Figure In some bevel gear drives the angles Turning. between the shafts may not be 90 but either more or. less than 90 These gears are called Angular bevel Further Operation. gears A pair of angular bevel gears is shown in Cleaning. Figure below Assembling,Machining Operations, In this paper it is used to cut the raw material such as. plates rod This is done by arc cutting machine, Drilling is used to produce holes in objects In this. Fig 10 Spiral miter gears project the square type pipe required the holes for. making rake assembly These holes are done by,vertical type drilling machine. Fine Grinding, It is nothing but a grinding process which is done as.
smooth with fine grains It is done by convention,grinding machine. Fig 11 Angular bevel gears Angle of separation Turning. 90 It is used in this project to make the groove on the both. Applications of Bevel Gears sides of top cover plate This is done by conventional. Straight bevel gears are used primarily for low speed lathe. application with pitch line velocities up to 300 m min. They are widely used in textile machines Few of Further Operations. applications are listed below Cleaning, It is the operation to clean the all machined parts. drive to bobbin rail on roving machine, without burrs dust and chip formals By meaning the. drive between the doffer and feed roller on parts they are brightened and good looking. low speed carding machines, drive from calendar roller to coiler rollers top Assembling. coiler to bottom coiler plates in card comber It is the operation its deals with the assembling of. and drawing machine various parts produced by above operations. drive between calendar roll and lap stop,mechanism lever in lap former of conventional.
VIII CONCLUSION 2 Dr Toshimichi Moriwaki Trends in Recent. Machine Tool Technologies Professor Department f, The scotch yoke mechanism is made and its Mechanical Engineering Kobe University NTN. advantages and disadvantages are discussed Its motion Technical Review No 74 2006. characteristics are studied It is concluded that this. mechanism is a good choice to convert rotating motion 3 T Moriwaki Multi functional machine tool. into reciprocating motion because of fewer moving Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering. parts and smoother operation It can be used in direct Setsunan University Neyagawa Japan CIRP Annals. injection engines like diesel engines hot air engines Manufacturing Technology. In this project report we provide an overview of the DOI 10 1016 j cirp 2008 09 004. issues concerning different aspects of multipurpose. machine using scotch yoke mechanism The paper 4 Frankfurt am Main Multi purpose machines. focused on the principle of scotch yoke mechanism ensure enhanced 1 January 11. type of tooling and machining parameters and process. performance measure which include cutting speed 5 Selecting and Planning the Process of. Manufacture Dr Pulak M Pandey, depth of cut material removal rate with different type. http paniit iitd ac in pmpandey,of equipments which can be run simultaneously and. fabricate the work piece in multipurpose machine has. been presented The presented results can help to plan. the machining of work piece with expected tolerance. The following major conclusions may be drawn from,Multipurpose machine is derived from turning. lathe which has been a well established,industrial processes offering attractive.
capabilities for handling work piece of,various length to be used at micro level. We have presented the development of,multipurpose machine in various modes by. which it can be actively adopted,We have explained the various parts and. components of multipurpose machine using,scotch yoke mechanism. Different types of attachments and tools which,can be implemented on multi purpose machine.
have been discussed,REFERENCES,1 Heinrich Arnold1 The recent history of the. machine tool industry and the effects of technological. change University of Munich Institute for Innovation.

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