Microbiological Spoilage And Safety Risks In Non Beer -Books Pdf

Microbiological spoilage and safety risks in non beer
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VTT TIEDOTTEITA RESEARCH NOTES 2599,Microbiological spoilage and safety. risks in non beer beverages, Riikka Juvonen Vertti Virkaj rvi Outi Priha Arja Laitila. ISBN 978 951 38 7786 6 soft back ed,ISSN 1235 0605 soft back ed. ISBN 978 951 38 7787 3 URL http www vtt fi publications index jsp. ISSN 1455 0865 URL http www vtt fi publications index jsp. Copyright VTT 2011,JULKAISIJA UTGIVARE PUBLISHER,VTT Vuorimiehentie 5 PL 1000 02044 VTT. puh vaihde 020 722 111 faksi 020 722 4374,VTT Bergsmansv gen 5 PB 1000 02044 VTT.
tel v xel 020 722 111 fax 020 722 4374, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Vuorimiehentie 5 P O Box 1000 FI 02044 VTT Finland. phone internat 358 20 722 111 fax 358 20 722 4374,Technical editing Marika Leppilahti. Kopijyv Oy Kuopio 2011, Riikka Juvonen Vertti Virkaj rvi Outi Priha Arja Laitila Microbiological spoilage and safety risks. in non beer beverages produced in a brewery environment Espoo 2011 VTT Tiedotteita Research. Notes 2599 107 p app 4 p, Keywords alcopop beverage beer mixed beverage cider functional beverage microbiology. safety soft drink spoilage risk, During the past ten years considerable changes have occurred in the global bev.
erage market Functional beverages and bottled waters currently constitute the. fastest growing sectors Energy drinks tooth friendly beverages and non. alcoholic malt beverages are also gaining popularity This literature review aims. at providing state of the art knowledge on microbiological spoilage and safety. risks in non beer beverages produced in a brewery environment with special. emphasis on functional and specialty products, Many modern beverages have less antimicrobial hurdles compared to tradi. tional carbonated soft drinks due to higher level of nutrients for microbial. growth lower acidity and or milder carbonation level Thermal processing and. the use of chemical preservatives have also been reduced for the production of. more natural products These changes in the beverage production are expected. to lead to increase in the product spoilage rate unless the gap is filled with im. provements in hygiene or with other hurdles, The major spoilage microbe types in the modern beverages will probably. remain the same as in the traditional products but the range of species is ex. pected to increase Previously innocuous LAB and yeasts common in the brew. ery environment may be able to grow in the more vulnerable products Bacteria. are expected to gain increasing importance in the product spoilage New emerg. ing spoilers include e g acid tolerant aerobic bacteria e g Alicyclobacillus in. PET bottled beverages Asaia spp in flavoured mineral waters Propionibacte. rium cyclohexanicum in juice rich drinks and spore forming bacteria and enter. obacteria in mildly acidic drinks, The possible new microbial health risks in the beverage production may. arise from the increasing ingredient import worldwide and from the use of low. acid juices as ingredients Pathogenic bacteria are not only able to survive but. can also grow in the low acid fruit and vegetable juices New ingredients and. changes in climate conditions may result in the appearance of new pathogens. and spoilage organisms Moreover the functional and specialty beverages may. allow better survival of pathogens compared to the traditional soft drinks There. fore research is needed about the occurrence and behaviour of pathogenic mi. crobes in the new beverages Escherichia coli 0157 H7 is considered the most. likely known threat in the acidic products due to its low infective dose and good. acid tolerance, Whenever new beverages are developed it is important to go through every. change made in the recipe packaging and preservation in order to consider the. microbial risks The modern beverages typically contain several potential growth. enhancers and inhibitors and their microbial stability is difficult to predict Pre. dictive microbiology can help in optimising the preservative systems and in. predicting and describing the behaviour of contaminants in non beer beverages. Microbial adaptation to stress needs to be taken into account in the preservation. and quality control of non beer beverages Research is needed for optimization. of the detection of stressed cells and to develop early warning tools. The future challenge in the beverage production is to produce safe and accept. ably stable products with minimal processing Exploiting the synergistic effect. of existing natural antimicrobials together with generally regarded as safe sub. stances and mild physical preservation treatments is a potential approach for. controlling harmful microbes in beverages The future of beverage preservation. will be a skilled knowledge based combination of antimicrobial hurdles to main. tain microbial microbiological quality while maintaining maximum sensory and. nutritional quality, During the past ten years considerable changes have occurred in the global bev.
erage market Functional beverages and bottled water currently constitute fast. growing segments Energy drinks still and tooth friendly beverages as well as. malt based beverages are also gaining popularity Moreover alcohol containing. beverage mixes are produced and imported increasingly In comparison to tradi. tional soft drinks modern beverages have become compositionally more com. plex and tend to have less antimicrobial hurdles because of their higher nutrient. contents lower acidity and carbonation level Moreover the use of thermal pro. cessing and chemical preservatives is being reduced in order to produce more. natural products, This literature review aims at providing state of the art knowledge on micro. biological quality and safety risks in non beer beverages produced in a brewery. environment with special emphasis on functional and specialty beverages This. study was funded by the PBL Brewing Laboratory The authors thank the mem. bers of the PBL Brewing Laboratory for supporting the work and for their valu. able comments The technical editing of the review was kindly supported by. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland,October 2011. Riikka Juvonen Vertti Virkaj rvi Outi Priha Arja Laitila. Abstract 3,1 Introduction 9,3 Bottled waters 12,3 1 Types of bottled waters 12. 3 2 Microbiology of bottled waters 13,3 3 Control of contaminations 16. 3 3 1 Raw material purity 16,3 3 2 Carbonation 16,3 3 3 Process hygiene 17.
3 3 4 Storage time and temperature 17,4 Soft drinks and alcoholic beverages 18. 4 1 Ingredients and manufacture of soft drinks 19,4 1 1 Ingredients in traditional soft drinks 19. 4 1 2 Ingredients in functional soft drinks 21,4 1 3 Soft drink manufacturing processes 22. 4 2 Ingredients and manufacture of alcoholic beverages 23. 4 2 1 Blended products involving a yeast fermentation 23. 4 2 2 Blended products not involving a yeast fermentation 24. 4 2 3 Traditional type ciders 24,4 3 Spoilage microbes in soft drinks 26. 4 3 1 Yeasts and soft drink spoilage 27,4 3 2 Bacteria and soft drink spoilage 29.
4 3 3 Filamentous fungi moulds and soft drink spoilage 32. 4 4 Spoilage microbes in alcoholic beverages 34, 4 4 1 Yeasts and spoilage of alcoholic beverages 34. 4 4 2 Bacteria and spoilage of alcoholic beverages 35. 4 5 Microbiological health risks associated with beverages 37. 4 5 1 Pathogenic bacteria 39,4 5 2 Parasites and viruses 40. 4 5 3 Mycotoxins 41,4 5 4 Other harmful microbial metabolites 44. 4 6 Microbial contamination sources 46,4 6 1 Raw materials 47. 4 6 2 Factory environment and production process 48. 4 7 Factors affecting microbial survival and growth in beverages 49. 4 7 1 pH and acidity 50,4 7 2 Carbonation and oxygen 51.
4 7 3 Nutritional status 51,4 7 4 Functional ingredients 54. 4 7 5 Ethanol 57,4 7 6 Water activity 57,4 7 7 Storage temperature 58. 4 7 8 Microbial adaptation and stress resistance 58. 4 8 Prevention of contaminations 59,4 8 1 Primary production 59. 4 8 2 Beverage production 60,4 9 Preservation of beverages 62. 4 9 1 Chemical preservation with weak organic acids 62. 4 9 2 Biological preservation with natural antimicrobials 65. 4 9 3 Biological acidification with well characterized bacteria and. 4 9 4 Traditional physical preservation techniques 69. 4 9 5 Emerging non thermal preservation techniques 72. 4 9 6 Hurdle technology and multitarget preservation 74. 4 10 Experimental assessment of beverage safety and stability 75. 5 Conclusions 77,References 79,Appendices, Appendix A Properties of common beverage spoiling microbes.
Appendix B Some of the regulations on mycotoxins in foods and beverages Table 1. and on Fusarium mycotoxins in foods and beverages Table 2. 1 Introduction,1 Introduction, In recent years several developments in society have contributed to changes in. the global beverage market Consumers are increasingly aware of the impact of. diet on their health and well being Beverages are not only consumed to provide. refreshment and hydration but also to increase well being and to help in pre. venting nutrition related disorders Tenge and Geiger 2001 Moreover an in. creasing number of consumers favour minimally processed products from natu. ral ingredients for reducing the intake of chemical additives from food and for. obtaining products with improved nutritive and sensory characteristics For ex. ample studies showing the possible presence of carcinogenic benzene in soft. drinks due to the reaction of benzoates chemical additive with ascorbic acid. and the possible allergenic effects of sulphites and benzoates have naturally con. tributed to this consumer trend Ashurst and Hargitt 2009. Whereas simple carbonated soft drinks still dominate the global beverage. market their market share is decreasing Functional beverages and bottled water. currently constitute the fastest growing beverage sectors Lawlor et al 2009 In. 2008 functional drinks reached global sales of 26 9 billion dollars with average. growth rates of 15 20 per annum The energy drinks sector has experienced. the greatest volume growth which is expected to be strongest in 2007 2012. Heckman et al 2010 Still and tooth friendly low acid beverages are gaining. popularity across the product sectors Lawlor et al 2009 In addition non. alcoholic malt beverages provide an excellent alternative to traditional soft. drinks Consumption of these beverages is expected to grow in the coming years. www euromonitor com The Middle East is showing particular potential as. Islamic beliefs limit consumption of alcoholic beverages In the Western mar. kets consumers are looking for new healthier alternatives to conventional soft. drinks From the public health point of view there is also a need to reduce alco. hol consumption,1 Introduction, The beverage industry needs to respond to consumer demands and to develop. new product innovations in order to maintain competitiveness in the market In. the soft drink sector new nutritive and bioactive ingredients are added into the. formulations and the traditional ingredients are being replaced with their lighter. organic or more natural counterparts New exotic ingredients such as super. fruits are used to boost the nutritional value of the products and to find new. exotic flavours Tribst et al 2009 In the alcoholic beverage sector breweries. increasingly develop new low alcohol and value added products such as fusion. drinks mixing alcohol drinks with non alcoholic beverages for new and increas. ingly defined consumer groups Hutzler et al 2008 Both soft drinks and alco. holic beverages have become more and more complex in composition At the. same time consumer demands for more natural nutritious and tasty products are. directing breweries to minimize the use of additives and heat treatments to in. crease juice contents in formulations as well as to reduce the acidity of the. products Possible adverse health effects of benzoic acid have already led many. soft drink manufacturers to abandon this additive Hence many traditional anti. microbial hurdles present in traditional soft drinks and alcoholic beverages are. brought down Hausman 2009 while product transport time shelf life and in. ternational trade as well as the use of new ingredients are increasing Tribst et al. 2009 Recent changes in the product formulation processing and packaging. technologies transport and trade could expose beverage production to new mi. crobiological risks that require identification in order to maintain acceptable. microbiological stability and safety in the future Moreover changes in the glob. al climate may have serious impacts on the microbiological quality of foods and. beverages More rigorous control of beverage ingredient quality will be empha. This literature review aims at providing state of the art knowledge on microbio. logical quality and safety risks in non beer beverages produced in a brewery. environment with special emphasis on functional and specialty beverages The. study was triggered by the need to evaluate potential microbiological risks relat. ed to the changes made in the formulation preservation and packaging of bever. ages during the past ten years In this review non beer beverages have been. divided into bottled waters soft drinks and alcoholic beverages including beer. mixed beverages Milk and soya based drinks probiotic products pure fruit. and vegetable juices as well as tea and coffee are outside the scope of this re. 3 Bottled waters,3 Bottled waters,3 1 Types of bottled waters. Bottled waters include mineral waters spring water or other drinking water. MMM 166 2010 Spring water is defined as water which is intended for human. consumption in its natural state and is bottled at the source EC 54 2009 Natu. ral mineral water means microbiologically wholesome water originating from. an underground water table or deposit and emerging from a spring tapped at one. or more natural or bored exits EC 54 2009 Natural mineral waters may be. very low 50 mg l low 50 500 mg l or rich 500 mg l in mineral salt. content EC 54 2009 Only carbon dioxide may be added to natural mineral. Mineral waters may also be produced from drinking water by adding Na Ca. Mg and K salts According to Finnish legislation mineral water must contain at. least 500 mg l solids KTM 1658 1995 Sparkling mineral water is produced by. adding 4 8 g l carbon dioxide CO2 Panimoliitto 2011 If carbon dioxide has. not been added the product must be marked as noncarbonated or still water In. addition to water minerals and CO2 both natural and synthetic fruit and berry. flavourings aromas are nowadays often added to mineral waters The flavour. ings include e g lemon grapefruit apple cranberry and mandarin Addition of. flavourings is regulated by an EC regulation EC 1334 2008. Per capita consumption of bottled water in the European Union varies enor. mously from one country to another with an average consumption of 105 l per. year EFBW 2011 Finland has the lowest consumption level with 16 l a year. per inhabitant and Italy the highest at just under 200 l per inhabitant In Finland. aromatized mineral waters make up one third of the market of mineral waters. Panimoliitto 2011,3 Bottled waters,3 2 Microbiology of bottled waters. Water always contains microbes but when it is bottled an open system becomes. a closed one The original microbial community the amount of dissolved nutri. ents and oxygen and temperature affect the microbes after bottling. The microbiological demands for water intended for household use are that. it may not contain Escherichia coli and enterococci in 100 ml of water EC. 98 1983 STM 461 2000 In addition it is recommended that in 100 ml water. there are no Clostridium perfringens or coliformic bacteria and no marked. changes in heterotrophic colony count when incubated at 22 C The demands. for bottled water intended for household use are no E coli enterococci or. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 250 ml and heterotrophic colony count of 100. cfu ml at 22 C and 20 cfu ml at 37 C The guidance value for all types of. bottled water during marketing is total colony count of 50 000 cfu ml when in. cubated 72 h at 20 22 C or 24 h at 37 C MMM 166 2010. The microbiological quality of bottled waters has been studied in different. countries Natural mineral waters originating from groundwater represent an. oligotrophic system with a low level of organic matter and limited bioavailabil. ity The bacteria in these systems are often in a viable but non culturable state. The viable count usually increases 1 3 weeks after bottling Moreira et al 1994. Defives et al 1999 Leclerc and Moreau 2002 From eight brands of noncar. bonated bottled water from UK France and Belgium initial counts of up to 10 4. cfu ml 1 were detected Armas and Sutherland 1999 Significant differences. occur in microbial numbers between different brands Tsai and Yu 1997 Armas. and Sutherland 1999 Korzeniewska et al 2005 Bottled waters have been stud. ied in Finland by the National Institute for Health and Welfare Miettinen and. Pursiainen 2009 The heterotrophic colony count varied between 1 and 4 x 10 5. cfu ml The microbial numbers were higher in imported bottled waters on aver. age 4 x 103 cfu ml compared to domestic ones average 450 cfu ml Tap water. always had the lowest microbial counts Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not de. tected from the samples, Bottle material influences the number and type of cells adhering to the bottle.
surface Higher counts found from plastic bottles compared to glass bottles have. been due to the higher surface roughness of plastic Barbesier 1970 Bischof. berger et al 1990 Jones et al 1999 reported that cells adhering to HDPE. high density polyethylene bottles were mainly clumps of coccoid cells Cells. adhering to PET polyethylene tetraphtalate bottles were rod shaped and sparse.

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