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Microbial Fuel Cell Technology for Bioelectricity
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Venkataraman Sivasankar Prabhakaran Mylsamy,Kiyoshi Omine. Microbial Fuel Cell,Technology for Bioelectricity,With a Foreword by. Kazuya Watanabe,Venkataraman Sivasankar Prabhakaran Mylsamy. Post Graduate and Research Post Graduate and Research. Department of Chemistry Department of Botany,Pachaiyappa s College Pachaiyappa s College. Chennai Tamil Nadu India Chennai Tamil Nadu India,Department of Civil Engineering.
Graduate School of Engineering,Nagasaki University. Nagasaki Japan,Kiyoshi Omine,Department of Civil Engineering. Graduate School of Engineering,Nagasaki University. Nagasaki Japan, ISBN 978 3 319 92903 3 ISBN 978 3 319 92904 0 eBook. https doi org 10 1007 978 3 319 92904 0,Library of Congress Control Number 2018949049.
Springer International Publishing AG part of Springer Nature 2018 corrected publication 2018. This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher whether the whole or part of. the material is concerned specifically the rights of translation reprinting reuse of illustrations recitation. broadcasting reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way and transmission or information. storage and retrieval electronic adaptation computer software or by similar or dissimilar methodology. now known or hereafter developed, The use of general descriptive names registered names trademarks service marks etc in this publication. does not imply even in the absence of a specific statement that such names are exempt from the relevant. protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book. are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication Neither the publisher nor the authors or the. editors give a warranty express or implied with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors. or omissions that may have been made The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims. in published maps and institutional affiliations,Printed on acid free paper. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The registered company address is Gewerbestrasse 11 6330 Cham Switzerland. Dedicated to my beloved mother Padmavathi,Venkataraman and eldest brother M V. Jothiprakash,Venkataraman Sivasankar,Dedicated to my wife Ranjith Kumari. Prabhakaran and son Siddharth,Prabhakaran,Prabhakaran Mylsamy.
Currently human society faces critcal problems associated with the use of fossil. fuels The amount of fossil fuel stored in underground reservoirs has decreased. rapidly due to mass consumption Furthermore carbon dioxide exhausted by the. combustion of fossil fuels accumulates in the air resulting in the greenhouse effect. and global warming Under such circumstances energy sources alternative to fossil. fuels are strongly needed for supporting human activity in the twenty first century. particularly alternatives that are renewable and do not trigger global warming. Biomass has been realized as an important renewable energy source and scientists. and engineers are keen on developing technologies for utilizing biomass as an. energy source Bio electricity generated from biomass therefore attracts many. researchers as a promising option for renewable energy. Microbial fuel cells MFCs are devices that use living microbes as catalysts for. the conversion of organic fuels into electricity and these devices have recently. attracted extensive attention as sustainable bioenergy systems MFC systems can be. applied to the generation of electricity at water sediment interfaces in the environ. ment such as bay areas wetlands and rice fields In MFCs electrochemically. active bacteria EAB which can transfer electrons to extracellular solid acceptors. play key roles in electricity generation Many EAB have been isolated from MFCs. and natural environments and have been characterized in the laboratory Due to their. diverse metabolic potentials and established manipulation techniques EAB are. considered to be excellent materials for biotechnology. In this book we will find an excellent collection of articles on the fundamental. description application and further perspectives of MFC technology I therefore. believe that this book will exert a tremendous impact on science and technology for. the research development and commercialization of renewable green energy I. strongly recommend this book to researchers engineers and students who are inter. ested in MFC technology,viii Foreword, Finally I appreciate the contributions and dedicated efforts of all the authors in. Kazuya Watanabe Professor,School of Life Science,Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences. Even the structure of the atom has been found by the mind. Bhagvan Sri Ramana Maharshi, In eighteenth century the birth of microbial fuel cells MFCs was registered by. Luigi Galvani who explored the flow of electrons in biological organisms in the. legs of a frog Later in 1912 Michael C Potter at University of Durham United. Kingdom carried this research forward and made his first demonstration of MFCs. After four decades of Barnet Cohen s 1931 MFC research using multiple units. I Karube reported further developments in 1975 The centenary of MFC research. was proved with an outcome such that the first practical application was achieved. by running a small DC motor for a few seconds by H P Bennetto in 1985 Following. this the role of electroactive bacteria EAB by W Habermann and E H Pommer. and electron conduction properties of Geobacter species by D R Bond and. D R Lovely were reported in the years 1990 and 2003 respectively. With the above anecdote the basic principle and the organization of chapters. have been discussed in a nutshell as follows, The electron transfer mechanism is significant in an electrochemical system. and is sought with an absolute interaction between microbes and electrodes. Conspicuously in bio catalyzed systems the transfer becomes significant in. harnessing electrical energy along with the degradation of pollutants present in. the system, Microbial fuel cells MFCs are electrochemical reactors that function due to the.
oxidation of biodegradable substrates at the expense of electroactive bacteria EAB. to generate electric current Microorganisms are the biocatalysts that help in the. electrical energy conversion of biodegradable substrates including complex waste. water and sediments in addition to simple sugars and derivatives The metabolic. transportation of electrons from EAB to electrodes insoluble substrates is feasible. thanks to extracellular electron transport, On the basis of the electrogenic nature of certain bacteria MFC technology. has gained incredible attention for its production of energy from various. soluble organic wastes of natural low carbon biomass and synthetic sources. The mixed cultures are preferred for inoculation in MFCs due to cost effective. ness and practicality reasons in wastewater treatment Studies on the choice of. sewage for bacterial feeding in MFCs to drive out energy are compelled due to. futuristic challenges and environmental sustainability Although we have ample. knowledge of microbiology and electro materials chemistry we need to examine. the technical viability in accordance with the application niche which together. pave the way for commercialization, As the possibility of drawing energy from biotic components is the need of the. hour Chap 1 focuses on the possible sources of biomass which sustainably cater to. energy needs The progress of converting waste to worth has yet to move at a radical. rate in the coming years, The real notion behind the second chapter is to make readers understand the. fundamentals classifications significance and challenges of MFC technology. Indeed the inherent nature of the autotrophs plant and algae has been of spell. binding interest toward the making and breaking of electricity and organic contami. nants respectively Intensive research on a potentially engineered rhizodeposition. would facilitate an appreciable rate of electron transfer to captivate state of the art. applications On the other hand the advent of heterotrophic fungi has recently. gained attention recently by utilizing the species to form biofilm around the elec. trode which improves the MFC s performance By bridging the significance of bio. mass and energy Chaps 3 5 and 6 provide exhaustive discussions based on the. previously reported findings on plant algae and fungi based MFCs. Above all the quintessential microbial community is governed by the types of. plants and soils upon which the output power of an MFC is relied upon To corrobo. rate this Chaps 4 and 7 discuss the significance of paddy plant and soil with. organic waste in generating appreciable electricity by using bamboo charcoal spun. with iron wire as an anode The duality of iron wire with bamboo charcoal was. discernible with regard to electron generation and nutrition to the soil organisms. Exclusive chapters 8 and 10 have been devoted to energy production from ani. mal waste in particular the ruminal degradation of biomass was studied by varying. electrodes pH substrates catholytes and buffers, Interestingly electricigens are one among the meritorious factors in enhancing. the efficiency of MFCs These are microorganisms with high coulombic efficiency. that completely oxidize organic fuels to carbon dioxide by actively transporting elec. trons to electrode Also these are credited with the conservation of energy which in. turn equips MFCs for long term sustainability Electricigens are detailed in Chap 9. The bimodal practice of bioelectricity generation and remediation has become a. dominant area of research With profound insight Chaps 11 and 12 discuss the. efficiency economic feasibility and ultimate commercialization of the process. Specifically microbial desalination cell MDC based research attempts to discuss. the two unique challenges of water purification and sustainable power from a single. vantage point and it has gained great attention among interdisciplinary. researchers,Preface xi, Chapter 13 addresses the performance of MFCs at pilot scale levels and.
the associated challenges to be overcome in large scale applications The final. chapter of the book provides a thorough investigation of the successful implemen. tation of MFCs in rural areas and stresses its potential to improve life conditions. The present book will be very useful and informative as a valuable reference to. those working in MFC biofilm interactions bio electrochemistry and waste man. agement In addition it should gain much of appreciation among environmental. chemists biologists bioenergy researchers and wastewater biofuel industrialists. Nagasaki Japan Venkataraman Sivasankar,Chennai India Prabhakaran Mylsamy. Nagasaki Japan Kiyoshi Omine,1 Biologically Renewable Resources of Energy. Potentials Progress and Barriers 1, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan Gueguim kana Evariste Bosco. Thamaraiselvi Chandran Tamilselvi Duraisamy,Selvakumar Muniraj Yeshona Sewsynker Sukai. Preshanthan Moodley and Zanenhlanhla Gumbi, 2 Microbial Fuel Cells Fundamentals Types Significance.
and Limitations 23, L Benedict Bruno Deepika Jothinathan and M Rajkumar. 3 Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Developments. and Limitations 49, Santos D Chicas Venkataraman Sivasankar Kiyoshi Omine. Jair Valladarez and Prabhakaran Mylsamy, 4 Current Advances in Paddy Plant Microbial Fuel Cells 67. Kiyoshi Omine Santos D Chicas and Venkataraman Sivasankar. 5 Algal Microbial Fuel Cells Nature s Perpetual,Energy Resource 81. Lavanyasri Rathinavel Deepika Jothinathan Venkataraman. Sivasankar Paul Agastian and Prabhakaran Mylsamy, 6 Fungal Fuel Cells Nature s Perpetual Energy Resource 117.
Lavanyasri Rathinavel Deepika Jothinathan Santos D Chicas. and Prabhakaran Mylsamy, 7 Bioelectricity Generation in Soil Microbial Fuel Cells. Using Organic Waste 137, Kiyoshi Omine Venkataraman Sivasankar and Santos D Chicas. xiv Contents,8 Microbial Fuel Cell Research Using Animal Waste. A Feebly Explored Area to Others 151, Deepika Jothinathan Nasrin Fathima A H Prabhakaran Mylsamy. L Benedict Bruno and Venkatraman Sivasankar, 9 Electricigens Role and Prominence in Microbial Fuel.
Cell Performance 169,Deepika Jothinathan Prabhakaran Mylsamy. and L Benedict Bruno, 10 Rumen Fluid Microbes for Bioelectricity Production. A Novel Approach 187,Deepika Jothinathan Prabhakaran Mylsamy. and L Benedict Bruno, 11 Advances in Concurrent Bioelectricity Generation. and Bioremediation Through Microbial Fuel Cells 211. Bikash Kumar Komal Agrawal Nisha Bhardwaj Venkatesh. Chaturvedi and Pradeep Verma, 12 Microbial Desalination Cells A Boon for Future Generations 241.
Deepika Jothinathan, 13 The Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells in Field. Trials from a Global Perspective 251,Ponmudi Priya and Vajiravelu Sivamurugan. 14 Future Perspectives on Cost Effective Microbial Fuel. Cells in Rural Areas 283,C Nagendranatha Reddy M P Sudhakar Booki Min. and P Shanmugam, Correction to Future Perspectives on Cost Effective Microbial. Fuel Cells in Rural Areas E1,About the Editors,Venkataraman Sivasankar received his doctorate in.
Chemistry in 2009 from Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu India Presently he is a. post doctoral fellow in the Department of Civil,Engineering Nagasaki University Nagasaki Japan. He has been a faculty member in the Department of,Chemistry in Pachaiyappa s College Chennai India. since 2014 His research areas include materials syn. thesis and wastewater treatment He received the pres. tigious JSPS fellowship in 2016 To his credit he has. more than 50 research articles in peer reviewed jour. nals and five book chapters with renowned publishers. For instance he edited the book Surface Modified, Carbons as Scavengers of Fluoride from Water in 2016. with Springer He collaborates and performs research. with professors in universities and research laborato. ries in Algeria France Japan Iran and South Africa. Prabhakaran Mylsamy is an assistant professor of,Botany in Pachaiyappa s College Chennai Tamil.
Nadu India He completed his doctorate in 2012 at the. University of Madras Chennai India His research, focuses on algal biotechnology including algal MFCs. He was awarded the DST SERB Young Scientist,Award in 2013 He has been accredited with both a. major project DST and a minor project from UGC He, is credited with 15 original research papers in national. and international peer reviewed journals one authored. book and five book chapters,xvi About the Editors,Kiyoshi Omine is a professor in the Department of. Civil Engineering Graduate School of Engineering,Nagasaki University Nagasaki Japan His research.
areas of interest include soil microbial fuel cells for. composting and power regeneration geotechnical uti. lization of waste materials and geo environmental,improvement techniques He is a member of several. technical societies of Japan He has authored and coau. thored more than 50 research papers in national and. international peer reviewed journals He is credited. with mentoring three JSPS fellows in Kyushu and,Nagasaki universities.


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