6 The Chairman appointed the following Board Members to the ad hoc Committee. on Nominating for NSB Elections informally know as the Elections Committee. Drs Hoffman Randall Sullivan and Vasquez, 7 The Board approved the recipient for the 2007 Alan T Waterman Award The name of. the recipient will be announced after the NSF Director and Board Chairman have notified. the awardee of their selection, 8 The Board authorized the NSF Director at his discretion to extend the cooperative. agreement Management and Operations of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. and the National Solar Observatory Excerpt from NSB 07 27 Attachment 1. 9 The Board authorized the NSF Director at his discretion to continue funding the current. cooperative agreement with Cornell University to manage and operate the National. Astronomy and Ionosphere Center for the period October 1 2006 to March 31 2010. 10 The Board approved a resolution NSB 07 35 to support the recommendations of. NSB SOPI 07 2 to reaffirm its previous resolutions to support the NSF Director s. actions to meet requirements for polar icebreaking and to urge a national policy review. that could lead to recapitalizing the Coast Guard icebreaking fleet Attachments 2 and 3. 11 The Board approved the report Enhancing Support of Transformative Research. at the National Science Foundation NSB 07 32, http www nsf gov nsb documents 2007 tr pdf subject to final editing by the. Board Chairman and Task Force on Transformative Research chairman. 12 The Board approved the extension of the charge to the Task Force on Transformative. Research through the end of the 2007 calendar year to review the NSF plan for. implementation of the Transformative Research Initiative. 13 The Board determined that the Board Commission on 21st Century Education in Science. Technology Engineering and Mathematics STEM fulfilled its charge to provide the. Board with advice and recommendations for a bold new action plan for U S K 12. STEM education The Board discharged this Commission as a Federal advisory. committee with thanks to the Commission Co Chairmen Drs Leon Lederman and. Shirley Malcom and Commission members,Attachment 1 NSB 07 27. Attachment 2 NSB 07 35,Attachment 3 NSB SOPI 07 2,Attachment 1 to NSB 07 33. Excerpted from NSB 07 27,Resolution Excerpted from NSB CPP 07 7. March 30 2007,RESOLUTION,NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD,SUPPORT FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS OF. THE NATIONAL OPTICAL ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY AND,THE NATIONAL SOLAR OBSERVATORY. WHEREAS the National Science Foundation conducted a Review in August 2006 of the. performance of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy with respect to. management of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the National Solar Observatory. which review unanimously praised the performance of the Association of Universities for. Research in Astronomy and, WHEREAS the National Science Board takes note that the Management Review Panel. recommended that, the management of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the National Solar. Observatory be separated into two distinct Cooperative Agreements. Visiting Committees be re instituted for the two observatories and. the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy find innovative ways to. promote a skilled and diverse workforce and, WHEREAS the National Science Board recognizes that the Association of Universities for. Research in Astronomy is taking action on these three recommendations and that the National. Science Board supports the Management Review Panel recommendations and their. implementation and, NOW therefore be it RESOLVED that the National Science Board authorized the Director at. his discretion to extend the Cooperative Agreement Management and Operations of the National. Optical Astronomy Observatory and the National Solar Observatory AST 0132798 PI William. Attachment 2 to NSB 07 33,March 30 2007,RESOLUTION. NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD,U S ANTARCTIC PROGRAM ICEBREAKING RESOLUTION. WHEREAS research conducted in the earth s polar regions is critical for understanding. phenomena of global importance and polar regions offer unique opportunities for forefront. scientific research in a broad range of disciplines and. WHEREAS the National Science Foundation NSF is the principal supporter of research. conducted by U S scientists in the polar regions and. WHEREAS the NSF is responsible for implementing U S policy calling for an active and. influential presence in Antarctica through year round scientific activity at the south pole and at. two coastal research stations and, WHEREAS the above activities depend critically upon the availability of heavy icebreaking. services but two of the three U S icebreakers capable of supporting these activities are nearing. the end of their design lifetimes have become expensive to operate and maintain and cannot be. relied on indefinitely and, WHEREAS Board Resolution NSB 05 68 and NSB 05 100 supports the NSF Director taking. all necessary steps to meet the requirements for polar icebreaking among available options to. best meet the needs of the research community in the most cost effective manner and. NOTING that pursuant to these National Science Board Board Resolutions the Swedish. icebreaker Oden with state of the art icebreaking capabilities was able to open the channel to. McMurdo without assistance this past season provided an excellent platform for U S research. and education activities while en route to McMurdo Station and was obtained at a fair market. NOTING the recommendations of the National Research Council in Polar Icebreakers in a. Changing World An Assessment of U S Needs September 26 2006. NOTING the discussion and recommendations in the White Paper on Support for Icebreakers. prepared by the Subcommittee on Polar Issues NSB SOPI 07 2 March 29 2007. Therefore be it RESOLVED that the Board supports the recommendations of. NSB SOPI 07 2 March 29 2007, Moreover be it RESOLVED that the Board reaffirms its previous Resolutions supporting the. NSF Director taking all necessary steps to meet the requirements for polar ice breaking among. available options to best meet the needs of the research community in the most cost effective. Moreover be it RESOLVED that the Board urges a national policy review that could lead to. recapitalizing the Coast Guard icebreaking fleet and agrees with the National Research Council. recommendation that costs to operate and maintain the fleet should be budgeted for by the Coast. Guard and that any fleet usage by NSF should be reimbursed by NSF only at the marginal cost. rate Furthermore if national policy calls for recapitalization of the Coast Guard fleet. recapitalization costs should not be borne by the NSF. Attachment 3 to NSB 07 33,NSB SOPI 07 2,March 29 2007. National Science Board,Committee on Programs and Plans. Subcommittee on Polar Issues,White Paper on Support for Icebreakers. Dr Anita K Jones former NSB member and Chair of the National Research Council NRC. study Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World An Assessment of U S Needs briefed the Board. at its November 2006 meeting on the study and on its conclusions Following the briefing and. subsequent discussion Dr Barry Barish Chair of the NSB Subcommittee on Polar Issues. suggested that the Board review its earlier statements on polar icebreakers in view of the new. study report, The NRC report emphasized that The United States has enduring national and strategic interests. in the Arctic and Antarctic and the importance of these regions is growing with time and. addressed the fact that U S icebreaking capability is now at risk of being unable to support. those national interests in the north and the south. Among the national interests discussed in the report is long standing U S policy requiring an. active and influential presence in Antarctica through year round occupation of South Pole. Station and two coastal stations for scientific research and environmental stewardship The. responsibility for implementing this policy was assigned to NSF in National Security Decision. Memorandum 71 July 1970 and reaffirmed in Presidential Decision Directive 6646 February. NSF s ability to meet this responsibility has been compromised by the deteriorating condition of. the two U S icebreakers capable of supporting this activity The two Coast Guard polar class. icebreakers are nearing the end of their design lifetimes and have not been well maintained. owing to lack of funds As a consequence their reliability has suffered One has now been. placed in caretaker status NSF has had to contract for non U S icebreakers in order to assure. continued re supply of McMurdo and South Pole Stations. The NRC report and Dr Jones in her briefing also stressed that climate change in the Arctic is. likely to bring increased economic activity and more generally greater human activity all of. which will increase the need for the United States to assert a more active and influential. presence in the Arctic Currently U S presence in the Arctic Ocean is expressed almost. completely by research expeditions aboard the Coast Guard cutter HEALY and supported by. NSF and to a lesser extent by NOAA through NSF Should HEALY be called upon to support a. potentially emerging range of additional national missions the research community could lose. access to this scientific frontier, Against this background the NRC study motivates and provides important input to a future. national policy review that would provide the framework for assuring the necessary icebreaker. support for achieving key national goals in the Arctic and Antarctic over the long term including. those of the research community NSF s icebreaking interests center on supporting fundamental. research and maintaining the Antarctic research stations The policy review would assess the full. range of national interests in a capable U S icebreaker fleet and thus would elicit input from. other federal agencies such as DOD DOC DOI and DHS as well as the interests of Alaska. residents the research community and NSF and the Coast Guard Dr Jones strongly urged that a. policy review be initiated at the earliest possible date. The NRC committee concluded that National interests in the polar regions require that the U S. immediately program budget design and construct two new polar icebreakers to be operated by. the U S Coast Guard It further recommended that the Coast Guard be provided with. sufficient operations and maintenance budget to support an increased regular and influential. presence in the Arctic, The construction of new U S icebreakers would take perhaps eight to ten years after construction. funds had been appropriated and Dr Jones noted that NSF will need to be creative during the. interim in meeting the needs of the community it supports. In the north even the most robust icebreakers have difficulty in accessing portions of the Arctic. Ocean in winter while scientific interest in this frontier has increased rapidly This has led to a. rapidly growing trend toward multi ship expeditions with ships from several countries. participating and assisting each other in negotiating heavy ice regions. In the south because of concerns about the reliability of the Coast Guard polar class icebreakers. NSF has chartered non U S icebreakers during each of the last three years to assist in opening. the ice channel that enables re supply of McMurdo and South Pole Stations Most recently NSF. arranged with Sweden for the ODEN a research icebreaker to provide this assistance and. arranged for scientific and educational activities aboard ship that involved U S Swedish and. Chilean researchers and teachers In the process ODEN demonstrated the ability to open the. supply channel through the ice working alone, The advent of International Polar Year places extra emphasis on maintaining NSF s ability to. provide leadership in polar regions research on behalf of the USG. In view of these observations the Subcommittee on Polar Issues recommends. That the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy conduct a national policy. review of the nation s needs for heavy icebreakers. That the NSF Director participate in that review, That the White House and the Congress decide how best to recapitalize operate and. maintain the Coast Guard icebreaker fleet but that NSF be given responsibility only for. meeting the needs of the research community in the most cost effective reliable manner. That NSF and the USCG work together to maintain POLAR SEA and HEALY in the. That NSF explore alternate short and long term options for securing USAP re supply. services in order to assess their potential cost effectiveness and reliability. That NSF continue to work to develop durable partnerships with other countries on the. basis of mutual scientific interest to augment U S capabilities for polar research and for. meeting its responsibilities to the U S Antarctic Program.
Politeness Ideology in Thai Computer-mediated Communication Krisadawan Hongladarom and Soraj Hongladarom 1. Introduction The Internet has become a worldwide phenomenon. Many countries are racing to embrace it, believing that it will bring in many benefits. Thailand is becoming increasingly wired. Currently there are
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