Media And Politics S U-Books Pdf

Media and Politics s u
15 Jan 2020 | 87 views | 0 downloads | 35 Pages | 743.19 KB

Share Pdf : Media And Politics S U

Download and Preview : Media And Politics S U


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Media And Politics S U



Transcription

1 INTRODUCTION MEDIA AND WELFARE, There are two quite different views on the role of media in the democratic process In one view. media matters because it provides information to predominately rational voters I call this the. rational learning model of media effects In this model information from the media makes votes. more responsive to the quality of policy outcomes This improves political selection and incentives. and eventually the quality of policy and welfare The media may introduce some systematic. biases sometimes forcing politicians to work on the wrong issues and perhaps inducing pandering. to voters incorrect beliefs but the role is predominately positive through improved political. accountability This is the view taken by most economists researching the effects of mass media. including that on media bias, In another view media matters through propaganda and by exploiting cognitive mistakes that. voters make Key theories are those of media agenda setting priming and framing explained. below The fears are that the media can manipulate voters to act against their own interest For. Access provided by Stockholm University Library on 09 18 15 For personal use only. example describing media framing Entman 1993 p 55 writes How can even sincere dem. Annu Rev Econ 2015 7 173 205 Downloaded from www annualreviews org. ocratic representatives respond correctly to public opinion when empirical evidence of it appears to. be so malleable so vulnerable to framing effects Krosnick Kinder 1990 p 508 characterize. priming effects in the media as people being swept away by an avalanche of stories and pic. tures and Iyengar Kinder 1987 describe individuals who fall prey to priming by the media as. victims This is the predominant paradigm of media effects in the communications literature. Part of the difference depends on the point of reference chosen Those who emphasize the. positive role of the media typically use the reference point of no media Those who emphasize the. negative role do not claim that media cannot play a positive role just that it is not living up to its. full potential In the words of Zaller 1992 p 313 media makes voters hold opinions that they. would not hold if aware of the best available information and analysis Given this reference point. media is considered to be influential only if it distorts people s choices for example by being. There are obvious possibilities of cross fertilization between these literatures To understand. the negative effects of biased media it helps us to first understand the positive benchmark effects. that the bias is destroying However the behavioral components of agenda setting priming and. framing models have a large potential to enrich the rational learning model I outline how these. models can be integrated into the rational learning model using the memory based model of. Mullainathan 2002, Key to understanding the role of media is to investigate what variables it seems to influence I. discuss how media affects voters in particular their information levels and vote choice I also. discuss evidence of media effects on the selection and incentives of politicians and on government. Section 2 provides a short background of the study of media effects The following sections deal. with effects from media coverage bias and capture In each section I start by discussing the logic. and evidence of the rational learning model of media effects on voters politicians and policy I. then discuss how incorporating key features from the models in the communications literature. would alter the welfare implications of the media Section 3 examines media effects driven by the. volume of political coverage in total and across issues Here I also discuss agenda setting and. priming effects because the volume of coverage across issues also drives these Section 4 covers. effects of ideological bias in media Here I also discuss framing effects as most framing effects are. driven by selective inclusion or omission of facts closely related to how economists model ideo. logical bias Section 5 analyzes why some forms of media are captured by the government or other. interests and the consequences of this Here I also discuss theories of elite capture from the framing. 174 Str mberg, literature Section 6 discusses the government use of media in nondemocratic countries Section 7. explores some key insights and Section 8 concludes. 2 BACKGROUND, Modern empirical research on mass media effects began in the 1930s partly motivated by Hitler s.
and Mussolini s seemingly effective use of media in their propaganda and the simultaneous rapid. increase in radio use Early research assumed that media could simply inject messages into people. and brainwash them with propaganda If this model of media effects were true then media power. would have a huge negative potential, However this so called hypodermic needle theory did not survive the first wave of serious. empirical studies The first large scale studies found that the mass media of radio and print had. relatively minor direct effects on people s voting intentions Lazarsfeld et al 1944 Berelson et al. Access provided by Stockholm University Library on 09 18 15 For personal use only. 1954 In these studies researchers interviewed panels of respondents monthly during the electoral. Annu Rev Econ 2015 7 173 205 Downloaded from www annualreviews org. campaigns of 1940 and 1948 A main finding was that the media seemed mainly to reinforce. voters prior dispositions and not change their voting intentions This was partly because few. respondents changed their voting intentions at all and partly because people exposed themselves to. media that shared their prior views Similarly experimental studies showed that although pro. paganda movies did make people learn facts they did not often significantly change attitudes. Hovland et al 1949 After carefully sorting out the available evidence in 1960 Klapper 1960. p 15 concluded that mass communication far more frequently acted as an agent of re. inforcement than as an agent of change To the disappointment of many media researchers. minimal effects of media on voting became the conventional wisdom In response to these findings. researchers developed new theories of media influence that do not rely on people receiving in. formation that conflicts with their prior beliefs agenda setting priming and framing. But what did these studies actually find and why is it disappointing More in detail Berelson. et al 1954 found that media exposure during the campaign increased the amount of correct. information that voters had about where the candidates stood on the issues They found that media. exposure always makes a difference in political information no matter what other variables are. controlled for Media exposure also increased the interest in politics the strength of political. preference and voter turnout controlling for the level of interest in the election The negative. reaction resulted from highlighting that the campaign did not lead to any massive changes in voting. intentions, Although this may be bad news for those who think that media can massively influence voters. by carrying party propaganda it is relatively good news for people who care about the media s role. in creating accountability It seems that voters are learning the facts and positions of the can. didates they are increasing their interest and participation in politics. In fact most if not all of the findings make perfect sense if media matters because it carries. information to reasonably sophisticated and rational voters The effects of an electoral campaign. are likely to be small because of the limited weight of new information received during a typical. campaign relative to pre existing information Long run changes in media exposure such as the. introduction of a new media that permanently and radically changes media exposure among. voters are more likely to produce measurable effects Larger effects are also likely to be found in. campaigns that reveal important and unexpected information as in Ferraz Finan 2008 and. Chiang Knight 2011 discussed below Finally models with rational voters and informative. media invariably conclude that ideological media reinforces prior beliefs and polarizes the. electorate while having small systematic effects on average partisan voting Bernhardt et al 2008. Chan Suen 2008 This results from rational partisan news selection and information filtering. www annualreviews org Media and Politics 175, Let us return to the discussion of the dominant behavioral models of media influence in the. communications literature Agenda setting theory refers to the idea that media coverage of an issue. makes people believe that this issue is important McCombs Shaw 1972 Priming is the idea. that people evaluate politicians based on the issues covered in the media Iyengar Kinder 1987. Both imply that the volume of coverage of a particular issue brings voter attention to that issue. They are memory based models assuming that people form attitudes based on the considerations. that are most accessible and media coverage of an issue improves the access to information on that. issue Importantly it is not information about the issue that has an effect it is merely that the issue. has received a certain amount of coverage Scheufele Tewksbury 2007 Consequently I discuss. these theories in Section 3, Framing theory is instead based on the assumption that how an issue is characterized in news. reports can have an influence on how it is understood by audiences Whereas agenda setting and. priming influence what people think about framing influences how they think about it Media. Access provided by Stockholm University Library on 09 18 15 For personal use only. studies of framing often refer to Goffman 1974 and Kahneman Tversky 1984 but the. Annu Rev Econ 2015 7 173 205 Downloaded from www annualreviews org. connections are rather loose A large part of framing involves the selective inclusion or omission of. exactly the type of facts that would be valuable for political accountability This type of selective. inclusion and omission of facts has been extensively analyzed by economists under the label media. bias Mullainathan Shleifer 2005 Baron 2006 Gentzkow Shapiro 2006 Consequently I. discuss this in Section 4,3 COVERAGE, This section focuses on the volume of media coverage of politics in total and across issues Content.
is assumed informative and without partisan bias although constant bias that is trivial to filter out. could be included In Sections 4 and 5 coverage may systematically favor one party. 3 1 Theory, I start by describing a class of models in which voters are rational and media matters because it. transmits information In the standard model of informative media effects on political account. ability there are three classes of actors voters politicians and the media Voters try to elect. politicians who will give them the most utility politicians try to get re elected and perhaps enjoy. political rents and the mass media selects political coverage to maximize profits The model. contains two building blocks The first analyzes the role of information in politics and the second. analyzes the media s news selection This setup was first used by Str mberg 1999 and has. subsequently been used in a number of papers focusing on the effects of media access coverage. bias and capture, I use the model of Prat Str mberg 2013 as an example In that model media effects are. driven by the total amount of coverage devoted to politics and the distribution of this coverage. across issues An issue is defined as a policy domain such as unemployment or minority questions. The important point is that politicians can devote resources and attention to the issue Coverage. may vary with both the number of news reports and the facts selected within each report For. example a news program can run a story on unemployment benefits or a story on a new housing. project When covering the housing project the story might include facts about how the project. will affect employment or housing prices, The model has two periods and the voters choose whether to re elect an incumbent There are I. policy issues indexed by i that the voter may care about I write down the condition for the. 176 Str mberg, individual s vote choice because it is useful later when discussing the central models of media effects. used in the communications literature A voter j prefers the incumbent if. wi E Dui b 1, where wi is the weight of issue i for individual j This equals 1 for people who are affected by a policy.
issue and 0 for the others The term E Dui captures the expected utility difference on issue i if the. incumbent wins relative to the challenger This expectation depends on whether individual j is. informed or not Media matters because it increases the voters responsiveness to the actual policy. differences between the incumbent and the challenger Dui Finally b j is an exogenous preference. The specific type of information affecting E Dui provided by media varies To cast the right. Access provided by Stockholm University Library on 09 18 15 For personal use only. vote citizens need to know who proposes or is responsible for what policies and to what effect. Media matters because it transmits information to voters about any of these facts In the model of. Annu Rev Econ 2015 7 173 205 Downloaded from www annualreviews org. 1 INTRODUCTION MEDIA AND WELFARE There are two quite different views on the role of media in the democratic process In one view media matters because it provides information to predominately rational voters I call this the rational learning model of media effects In this model information from the media makes votes

Related Books

HONORING OF AN UNSTOPPABLE Jeep

HONORING OF AN UNSTOPPABLE Jeep

OF AN UNSTOPPABLE AND THE GO ANYWHERE DO Liberty also ruled off road thanks to the new available Selec Trac full time 4WD and five link suspension 2015 THE MOST CAPABLE SMALL SUV EVER 2 Renegade arrived with unique style Adventure seekers were offered an open door to the brand and unmatched capability that allowed them to travel the world their own way 75 YEARS STRONG The Jeep

version MP 050103 Table of Contents

version MP 050103 Table of Contents

MobilePre USB Owner s Manual version MP 050103 Quick Start Guide This Quick Start Guide is a very short step by step guide to getting you started right away at using your new M Audio MobilePre USB Step 1 Run the Installer Insert the included Install CD ROM into your CD or DVD drive and double click the install program Follow the onscreen instructions Depending on your operating system

MobilePre USB User Guide

MobilePre USB User Guide

Place the M Audio Drivers Software CD in your CD ROM Drive and double click on the file named MobilePre USB Installer exe 2 Close all other running applications as directed by the first screen that appears 3 Direct X 8 1 or greater must be installed on your computer If this software has not been previously installed the installer program will do this for you If you have been

Minnesota School Bus Driver Minnesota Department of

Minnesota School Bus Driver Minnesota Department of

Minnesota school bus drivers supervisors It is not meant to be a teaching tool by itself nor is it designed to be a textbook This manual provides information for every Minnesota school bus driver supervisor The manual has been divided into six major subdivisions with selected appendices following

AIR 192 8 User Guide M Audio

AIR 192 8 User Guide M Audio

7 9 Monitor Level Adjusts the output volume of Main TRS and RCA Outputs 1 L 2 R which should be connected to your powered monitors or amplifier system 10 Monitor Mix Adjusts the mix of the audio signal from your inputs Direct and the audio output of your computer USB that will be sent to the Main Outputs and Headphone Output Note When set to Direct the left channel will be Input

User Guide Gu a del usuario M Audio

User Guide Gu a del usuario M Audio

Gu a del usuario Espa ol 10 16 Guide d utilisation Fran ais 17 23 Guida per l uso Italiano 24 30 Benutzerhandbuch Deutsch 31 37 Appendix English 38 39 2 3 User Guide English Introduction Box Contents AIR 192 4 NOVA Black Microphone XLR Microphone Cable Microphone Shock Mount Microphone Windscreen Microphone Pouch HDH40 Headphones USB C to

Minnesota Driver s Manual Minnesota Driver s Manual

Minnesota Driver s Manual Minnesota Driver s Manual

Minnesota Driver s Manual Minnesota Driver s Manual The Minnesota Driver s Manual explains the safety rules and state laws you need to follow in order to drive safely and legally in Minnesota State laws and statutes change periodically so each year s manual contains something new This manual is available on the Driver and Vehicle Services Web site and at any driver examination

MINNESOTA DRIVER S MANUAL dps mn gov

MINNESOTA DRIVER S MANUAL dps mn gov

Minnesota Driver s Manual New Laws and Information Hands Free Now the Law in Minnesota Governor Tim Walz signed a new hands free cell phone bill into law to help reduce distractions behind the wheel Starting August 1 2019 drivers will no longer be able to hold their cell phones in their hands They will be able to use their phones to

Cloud Computing Presentation

Cloud Computing Presentation

Cloud Computing Francis C M Lau HKU The sun always shines above the clouds Paul F Davis Big Data and Cloud e embrace cloud not just because we need to W process data Also because we need a platform PaaS certain software SaaS or hardware resources IaaS true But Big Data made cloud happen a lot more quickly ou don t want to operate a power plant at home just

Cloud Computing Guidelines

Cloud Computing Guidelines

Introduction This eBook is designed to guide you through some of the basics of cloud computing provide some tips on how to determine if and how it can benefit your business and what to do next if you choose to proceed What is cloud computing The cloud symbol is typically used to represent the internet Cloud computing is now commonly used to describe the delivery of software infrastructure

Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture

Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture

4 Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture Sun Microsystems Inc Compute clouds are usually complemented by storage clouds that provide virtualized storage through APIs that facilitate storing virtual machine images source files for components such as Web servers application state data and general business data tdemand self service pay by use modelhe on The on demand self service