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Making Schools Work World Bank
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Making Schools Work, Making Schools, New Evidence on. Accountability Reforms, Barbara Bruns Deon Filmer and. Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development The World Bank. 1818 H Street NW, Washington DC 20433, Telephone 202 473 1000. Internet www worldbank org, All rights reserved, 1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11.
This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and. Development The World Bank The findings interpretations and conclusions expressed in. this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank. or the governments they represent, The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work The. boundaries colors denominations and other information shown on any map in this work do. not imply any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any. territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Rights and Permissions, The material in this publication is copyrighted Copying and or transmitting portions or all of. this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law The International Bank for. Reconstruction and Development The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and. will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work please send a request with com. plete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc 222 Rosewood Drive Danvers MA. 01923 USA telephone 978 750 8400 fax 978 750 4470 Internet www copyright com. All other queries on rights and licenses including subsidiary rights should be addressed to the. Office of the Publisher The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington DC 20433 USA fax. 202 522 2422 e mail pubrights worldbank org, ISBN 978 0 8213 8679 8. eISBN 978 0 8213 8680 4, DOI 10 1596 978 0 8213 8679 8. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Bruns Barbara, Making schools work new evidence on accountability reforms Barbara Bruns Deon.
Filmer Harry Anthony Patrinos, p cm Human development perspectives. Includes bibliographical references, ISBN 978 0 8213 8679 8 alk paper ISBN 978 0 8213 8680 4. 1 Educational tests and measurements United States 2 Educational accountability. United States 3 Public schools United States Examinations 4 School improvement pro. grams 5 Educational leadership I Filmer Deon II Patrinos Harry Anthony III Title. LB3051 B78 2011, 371 2 07 dc22, 2010053396, Cover photos Barbara Bruns World Bank sleeping teacher Erica Amorim World Bank. Brazilian teacher with students, Cover design Naylor Design. Foreword ix, Acknowledgments xi, About the Authors xiii.
Abbreviations xv, Chapter 1 Motivation and Framework 1. Service Delivery Failure in the Developing World 3. Three Core Strategies for More Accountable, Education Systems 12. Accountability and Evidence 20, References 25, Chapter 2 Information for Accountability 29. How Information Can Increase Accountability and, Outcomes 33. Information for Accountability in High Income, Countries 38.
Information for Accountability in Middle and, Low Income Countries 41. Evaluating the Impact of Information for, Accountability Interventions 49. What Have We Learned 62, vi Contents, Conclusion Beyond Proof of Concept 73. References 80, Chapter 3 School Based Management 87. Decentralization in School Based, Management 88, Toward a Theory of School Based.
Management 90, Assessing the Evidence 102, Conclusions 122. References 135, Chapter 4 Making Teachers Accountable 141. Teacher Accountability Reforms Why 141, Recent Global Experience with Teacher. Accountability Reforms 143, Contract Tenure Reforms 146. Pay for Performance Reforms 157, Designing Teacher Accountability Reforms 181.
Summary and Conclusions 196, Annex Rating the Design Features of Pay for. Performance Programs 200, References 205, Chapter 5 Making Schools Work through. Accountability Reforms 211, Information for Accountability Strategies 211. School Based Management Strategies 218, Teacher Contracting and Pay for Performance. Strategies 223, Linking Accountability Reforms 236.
External Validity From Evaluated Programs to, National Reforms 239. The Political Economy of Service, Delivery Reform 245. Future Directions 247, References 248, Contents vii. 2 1 Using Aggregated Data for Accountability 31, 2 2 Using Information for Management 37. 2 3 Citizen Report Cards 43, 2 4 Cost Effectiveness of Information Interventions 64.
3 1 Eight Years to See Results 101, 3 2 Ongoing SBM Experiments in Africa 121. 4 1 Targets that Avoid Perverse Incentives Brazil s. Index of Basic Education Development 168, 5 1 New Evidence on Information for Accountability 213. 5 2 New Evidence on School Based Management 219, 5 3 New Evidence on Contract Teachers 224. 5 4 New Evidence on Pay for Performance 228, 1 1 Comparative PISA Math Proficiency 2009 4. 1 2 Correlation of Education Spending to Student, Performance 6.
1 3 Shares of Public Education Spending Benefiting. the Richest and Poorest Population Quintiles, Selected Countries 8. 1 4 Teacher Classroom Presence and Time Spent Teaching. Selected Countries 10, 1 5 The Accountability Framework 11. 1 6 Teacher Performance Incentives 18, 2 1 The Role of Information in the Accountability. Framework 33, 2 2 Report Cards Given to Parents in Pakistan 67. 2 3 Report Card in Paran State Brazil 1999 2000 68. 3 1 The Accountability Framework in School Based, Management 91.
3 2 The Autonomy Participation Nexus Selected, SBM Programs 94. 3 3 From School Based Management to Measurable, Results 98. 4 1 Teacher Performance Incentives 144, 4 2 Comparison of Bonus Pay Programs by Impact. Size and Predicted Incentive Strength 194, 4A 1 Bonus Predictability Ratings 202. 4A 2 Bonus Size Ratings 203, 5 1 SBM Results A Meta Analysis of U S Models 218.
5 2 Complementarities in Accountability Reform 239. viii Contents, 1 1 Percentage of School Grants Reaching Schools. in Selected Countries 9, 2 1 Impact Evaluation Studies of Information for. Accountability Interventions 63, 3 1 School Based Management Reforms in Selected. Countries 95, 3 2 Intermediate Outcomes from SBM Reforms 97. 3 3 Inside the Black Box How to Measure the, Impact of SBM Programs 100.
3 4 Evaluations and Impacts SBM Evidence from Recent. Rigorous Studies 123, 4 1 Summary of Evaluated Contract Tenure Reforms 148. 4 2 Summary of Evaluated Pay for Performance, Bonus Pay Reforms 160. 4 3 Classroom Dynamics in 220 Pernambuco Schools, November 2009 173. 4 4 Incentive Program Design Features and Possible. Effects 187, 4 5 Pay for Performance Programs by Core Design. Features and Effect Size 191, Very few topics command as much attention in the development field as.
school effectiveness Schooling is a basic service that most citizens expect. from their governments but the quality available is quite variable and the. results too often disappointing What will it take for schools in developing. countries to deliver good quality education Making Schools Work New Evi. dence on Accountability Reforms seeks to answer this question. The 2004 World Development Report developed a conceptual framework to. analyze the kind of government and market failures in service delivery that. exist in a large number of developing countries weak accountability leading. to poor motivation and inadequate incentives for performance That report. proposed a set of approaches to remedy those failures that rely on stronger. accountability mechanisms But the empirical evidence supporting those. approaches was limited and uncomfortably so, Over several years World Bank researchers and project staff have. worked with academic researchers and their counterparts in government. and civil society to remedy this evidence gap Their studies isolate and. measure the impacts of reforms and expand the evidence base on the best. methods for improving school effectiveness especially through better. information devolution of authority and stronger incentives for teachers. This volume is a systematic stock taking of the evidence on school. accountability reforms in developing countries It provides a measured and. insightful review and assessment of the results of a variety of approaches. that developing countries are experimenting with in their quest for better. x Foreword, schools It is not the final word on the subject but will hopefully contribute. to better policy choices grounded in the evidence currently available. The Human Development Perspectives series presents research findings. on issues of critical strategic importance for developing countries Improving. the effectiveness of social service delivery is clearly one such issue Making. Schools Work sets a standard for future efforts to assess the effectiveness of. policy reforms, Ariel Fiszbein Elizabeth King, Chief Economist for Human Development Director for Education. Chair Editorial Board Human Development World Bank. Perspectives series Washington D C, World Bank, Washington D C. Acknowledgments, This study was managed by Barbara Bruns Deon Filmer and Harry.
Anthony Patrinos who jointly authored chapters 1 and 5 Deon Filmer. authored chapter 2 with inputs from Marta Rubio Codina Harry Anthony. Patrinos authored chapter 3 and Barbara Bruns co authored chapter 4. with Lucrecia Santiba ez The study grew out of a cross country research. program launched in 2006 with generous support from the government of. the Netherlands through the Bank Netherlands Partnership Program That. research program expanded with the launch of the Spanish Impact. Evaluation Fund SIEF in 2007 and the establishment of a formal cluster. of work on education reforms aimed at strengthening accountability This. book is above all a stocktaking of evidence emerging from the wave of new. impact evaluations that the World Bank and partner countries have been. able to launch thanks to this global funding support. For the initial inspiration to step up knowledge generation from World. Bank operations through rigorous evaluation the authors are grateful to. Paul Gertler former World Bank chief economist for human development. HD For the idea of focusing on education reforms in developing countries. that tested the accountability framework of the 2004 World Development. Report the authors are grateful to current HD chief economist Ariel Fiszbein. This book is underpinned by significant contributions including. background papers by Marta Rubio Codina and Lucrecia Santiba ez We. also thank Debora Brakarz Katherine Conn Margaret Koziol and Martin. Schlotter for excellent research assistance Bruce Ross Larsen provided. xii Acknowledgments, excellent editorial advice The team was guided and supervised by Elizabeth. King and Ariel Fiszbein, We also benefitted from valuable comments from our peer reviewers. Luis Benveniste Shantayanan Devarajan Philip Keefer and Karthik. Muralidharan and comments from colleagues Helen Abadzi Felipe Barrera. Nick Manning and Halsey Rogers Helpful guidance received at earlier. stages included comments from Sajitha Bashir Isabel Beltran Francois. Bourguignon Jishnu Das Pascaline Dupas Claudio Ferraz Francisco. Ferreira Paul Gertler Paul Glewwe Robin Horn Emmanuel Jimenez Stuti. Khemani Arianna Legovini Reema Nayar Ritva Reinikka Carolyn. Reynolds Sofia Shakil Lars Sondergaard Connor Spreng Miguel Urquiola. Emiliana Vegas and Christel Vermeersch Any and all errors that remain in. this volume are the sole responsibility of the authors. About the Authors, Barbara Bruns is lead economist in the Latin America and Caribbean region. of the World Bank responsible for education She is currently co managing. several impact evaluations of teacher pay for performance reforms in Brazil. and is lead author of Achieving World Class Education in Brazil The Next Agenda. 2010 As the first manager of the 14 million Spanish Impact Evaluation. Fund SIEF at the World Bank from 2007 to 2009 Barbara oversaw the. launch of more than 50 rigorous impact evaluations of health education. and social protection programs She has also served on the Education Task. Force appointed by the UN Secretary General in 2003 co authored the. book A Chance for Every Child Achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015. 2003 and headed the Secretariat of the global Education for All Fast Track. Initiative from 2002 to 2004 She holds degrees from the London School of. Economics and the University of Chicago, Deon Filmer is lead economist in the Research Department of World Bank. His research has spanned the areas of education health social protection. and poverty and he has published extensively in these areas Recent. publications include papers on the impact of scholarship programs on. school participation in Cambodia on the roles of poverty orphanhood and. disability in explaining education inequalities and on the determinants of. fertility behavior He was a core team member of the World Development. Reports in 1995 Workers in an Integrating World and 2004 Making Services. Work for Poor People His current research focuses on measuring and. explaining inequalities in education and health outcomes and evaluating. Making Schools Work sets a standard for future efforts to assess the effectiveness of policy reforms Ariel Fiszbein Chief Economist for Human Development Chair Editorial Board Human Development Perspectives series World Bank Washington D C Elizabeth King Director for Education World Bank Washington D C

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