Making Leaps In Amphibian Ecotoxicology Translating-Books Pdf

Making leaps in amphibian ecotoxicology translating
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Ecological Applications, 1792 J D WILLSON ET AL, Vol 22 No 6. the focus of amphibian ecotoxicology to include other canus We constructed a demographic population. ecologically relevant endpoints e g sublethal effects model for B americanus allowing us to evaluate the. and used mesocosms or arti cial ponds to increase consequences of lethal and sublethal effects of Hg on. ecological realism but still generally measured effects at population dynamics in the context of important natural. the individual level Boone and Bridges 2003 Alford population drivers including density dependent larval. 2010 These studies demonstrated that contaminants survival and environmental stochasticity Speci cally. can have a broad array of adverse effects on larval we examined the sensitivity of population dynamics to. amphibians and these effects may interact with a variety shifts in parameters that may be affected by Hg e g. of biotic e g presence of predators or conspeci c or stage speci c survival clutch size and maturation rates. heterospeci c competitors and abiotic e g hydro to assess how effects of contaminants on individual. period temperature factors However links between amphibians in uence population viability Finally we. individual level effects observed in experiments and parameterized the model to comprehensively evaluate. population dynamics have remained tenuous compli the effects of Hg on B americanus population dynamics. cating our ability to effectively conserve amphibian under several realistic exposure scenarios. populations or species Schmidt 2004 The disconnect. between experimental results and population dynamics. is particularly troubling in light of the characteristically Background on individual level effects of Hg. complex dynamics of amphibian populations owing in on Bufo americanus. part to their complex life cycles and sensitivity to The American toad Bufo americanus is one of the. environmental stochasticity Pechmann et al 1991 most common and widespread amphibians in eastern. Semlitsch et al 1996 Schmidt 2004 North America Congeners with similar life histories are. Population models provide a powerful tool for found throughout the United States and in many. interpreting how alterations of stage speci c vital rates temperate and tropical regions world wide Bufo amer. affect population dynamics McPeek and Peckarsky icanus exhibits a stereotypical anuran life history with. 1998 Caswell 2001 The utility of models to mechanis adults living terrestrially in diverse habitats and breeding. tically link individual level contaminant effects to explosively in the spring in a variety of aquatic habitats. population dynamics has been recognized Sibly 1996 particularly sh free often ephemeral pools Females. Forbes and Calow 2002 Hopkins and Rowe 2010 lay large clutches of eggs 2000 20 000 Green 2005. Iwasaki et al 2010 and this approach has been used to resulting in high larval densities and strong intraspeci c. evaluate some amphibian threats such as elevated interactions within the larval habitat Brockelman 1969. embryonic mortality due to ultraviolet radiation Vo Wilbur 1977 Larvae mature rapidly metamorphosing. nesh and De la Cruz 2002 and terrestrial habitat loss in 50 60 days and rapidly dispersing into the surround. Trenham and Shaffer 2005 Harper et al 2008 ing terrestrial environment. Recently Karraker et al 2008 used population models Our studies on B americanus have focused on. to demonstrate that lethal effects of road de icing agents mercury Hg an environmental contaminant of global. on embryos and larvae can reduce population densities concern due to its ubiquity toxicity and ability to. of wood frogs Rana sylvatica and spotted salamanders bioaccumulate in animal tissues Mason et al 1996. Ambystoma maculatum breeding in roadside wetlands Fitzgerald et al 1998 Exposure to high levels of Hg can. However theoretical frameworks for extrapolating the result in acute toxicity and death in humans and wildlife. individual level contaminant effects observed in exper but the neurotoxic teratogenic and endocrine disrupt. imental studies to amphibian population viability ing nature of Hg can also induce subtle effects on. remain limited For example prior models for the growth behavior and reproduction following exposure. effects of contaminants on amphibians have not to sublethal Hg concentrations Weiner and Spry 1996. considered ways in which sublethal effects of contam Scheuhammer et al 2007 Crump and Trudeau 2009. inants e g reduced body size may in uence popula Tan et al 2009 Though diet is often considered the. tions and few have developed methods to incorporate primary pathway for Hg exposure female amphibians. variation in recruitment due to precipitation or other may also pass bioaccumulative contaminants including. forms of environmental stochasticity Salice et al 2011 Hg to their offspring through maternal transfer. In this study we used our research on the effects of resulting in adverse effects Hopkins et al 2006. mercury Hg on toads as a model for bridging the gap Bergeron et al 2010a 2011b. between individual level effects of environmental con Our previous studies of the individual level effects of. taminants and amphibian population dynamics We maternal and dietary Hg on Bufo americanus were based. synthesized the published results of eld surveys and primarily on a historically contaminated site along the. extensive laboratory mesocosm and terrestrial enclo South River Virginia USA Carter 1977 Eggleston. sure experiments that examined the effects of maternal 2009 Bergeron et al 2010a b Field surveys along the. and dietary Hg acting throughout the life cycle of a extensive Hg contamination gradient at the South River. widespread amphibian species with a stereotypical demonstrated that 1 B americanus inhabiting the. anuran life history the American toad Bufo ameri contaminated oodplain bioaccumulate Hg in their. September 2012 POLLUTION AND AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS 1793. TABLE 1 Individual level effects of maternally transferred and dietary mercury Hg on stage speci c vital rates in Bufo. americanus, Clutch Embryo Larval Larval Juvenile Juvenile. Hg exposure route size viability survival growth survival growth. Larval diet NE 26 NE NE, Maternal NE 20 NE 18 NE 7. Maternal larval diet NE 20 50 20 to 27 NE 7, Notes Values represent the percentage deviation from reference treatments Situations where Hg treatments did not differ from. reference treatments are denoted NE and embryos clutch size and embryo viability are not exposed to Hg via larval diet Embryo. viability incorporates both hatching success and frequency of larval abnormalities Results are synthesized from Bergeron et al. 2010a b 2011a b and Todd et al 2011a b 2012, Dependent on food rations Bergeron et al 2011b Todd et al 2011b.
Three year average Bergeron 2011, Additional mortality at metamorphic climax under limited food rations Bergeron et al 2011b Todd et al 2011b. tissues with adults exhibiting mean Hg concentrations The results of our previous experiments as they bear. 3 5 fold higher than those observed upstream of the Hg on parameters used to model B americanus population. point source Bergeron et al 2010b 2 females dynamics in this study are summarized in Table 1. maternally transfer Hg to their offspring Bergeron et Generally maternal transfer of Hg resulted in more. al 2010a and 3 larvae developing within contami severe effects on offspring than did exposure through. nated oodplain breeding habitats accumulate addition larval diet including a 20 average reduction in. al Hg resulting in fourfold higher Hg concentrations viability of embryos laid by Hg exposed females. than larvae from reference sites Bergeron et al 2010b Exposure through either maternal transfer or larval. Because adult B americanus may migrate up to 1 km diet alone produced a wide array of sublethal effects. between feeding and breeding sites Forester et al 2006 particularly reductions in body size of larvae and. contaminated females may oviposit in either contami juveniles but only maternal effects on body size. nated within the oodplain or uncontaminated out persisted in terrestrial juveniles Todd et al 2012. side the oodplain breeding pools Alternatively Exposure to high concentrations of dietary Hg had no. uncontaminated females living outside the oodplain effect on larval survival to metamorphosis Larvae that. may enter the oodplain to breed Thus there is the received both maternal and dietary Hg experienced a. potential for B americanus along the South River to be dramatic 50 reduction in survival when larvae were. exposed to Hg through either maternal transfer larval reared individually on a limited food ration Bergeron et. diet or both pathways simultaneously Bergeron et al al 2011b but this effect was not observed when larvae. 2011b were raised communally on a higher food ration Todd. Previously we used a pluralistic combination of eld et al 2011a Importantly this mortality occurred. surveys and factorial laboratory mesocosm and terres primarily at metamorphic climax negating the potential. trial enclosure experiments to systematically evaluate the for compensation due to competitive release from larval. individual and interactive effects of maternal and larval density dependence Bergeron et al 2011b We found. dietary Hg throughout the life cycle of B americanus In no effects of Hg on clutch size of adult females after. our experiments Hg exposed treatments were repre correcting for the positive relationship between female. sentative of animals from contaminated eld sites at the body size and clutch size combined data from multiple. high end of the Hg contamination gradient present at experiments ANCOVA N 85 females high Hg vs. the South River Speci cally maternal Hg treatment reference females covariate SVL F1 78 2 18 P. groups included young from females with 1 00 lg g 0 14 see Bergeron et al 2011a for methodological. wet mass blood Hg whereas reference females con details. tained 0 25 lg g blood Hg resulting in mean egg Hg. concentrations of 0 15 6 0 018 lg g and 0 02 6 0 001 Bufo americanus demographic population model. lg g dry mass for maternal Hg and reference treat To mechanistically evaluate the population level. ments respectively mean 6 SE Larvae in dietary Hg effects of Hg on B americanus we constructed a. treatments were fed an experimental diet containing 10 discrete time age structured population model based. lg Hg g dry mass resulting in body Hg concentrations on a general amphibian population model developed by. of 1 79 6 0 13 lg Hg g dry mass at completion of Vonesh and De la Cruz 2002 Because many amphib. metamorphosis Bergeron et al 2011b These Hg ian populations are thought to be regulated by density. concentrations are comparable to those found in larvae dependence in the larval stage Brockelman 1969. collected from contaminated eld sites at the South Wilbur 1980 and are subject to dramatic natural. River 2 13 6 0 60 lg Hg g dry mass Bergeron et al population uctuations due in part to variability in. 2010b Larvae from reference treatments accumulated precipitation that affects the size and hydroperiod of the. 0 051 6 0 001 lg Hg g dry mass by the time they larval habitat Pechmann et al 1991 Semlitsch et al. completed metamorphosis Bergeron et al 2011b 1996 Semlitsch 2003 our model also incorporated. Ecological Applications, 1794 J D WILLSON ET AL, Vol 22 No 6. density dependent larval survival and environmental food rations Bergeron et al 2011b Thus we modeled. stochasticity including periodic catastrophic reproduc the additive effects of high density and Hg by reducing. tive failure in years of extreme precipitation larval survival by 50 after calculating survival based. Female B americanus in northern Virginia reach on density in years when initial larval density Lt. sexual maturity at 3 4 years of age Kalb and Zug exceeded 150 larvae m of shoreline This density. 1990 Thus our model included four age classes two threshold corresponds well with densities at which. juvenile age classes rst year J1 second year J2 a density dependent reductions in larval survival have. third year age class A3 of which a proportion q were been observed in the eld Brockelman 1969 Addi. reproductively mature and a mature adult age class A tionally the survival rates we observed 48 in. incorporating all animals 4 years old or greater with a reference treatments on the restricted diet Bergeron et. sex ratio of x and annual reproduction of all adult al 2011b are very close to survival rates observed in the. females Transitions between juvenile and adult age eld by Brockelman 1969 at a density of 167 larvae m. classes were linked by survival rates of juveniles rJ and of shoreline 45. adults rA respectively Reproductive functions relat Despite the importance of larval density dependence. ing the number of adults to the number of one year old in population regulation dynamics of pond breeding. juveniles incorporated female clutch size f and amphibians are stereotypically erratic due largely to. survival of embryos rE larva rL t and newly annual variation in production of newly metamorphosed. metamorphosed juveniles up to one year of age rM individuals driven by environmental stochasticity par. The model can be expressed as a pre breeding census in ticularly precipitation Pechmann et al 1991 Semlitsch. matrix form as follows et al 1996 We incorporated the effects of environmen. 2 3 tal stochasticity on annual metamorph production by. J1 varying the size of the larval habitat Ht based on. Making leaps in amphibian ecotoxicology translating individual level effects of contaminants to population viability J D WILLSON 1 3 W A HOPKINS 1 C M BERGERON 1 AND B D TODD 1 2 1Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation Virginia Tech 100 Cheatham Hall Blacksburg Virginia 24061 USA 2University of California Davis Department of Wildlife Fish and Conservation Biology One

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