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K Apple Computer Inc,2005 Apple Computer Inc All rights reserved. The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of,Mac OS X Server software may reproduce this. publication for the purpose of learning to use such. software No part of this publication may be reproduced. or transmitted for commercial purposes such as selling. copies of this publication or for providing paid for. support services,Every effort has been made to ensure that the. information in this manual is accurate Apple Computer. Inc is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. 1 Infinite Loop,Cupertino CA 95014 2084,www apple com. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. registered in the U S and other countries Use of the. keyboard Apple logo Option Shift K for commercial, purposes without the prior written consent of Apple. may constitute trademark infringement and unfair, competition in violation of federal and state laws. Apple the Apple logo AppleShare AppleTalk Mac, Macintosh QuickTime Xgrid and Xserve are trademarks. of Apple Computer Inc registered in the U S and other. countries Finder is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. Adobe and PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems. Incorporated, UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and. other countries licensed exclusively through,X Open Company Ltd. Other company and product names mentioned herein, are trademarks of their respective companies Mention. of third party products is for informational purposes. only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a, recommendation Apple assumes no responsibility with. regard to the performance or use of these products. 019 0175 03 24 05,1 Contents,Preface 5 About This Guide. 5 What s New in Version 10 4,5 What s in This Guide. 6 Using Onscreen Help,6 The Mac OS X Server Suite,8 Getting Documentation Updates. 8 Getting Additional Information,Chapter 1 9 Overview of High Availability. 9 What is High Availability,9 It s a Big Field,10 High Availability Software Solutions. 10 High Availability Hardware Solutions,Chapter 2 11 Configuring IP Failover. 12 IP Failover Overview,14 Acquiring Master Address Chain of Events. 15 Releasing Master Address Chain of Events,15 IP Failover Setup. 16 Connecting the Master and Backup Servers to the Same Network. 16 Connecting the Master and Backup Servers Together. 17 Configuring the Master Server for Failover,17 Configuring the Backup Server for Failover. 18 Viewing the IP Failover Log, Chapter 3 19 Configuring Other Aspects of High Availability. 19 Eliminating Single Points of Failure,20 Using Xserve and Xserve RAID. 20 Using Xserve,20 Using Xserve RAID,21 Using Backup Power. 21 Using UPS with Xserve RAID,22 Using UPS With Xserve. 23 Setting Up Your Server for Automatic Reboot,24 Ensuring Proper Operational Conditions. 24 Open Directory Replication,24 Protecting Server Security. 25 Link Aggregation,26 The Link Aggregation Control Protocol LACP. 27 Link Aggregation Scenarios,29 Setting Up Link Aggregation in Mac OS X Server. 31 Monitoring Link Aggregation Status,32 Load Balancing. 33 Developing a Backup Strategy,35 Command Line Backup and Restoration Tools. Chapter 4 37 Monitoring Server Availability,37 Console. 38 Server Monitor,38 RAID Admin,39 Disk Monitoring Tools. 40 Network Monitoring Tools,Chapter 5 41 Solving IP Failover Problems. 41 Service Doesn t Automatically fail over When Primary Service Is Unavailable. 41 Email Recipient Isn t Getting Notifications,41 Failover Took Place But Still Having Problems. Glossary 43,4 Contents,About This Guide, This guide describes how to ensure high availability. of your Mac OS X Server services, This guide describes how you can use IP failover link aggregation load balancing and. other software and hardware configurations to ensure high availability of your. Mac OS X Server services,What s New in Version 10 4. Mac OS X Server version 10 4 offers major enhancements that support high availability. Link aggregation Mac OS X Server now supports link aggregation which you. configure in the Network pane of System Preferences. New daemon manager The launchd daemon has replaced the watchdog process. Like watchdog launchd ensures that processes that are supposed to be running are. always running,What s in This Guide,This guide includes the following chapters. Chapter 1 Overview of High Availability explains the concept of high availability. Chapter 2 Configuring IP Failover describes how you can set up IP failover in. Mac OS X Server, Chapter 3 Configuring Other Aspects of High Availability describes how you can. use link aggregation load balancing and other software and hardware. configurations to ensure high availability, Chapter 4 Monitoring Server Availability describes the different tools that you can. use to monitor the availability of your services, Chapter 5 Solving IP Failover Problems describes common problems and provides. information on how to solve them, The glossary provides brief definitions of terms used in this guide. Note Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its software. images shown in this book may be different from what you see on your screen. Using Onscreen Help, You can view instructions and other useful information from this and other documents. in the server suite by using onscreen help, On a computer running Mac OS X Server you can access onscreen help after opening. Workgroup Manager or Server Admin From the Help menu select one of these. Workgroup Manager Help or Server Admin Help displays information about the. application, Mac OS X Server Help displays the main server help page from which you can search. or browse for server information, Documentation takes you to www apple com server documentation from which you. can download server documentation, You can also access onscreen help from the Finder or other applications on a server or. on an administrator computer An administrator computer is a Mac OS X computer. with server administration software installed on it Use the Help menu to open Help. Viewer then choose Library Mac OS X Server Help, To see the latest server help topics make sure the server or administrator computer is. connected to the Internet while you re using Help Viewer Help Viewer automatically. retrieves and caches the latest server help topics from the Internet When not. connected to the Internet Help Viewer displays cached help topics. The Mac OS X Server Suite, The Mac OS X Server documentation includes a suite of guides that explain the services. and provide instructions for configuring managing and troubleshooting the services. All of the guides are available in PDF format from. www apple com server documentation,This guide tells you how to. Mac OS X Server Getting Started Install Mac OS X Server and set it up for the first time. for Version 10 4 or Later, Mac OS X Server Upgrading and Use data and service settings that are currently being used on. Migrating to Version 10 4 or Later earlier versions of the server. Mac OS X Server User Create and manage users groups and computer lists Set up. Management for Version 10 4 or managed preferences for Mac OS X clients. Mac OS X Server File Services Share selected server volumes or folders among server clients. Administration for Version 10 4 or using these protocols AFP NFS FTP and SMB CIFS. 6 Preface About This Guide,This guide tells you how to. Mac OS X Server Print Service Host shared printers and manage their associated queues and print. Administration for Version 10 4 or jobs, Mac OS X Server System Image Use NetBoot and Network Install to create disk images from which. and Software Update Macintosh computers can start up over the network Set up a. Administration for Version 10 4 or software update server for updating client computers over the. Later network, Mac OS X Server Mail Service Set up configure and administer mail services on the server. Administration for Version 10 4 or, Mac OS X Server Web Set up and manage a web server including WebDAV WebMail and. Technologies Administration for web modules,Version 10 4 or Later. Mac OS X Server Network Services Set up configure and administer DHCP DNS VPN NTP IP firewall. Administration for Version 10 4 or and NAT services on the server. Mac OS X Server Open Directory Manage directory and authentication services. Administration for Version 10 4 or, Mac OS X Server QuickTime Set up and manage QuickTime streaming services. Streaming Server Administration,for Version 10 4 or Later. Mac OS X Server Windows Set up and manage services including PDC BDC file and print for. Services Administration for Windows computer users. Version 10 4 or Later, Mac OS X Server Migrating from Move accounts shared folders and services from Windows NT. Windows NT for Version 10 4 or servers to Mac OS X Server. Mac OS X Server Java Application Configure and administer a JBoss application server on. Server Administration For Version Mac OS X Server,10 4 or Later. Mac OS X Server Command Line Use commands and configuration files to perform server. Administration for Version 10 4 or administration tasks in a UNIX command shell. Mac OS X Server Collaboration Set up and manage weblog chat and other services that facilitate. Services Administration for interactions among users. Version 10 4 or Later, Mac OS X Server High Availability Manage IP failover link aggregation load balancing and other. Administration for Version 10 4 or hardware and software configurations to ensure high availability of. Later Mac OS X Server services,Preface About This Guide 7. This guide tells you how to, Mac OS X Server Xgrid Manage computational Xserve clusters using the Xgrid application. Administration for Version 10 4 or, Mac OS X Server Interpret terms used for server and storage products. Glossary Includes Terminology for,Mac OS X Server Xserve Xserve. RAID and Xsan,Getting Documentation Updates, Periodically Apple posts new onscreen help topics revised guides and additional. solution papers The new help topics include updates to the latest guides. To view new onscreen help topics make sure your server or administrator computer. is connected to the Internet and click the Late Breaking News link on the main. Mac OS X Server help page, To download the latest guides and solution papers in PDF format visit the Mac OS X. Server documentation webpage www apple com server documentation. Getting Additional Information,For more information consult these resources. Read Me documents important updates and special information Look for them on the. server discs, Mac OS X Server website gateway to extensive product and technology information. www apple com macosx server, AppleCare Service Support access to hundreds of articles from Apple s support. organization,www apple com support, Apple customer training instructor led and self paced courses for honing your server. administration skills,train apple com, Apple discussion groups a way to share questions knowledge and advice with other. administrators,discussions info apple com, Apple mailing list directory subscribe to mailing lists so you can communicate with. other administrators using email,discussions info apple com. 8 Preface About This Guide,1 Overview of High Availability. This chapter describes the concept of high availability. and what you need to do to apply it to your Mac OS X. Server deployments, Because of service level guarantees business requirements or established industry. regulations many companies require the highest possible availability of computing. services Today events that were previously viewed as minor unplanned outages can. severely impair business operations In response Apple s Mac OS X Server products are. designed to ensure high availability and manage system outages. What is High Availability, In the context of network services high availability refers to almost continuous. availability of services In many organizations a highly available system or service must. be usable 99 of the time Other organizations require even greater availability 99 99. or 99 999 in some cases, The following table puts these numbers in perspective. Availability Uptime approx Downtime approx,99 361 8 days 84 hours. 99 9 364 9 days 8 5 hours,99 999 365 3 days 5 minutes. Once you have determined the level of availability that your services must provide you. can calculate the allowable down time and use the resulting number to determine how. you ll configure your hardware and software to meet that level of availability. It s a Big Field, High availability is a big field As you ll learn in this guide it takes a combination of. software and hardware solutions to ensure high availability. High Availability Software Solutions, Mac OS X Server provides several features to ensure the highest possible availability. IP failover service allows you to provide redundancy When the master server fails a. backup server automatically assumes the role of master server with minimal or no. disruption to users, The launchd daemon makes sure that processes specified in its configuration file are. always running If one of these processes quits launchd restarts it For more. information about launchd refer to the command line administration guide. Open Directory service allows you to replicate your directory and authentication. services so that users see little disruption in service if a directory system fails or. becomes unreachable, The Energy Saver pane of System Preferences lets you set an option for restarting the. computer in case it goes down, Monitoring utilities such as Server Monitor and RAID Admin notify you via email. when the operating conditions for any component exceed your predefined. thresholds so you can respond quickly to prevent or repair the problem. The rsync command along with other third party tools allow you to mirror your data. so that in the event of a server failure you can restore your data onto another server. with minimum disruption to users, Link aggregation allows you to add performance and fault tolerance to your network. connections,High Availability Hardware Solutions, Apple provides hardware solutions that offer increased reliability and hence. availability, Xserve has several features that ensure its availability including built in RAID. mirroring allows fast recovery in case of drive failure and Error Correcting Code. ECC memory which helps prevent data corruption, Xserve RAID has several built in redundant components that allow the system to. function in case one of them fails For example Xserve RAID has two power supplies. If one of the power supplies fails the system stays on. Third party load balancing devices allow you to spread the network load throughout. a server farm and thus provide scalability and fault tolerance. 10 Chapter 1 Overview of High Availability,2 Configuring IP Failover. This chapter describes the IP failover service and how to. configure it in Mac OS X Server, IP failover is a technology that allows you to set up two computers in a master backup. relationship such that if the master computer fails the backup computer transparently. assumes the role of the master with minimal disruption in service. For example if you have a home directory server with 1 000 users and you don t have a. backup server your users will not be able to access their files if the directory server fails. But if you set up another server as a backup then even if the master server fails the. users will be able to access their files through the backup server without being aware. of the service disruption as long as the data is stored on shared storage that is. accessible by both computers, Mac OS X Server provides built in support for IP failover In this chapter you will learn. how IP failover works in Mac OS X Server and how to configure it. IP Failover Overview, IP failover lets you ensure high availability of your servers A simple IP failover solution. consists of two Mac OS X Server computers a master and a backup The master. computer provides services while the backup computer waits in the background to. take over if the master fails,AFP SMB CIFS,homedirs example com. node1 example com node2 example com,Master server Backup server. In this scenario both computers connect to the same network that client requests. come over Each computer has a unique IP address and optionally a DNS or domain. name The computers are connected directly to each other using IP over FireWire. To provide IP failover support Mac OS X Server uses the heartbeatd and failoverd. The heartbeatd daemon runs on the master computer and broadcasts heartbeat. messages every second on port 1694 from both network interfaces announcing the. host s availability to other nodes listening with failoverd Sending the heartbeat. message on both primary and secondary network links helps prevent false alarms. heartbeatd uses the FAILOVER BCAST IPS entry in the etc hostconfig file to. determine who to send to broadcast the heartbeat message to. The failoverd daemon runs on the backup computer and listens on port 1694 for. broadcasts from a specific address on both interfaces If failoverd stops receiving. the heartbeat messages on both interfaces it takes over the public IP address of the. master server which allows the failover server to service incoming client requests. thus maintaining availability failoverd uses the FAILOVER PEER IP and. FAILOVER PEER IP entries in the etc hostconfig file to get the public and private IP. addresses of the master server, For IP failover to work you must keep the backup computer in sync with the master. For example if you re using the master computer as an AFP file server you should. make sure that the backup computer has the same AFP service settings If the settings. are not the same users might not be able to access the file service. 12 Chapter 2 Configuring IP Failover, In addition for IP failover to work the backup computer should have access to the data. that is needed by the client computers To ensure data availability you ll have to keep. the data on both computers in sync using the cron and rsync commands or other. third party solutions Alternatively you could use shared storage like Xserve RAID in. which to store data,homedirs example com,node1 example com node2 example com. Master server Backup server,Fibre channel switch,Xserve RAID. To take advantage of Xserve RAID in IP failover situations you can use Xsan or third. party storage area network SAN software to allow your master and backup servers to. access the same volume without corrupting it, You can also use logical unit number LUN masking at the Fibre switch level to grant. access to shared data on an Xserve RAID You ll have to create scripts to instruct the. switch to swap access from one server to the other LUN masking at the switch level. ensures that only one server has access to the data but never both servers at the same. Warning Giving two servers access to the same Xserve RAID volume without Xsan or. third party SAN software can corrupt the volume, After starting the heartbeatd and failoverd daemons the master computer starts. sending heartbeat messages to the backup server at predetermined intervals If the. backup computer stops receiving these messages it triggers a chain of events that. ends with the backup server taking over the IP address of the master server and. assuming its role,Chapter 2 Configuring IP Failover 13. From a client perspective failover happens transparently with minimal disruption of. service This is because the client accesses services using a virtual IP address that is an. address not associated with a particular computer and or domain name for example. homedirs example com When the backup server assumes the role of the master the. client doesn t see any difference as long as services on both computers are configured. exactly the same way A brief disruption of service may be noticeable if IP failover. happens while the client is actively communicating with a service For example if a. user is copying a file from the server and it fails over the copying process will be. disrupted and the user will have to start the copying process again. Acquiring Master Address Chain of Events, When the master server fails over the following chain of events occurs on the backup. 1 The failoverd daemon located in usr sbin detects no broadcasts from the primary. server on the FireWire interface, 2 The failoverd daemon instructs the NotifyFailover script located in usr libexec. to send emails to the users listed in etc hostconfig If no recipient is specified an email. is sent to the root user, 3 failoverd executes the ProcessFailover script located in usr libexec. 4 The ProcessFailover script executes the Library Failover IP address Test. script where IP address is the IP address or domain name of the master server. a If the Test script returns false ProcessFailover quits and the backup server does. not acquire the IP address of the master server, b If the Test script returns true or does not exist ProcessFailover continues its. Note By default the Test script is empty but you can customize it to suit your needs. 5 The ProcessFailover script executes in alphabetical order any script with the prefix. PreAcq in the Library Failover IP address folder, PreAcq scripts prepares the backup server to acquire the IP address of the master. server By default Mac OS X Server ships with a number of PreAcq scripts but you can. always customize them or add you own, 6 The ProcessFailover script configures the network interface to use the IP address of. the master server, 7 The ProcessFailover script executes in alphabetical order any script with the prefix. PostAcq in the Library Failover IP address folder, PostAcq scripts run after the backup server acquires the master s IP address As with. PreAcq scripts Mac OS X Server ships with a number of PostAcq scripts But you can. add your own For example a PostAcq script can send you an email to let you know. that failover completed successfully,14 Chapter 2 Configuring IP Failover. For more information about failoverd NotifyFailover and ProcessFailover see. the corresponding man page or the high availability chapter of the command line. administration guide, Note It takes approximately 30 seconds for failover to complete. Releasing Master Address Chain of Events, When you trigger failback the following occurs on the backup server. 1 The failoverd daemon instructs the NotifyFailover script located in usr libexec. to send emails to the users listed in etc hostconfig If no recipient is specified an email. is sent to the root user, 2 failoverd executes the ProcessFailover script located in usr libexec. 3 The ProcessFailover script executes the Test script located in Library Failover. IP address where IP address is the IP address or domain name of the master server. a If the Test script returns false ProcessFailover quits and the master server does. not acquire the IP address of the backup server, b If the Test script returns true or does not exist ProcessFailover continues its. 4 The ProcessFailover script executes in alphabetical order any script with the prefix. PreRel in the Library Failover IP address folder, 5 The ProcessFailover script releases the IP address of the master server. 6 The ProcessFailover script executes in alphabetical order any script with the prefix. PostRel in the Library Failover IP address folder, Note By default the Test script is empty but you can customize it to suit your needs. IP Failover Setup, Here is an overview of what you need to do to set up your Mac OS X Server computers. for IP failover, Step 1 Connect the master and backup computers to the same network and. configure their TCP IP settings, This step allows your servers to communicate with the client computers Each server. must have its own unique IP address, Step 2 Connect the two computers directly using a secondary Ethernet. interface or IP over FireWire and configure the IP settings. This step allows direct communication of IP failover events between the servers.
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