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Lumen Programming Guide
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Lumen Programming Guide Writing PHP Microservices REST and Web Service APIs. Paul Redmond,Phoenix Arizona, ISBN 13 pbk 978 1 4842 2186 0 ISBN 13 electronic 978 1 4842 2187 7. DOI 10 1007 978 1 4842 2187 7,Library of Congress Control Number 2016953766. Copyright 2016 by Paul Redmond, This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher whether the whole or part of the. material is concerned specifically the rights of translation reprinting reuse of illustrations recitation. broadcasting reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way and transmission or information. storage and retrieval electronic adaptation computer software or by similar or dissimilar methodology now. known or hereafter developed, Trademarked names logos and images may appear in this book Rather than use a trademark symbol with. every occurrence of a trademarked name logo or image we use the names logos and images only in an. editorial fashion and to the benefit of the trademark owner with no intention of infringement of the trademark. The use in this publication of trade names trademarks service marks and similar terms even if they are. not identified as such is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to. proprietary rights, While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication.
neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or. omissions that may be made The publisher makes no warranty express or implied with respect to the. material contained herein,Managing Director Welmoed Spahr. Lead Editor Steve Anglin,Technical Reviewer Jacob Jensen. Editorial Board Steve Anglin Pramila Balan Laura Berendson Aaron Black Louise Corrigan. Jonathan Gennick Robert Hutchinson Celestin Suresh John Nikhil Karkal James Markham. Susan McDermott Matthew Moodie Natalie Pao Gwenan Spearing. Coordinating Editor Mark Powers,Copy Editor Mary Behr. Compositor SPi Global,Indexer SPi Global,Artist SPi Global. Cover image designed by Freepik, Distributed to the book trade worldwide by Springer Science Business Media New York 233 Spring Street.
6th Floor New York NY 10013 Phone 1 800 SPRINGER fax 201 348 4505 e mail orders ny springer. sbm com or visit www springeronline com Apress Media LLC is a California LLC and the sole member. owner is Springer Science Business Media Finance Inc SSBM Finance Inc SSBM Finance Inc is a. Delaware corporation, For information on translations please e mail rights apress com or visit www apress com. Apress and friends of ED books may be purchased in bulk for academic corporate or promotional use. eBook versions and licenses are also available for most titles For more information reference our Special. Bulk Sales eBook Licensing web page at www apress com bulk sales. Any source code or other supplementary materials referenced by the author in this text are available to. readers at www apress com 9781484221860 For detailed information about how to locate your book s source. code go to www apress com source code Readers can also access source code at SpringerLink in the. Supplementary Material section for each chapter,Printed on acid free paper. To Bernadette,Contents at a Glance,About the Author xi. About the Technical Reviewer xiii,Acknowledgments xv. Introduction xvii,Chapter 1 Installing Lumen 1,Chapter 2 Hello Lumen 7.
Chapter 3 Creating the Book Application 17,Chapter 4 Starting the Books API 23. Chapter 5 Creating Reading Updating and Deleting Books 33. Chapter 6 Responding to Errors 65,Chapter 7 Leveling Up Responses 89. Chapter 8 Validation 125,Chapter 9 Authors 137,Chapter 10 The authors API Resource 165. Chapter 11 Book Bundles 201,Chapter 12 Ratings 219. Appendix Where to Go From Here 243,About the Author xi.
About the Technical Reviewer xiii,Acknowledgments xv. Introduction xvii,Chapter 1 Installing Lumen 1,Homestead 1. Red Hat CentOS 4,Debian Ubuntu 5,Conclusion 6,Chapter 2 Hello Lumen 7. Setting Up a New Project 7,The Hello World Route 10. Route Parameters 10,Middleware and Responses 11,Global Middleware 11.
Route Middleware 13,The Request and Response Objects 14. The Request 15,The Response 15,Chapter 3 Creating the Book Application 17. Building Something Amazing 17,Environment Setup 19. Checking Unit Tests 21,Setup Complete 22,Chapter 4 Starting the Books API 23. Creating the First Endpoint 23,Setting Up Models and Seed Data 26.
Eloquent Books 30,Success 32, Chapter 5 Creating Reading Updating and Deleting Books 33. Requesting an Individual Book 33,Creating a New Book 41. Updating an Existing Book 49,Deleting Books 53,Conclusion 63. Chapter 6 Responding to Errors 65,Test Database 65. Model Factories 66,Factories in Tests 66,Better Error Responses 69.
Framework Exception Handling 70,JSON Exceptions 72. Testing the Exception Handler 74,Conclusion 88,Chapter 7 Leveling Up Responses 89. Introducing Fractal 89,First Version of API Response Formatting 90. The Fractal Response Class 97,The Book Transformer 97. The Fractal Response Class 101,Fractal Response Service 111.
Integrating the Fractal Response Service 114,Conclusion 124. Chapter 8 Validation 125,First Attempt at Validation 125. More Validation Constraints 129,Custom Validation Messages 132. Other Approaches 134,Conclusion 135,Chapter 9 Authors 137. The Authors Database Schema 137,Fixing Broken Tests 145.
Conclusion 163,Chapter 10 The authors API Resource 165. The GET authors Endpoint 166,The AuthorsTransformer 166. The Author Controller 168,The GET authors id Endpoint 170. A Basic Response 170,Including Other Models in the Response 171. The POST authors Endpoint 181,The PUT authors id Endpoint 188.
The DELETE authors id Endpoint 197,Conclusion 199,Chapter 11 Book Bundles 201. Defining the Relationship Between Books and Bundles 201. The GET bundles id Endpoint 206,Adding a Book to a Bundle 214. Remove a Book from a Bundle 215,Conclusion 217,Chapter 12 Ratings 219. Database Design 219,Rating an Author 223,Adding an Author Rating 223. Deleting an Author Rating 233,Ratings in the Author API 236.
Eager Loading Ratings 240,Conclusion 242,Appendix Where to Go From Here 243. Laravel 243,Laracasts 243,Mockery 244,Guzzle 244,About the Author. Paul Redmond has worked as a web developer entrepreneur and mentor. in software development for over a decade He has built web applications. within startups agencies and enterprise customers with open source. technologies Paul is passionate about writing highly available applications. with PHP JavaScript and RESTful APIs, Paul lives in Scottsdale Arizona with his wife Bernadette three boys. and one cat He is usually wrangling code kittens and children but finds. time to enjoy reading fantasy fiction writing and watching sports. About the Technical Reviewer, Jacob Jensen is a software engineer who loves testing automating and. clean code he has a passion for teaching and learning and has deep. experience in web development design patterns object oriented design. and a multitude of programming languages and platforms. Acknowledgments, Writing a book is challenging Editing a book more so.
Writing a book takes patience persistence time and an abundance of help from others When I first. envisioned this title its humble beginnings were in the form of an eBook I conceptualized wrote edited. technically edited designed and marketed the concepts herein. The Laravel https laravel com framework and the Lumen micro framework have been inspiring. in my day to day work They provide a pleasant and productive development experience that rekindled. my love for PHP and inspired me to share what I ve learned with others Additionally the positive feedback. and word of mouth about this book within the PHP and Laravel communities specifically Taylor Otwell. https twitter com taylorotwell Michael Dyrynda https dyrynda com au and Amanda Folson. http amandafolson net was unexpected and huge motivation to keep pressing forward and making. the book better, My early readers provided constructive feedback small amounts of errata and grammar issues and. insight into what they liked about the manuscript Early reader feedback showed that people were actually. interested in my work and found tips and tricks that helped them. I would like to thank Steve Anglin and Mark Powers at Apress for guiding me through the writing. process They have made a dream of mine come true to author a technical book I am thankful for their help. and the help of everyone else at Apress who assisted me throughout the process. Within my professional circle the direct and indirect mentoring I ve received from my colleague. Justin Rainbow has helped shape me as a developer and I am much much better off for it Thank you My. colleague Jacob Jensen the technical editor of this book has been invaluable for motivating me letting me. bounce ideas off of him and providing great feedback on a technical and peer level. Writing a book is a big commitment involving many late nights and I owe my wife Bernadette and. my children Hayden Masen and Lincoln the biggest thanks of all Life is short I am so fortunate to have a. wonderful family that supports me I love you guys,Introduction. Lumen is a framework that is designed to write APIs With the rising popularity of microservices. http microservices io patterns microservices html existing patterns like service oriented. architecture https en wikipedia org wiki Service oriented architecture and increased. demand for public APIs Lumen is a perfect fit for writing the service layer in the same language as the web. applications you write, In my experience it s not uncommon for PHP shops to write web applications with PHP and API. services with something like Node js https nodejs org en I am not suggesting that this is a bad idea. but I see Lumen as a chance to improve development workflows for PHP developers and for companies to. standardize around a powerful set of complimentary frameworks Laravel and Lumen. You can write APIs quickly with Lumen using the built in packages provided but Lumen can also get out. of your way and be as minimalist as you want it to be Set aside framework benchmarks and open your mind. to increased developer productivity Lumen is fast but more importantly it helps me be more productive. The Same Tools to Write APIs and Web Applications, Lumen is a minimal framework that uses a subset of the same components from Laravel https laravel com. Together Laravel and Lumen give developers a powerful combination of tools a lightweight framework for. writing APIs and a full fledged web framework for web applications Lumen also has a subset of console. tools available from Laravel Other powerful features from Laravel are included like database migrations. Eloquent Models ORM Package job queues scheduled jobs and a test suite focused on testing APIs. The development experience between Lumen and Laravel is relatively the same which means. developers will see a productivity boost by adopting both frameworks Together they provide a consistent. workflow and can simplify the software stack for developers release engineers and operations teams. Who This Book Is For, This book is for programmers that want to write APIs in PHP Familiarity with the HTTP spec Composer.
PHPUnit and the command line will help but this book walks you through each step of building an API. You don t need to be an expert on these subjects and more experienced developers can skip things they. understand to focus on the specific code needed to write APIs in Lumen This book does not cover every. detail of using Lumen but focuses on the most important concepts needed to write testable APIs with Lumen. Conventions Used in This Book, The book is a hands on guide to building a working API so you will see tons of code samples throughout the. book I will point out a few conventions used so that you can understand the console commands and code. The code is meant to provide a fully working API you can follow along or copy and paste code samples. INTRODUCTION,Code Examples,A typical PHP code snippet looks like this. Example PHP Code Snippet,A Hello World Example,app get function. return Hello World, To guide readers approximate line numbers are used when you will be adding a block of code to an. existing class or test file,Example PHP Code Snippet.
11 A Foobar Example,13 app get foo function,14 return bar. Longer lines end in a backslash and continue to the next line. Example of Long Line in PHP, thisIsALongLine Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur adipisicing elit Qu. os unde deserunt eos, When you need to run console commands to execute the test suite or create files the snippet appears as. plain text without line numbers Lines start with which represents the terminal prompt. Example Console Command,touch the file php, Console commands that should be executed in the recommended Homestead1 environment will be. indicated like the following example The book removes extra output from PHPUnit tests to make examples. less verbose,Console Command in the Homestead Virtual Machine.
vagrant homestead Code bookr,OK 1 test 4 assertions. https laravel com docs homestead,INTRODUCTION,Code Errata and Feedback. Submit errata to lumenapibook gmail com or via the book s apress com product page located at. www apress com 9781484221860 Feel free to send in typos inaccurate descriptions code issues praise. feedback and code suggestions on better ways of doing something Please don t be shy these things make. my book better,Tips Notes and Warnings,YOUR ASIDE TITLE. This is an aside, Hey Listen Tips give you pointers related to concepts in the book. Danger Warnings point out potential issues and security concerns. Need the Info This aside provides additional info related to code and concepts. Git Commit Amazing Refactor rm3dwe2f, This is an example of a code commit if you are following along and using git to commit your work.
Discussions This tip includes deeper discussions around topics in the book Advanced users can. generally skip these,Tools You Will Need, All tools are recommended but if you know what you re doing you can set up your own coding environment. and skip the recommended tools You might even have these tools already just make sure they are relatively. up to date All tools listed are free unless otherwise noted. VirtualBox, This book uses a virtual machine to run the API application You will need to download VirtualBox if you. plan on using the recommended Homestead environment VirtualBox works on Windows Mac and Linux. www virtualbox org,INTRODUCTION, Homestead also requires Vagrant www vagrantup com to manage and provision virtual machines Vagrant. works on Windows Mac and Linux Debian and CentOS,Version Control. If you want to work along in the book and commit your code as you go recommended you need to install a. version control system I recommend git but anything you want will do. Editor IDE, Most readers will already have a go to editor I highly recommend PhpStorm www jetbrains com phpstorm.
which is not free but it pays for itself Other common IDE options are Eclipse PDT and NetBeans. If you don t like IDEs I recommend Sublime Text www sublimetext com or Atom https atom io. If you are on Mac TextMate https macromates com is another great choice TextMate 2 is marked as.

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