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Low Cost Augmented Reality Framework for Construction
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Augmented and Virtual Reality, current AR VR systems cost of AR VR gear and cost of From this stage the augmented reality application has. implementation Also the inherent problems of shifted from indoors to outdoors enabling the user to. augmented reality question its implementation to the move around with the heavy equipment A prototype. fullest The critical problem with any augmented reality system developed by the Computer Graphics and User. systems is the difficulties in real time and accurate Interfaces Lab Columbia University acts as an. tracking The major requirement for any augmented information system in the campus assisting a person in. information is it has to synchronise with the real world finding places and allowing to request information about. Slightest of the errors in model synchronization with the items of interest like buildings statues etc 3 The user. real world can be easily caught by the human eye Any wears a head mounted display that gets the inputs over a. mismatch between augmented objects and real objects wireless network from a computer carried in the. can be discomforting and also result in incorrect backpack GPS is used to track the position of the user. information being given to the user while the head mounted display gives the orientation. There can be endless discussion on applications of information as the user looks around the campus the. augmented reality but for the purpose of this paper the head worn display superimposes textual labels on. notable benefits and of this technology are discussed and campus buildings Also the user can interact with the. a specific solution for obtaining a cost effective AR system and obtain any information about the building on. framework is proposed The solution proposed states the his screen. use of Virtual Reality VR device Google Cardboard and The increase in need for information technologies in. smartphone for providing AR experience In Virtual architecture engineering construction and facility. Reality the user gets immersed into another virtual world management industries is owed to their complex nature. and cannot see the real world he actually lives in So to that increased demand of information access for. provide AR experience it is proposed we capture the real evaluation communication and collaboration 4 Thus. world from the smartphone camera and view the same the application of AR technologies are varied and across. from Cardboard to provide that immersive experience multiple verticals AR technologies can benefit the AEC. Virtual models are now augmented onto the real world industry through 1 Visualization of 3D models super. input from the camera and also a menu based user imposed on the real world 2 Information Retrieval. interface has been created to interact with the involving BIM models drawings for on site. augmentations communication and 3 Interaction of virtual models in. response to changes in the real world 5 Some of the. specific applications of AR in training information. 2 Survey on Applications of Augmented retrieval and planning are described below. Virtual Training System for Construction Excavator. Reality in Construction Industry,Operations A virtual training system VTS is. The technical definition of augmented reality 1 is a developed for construction excavator operators based on. system that combines real and virtual world which is a game engine tool 8 Their study reflects the. interactive in real time and is registered in three experience of using a game engine to develop a VTS for. dimensions Ivan Sutherland is credited largely for the an earthmoving excavator in a construction site They. concept of augmented reality as early as 1960s One of selected Unity3D as a simulator construction tool. the earliest works of augmented reality in architecture because of its easy programming and versatility Unity3D. and construction industry is the work done at the has an advantageous world building tool user friendly. Computer Graphics and User Interfaces Lab at Columbia interface and lots of target platforms mobiles web. University on so called Architectural Anatomy which PC MacOS etc are supported 6 Also they employed. is overlaying the graphical illustration of the structural 3DS Max as modelling software for modelling the. systems of a building over the user s view of the room excavator and imported into a simulation environment. which he currently is in 2 The other work done at the created in Unity 3D Various scripts are written which. same labs involves space frame construction It is a step enable interaction of various 3D objects say bucket. by step space frame construction process where the AR boom and swing Similarly soil is also modelled as grey. system directs the user to pick up elements though audio boxes due to limitations in the older version of Unity. clippings confirms whether the correct piece has been Based on this approach the whole training system is. picked by scanning the barcode and virtual image is developed and used for training where the inputs to the. displayed next to it showing where and how to install the model are given from the joystick connected to the. picked strut display This attempt in using game engine to create. simulation environment for construction is considered to. be an important step in adopting training programs with. least cost burdens, 33rd International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction ISARC 2016. On site Information Retrieval A wearable device had cameras makes this possible Once a drone flies over the. been developed that projects the drawings and related project area its cameras scan the whole area and pick up. information on user need basis 7 This device is markers that are positioned in the site When these. developed to help engineers avoid carrying bulky markers are tracked all the augmentations like as built 3D. construction drawings to the site and to pin point the site map or project monitoring information can be passed. exact drawing needed instead of going through the pile as live feed to the top managers at site or can be recorded. of drawings Four modules enable the information from into a memory device This saves a lot of time and gives. the BIM to the projection 1 Information integration the whole summary of the project at one go Also the use. module for transfer of information from BIM to image of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping SLAM. format to enable on site retrieval 2 Position module to helps in generating a site map in real time at different. enable users load images based on their location 3 stages of the project which can be compared with the. Manipulation module to understand the gestures of the planned site map When the user walks the site with. user like touch and turn and then perform changes to SLAM app scanning the path along the determination of. images accordingly 4 Display module that links to the the position of the user on the site on a virtual map and. projector scales the images properly and ensure 3D mapping of his surrounding environment is done. projection to the scale based on the information from simultaneously Both the above mentioned benefits of. other three modules A test was done at site by enabling AR are costly investments but when compared to its costs. engineers to use these helmets and access particular to benefits which are at the scale of project it is a. information Those with the helmets showed increased profitable investment. accuracy in acquiring the information quickly than. manual searching through the 2D drawings, Plan virtual construction site AR Planner is an AR 3 Cost Effective AR Technology. system that enables the construction worksite planner to. Hardware and Software, position construction materials and machines equipment.
handling devices and the corresponding outing lines in The basic hardware requirements for AR are input. the planned worksite using representative 3D model devices sensors processor and display Modern. model objects in the virtual world 8 Fiducial markers computing devices like smartphones and tablet. are used to trigger the 3D objects onto the virtual computers contain these elements which usually include. worksite where they can be moved by the user There is a camera and Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. also a data base that stores all the virtual element set that MEMS sensors such as accelerometer GPS and solid. is modelled and can be used in planning state compass making them appropriate AR platforms. Apart from the above mentioned applications there Head Mounted Displays HMD are trending in the. are generalized frameworks which enable integrating AR current AR and VR display systems Oculus Rift Razer s. with Building Information Models for various uses A OSVR HTC and Valve s Vive Samsung Gear VR. conceptual framework that integrates AR with building are considered to be the leading head mounted displays. information modelling BIM to detect construction in the virtual reality domain Google glass an optical. defects has also been presented 9 In order to visualize head mounted see through display uses ubiquitous. the dynamic site operations during construction phase a computing technique that aims at giving people the best. mobile 3 dimensional AR system has been investigated AR experience To assist swift development of. 10 Augmented Reality Application some software, Not only in the domain of engineering has AR found development kits SDK have emerged Some of the. its utility also in teaching especially classroom education well known AR SDKs are offered by Vuforia. Enhancing a text book with 3D and multimedia virtual ARToolKit Mobinett AR Wikitude Blippar and Layar. information by designing a collaborative Context Aware 12. Mobile Augmented Reality Tool CAM ART in Cost of AR application has two main components. construction and civil engineering curriculum 11 A The cost of application building and the cost of hardware. group of students were tested on using this CAM ART The cost of application depends entirely on the creative. by loading an AR application in their smartphones and content added in it and is almost same irrespective of the. tablet computers Performance data was analysed which hardware used The difference can be made by choosing. showed CAM ART actually had a positive impact on low cost hardware as the application building cost is. students learning in both short term and long term almost same across different platforms. The benefits of augmented reality to construction Currently a very ambitious AR device which is dedicated. industry can be extended from individual construction to give high end AR experience to users is the Microsoft. activities or structural systems invocation to the scale of HoloLens It s a mixed technology headset using both. projects as a whole Deployment of drones with powerful augmented and virtual reality where it merges real world. Augmented and Virtual Reality, components with virtual images called holograms The Table 1 Cost comparison of AR VR devices. headset is not connected to any PC as it is run on battery. with a Windows 10 system built in it It has a Kinect style. receiving of voice commands and gestures There is no Device Price. other device in the making which is as close to HoloLens Microsoft HoloLens. in giving that high end AR experience In the VR devices. category Oculus Rift is one of the first consumer targeted 3 000 00. device HTC Vive offers 360 degree tracking and also a. context aware controller which enables interaction with HTC Vive. the virtual world elements FOVE VR differs from the. likes of Rift and PlayStation VR because it enables 799 00. interactive eye tracking using an IR sensor inside the. headset that monitor s wearer s eyes and controls the Oculus Rift. rendering on the screen based on where we look The. Gear VR is an Oculus Rift powered device which has a 599 00. Samsung Galaxy smartphone as its processor and, display The Galaxy handset simply slots in front of the. lenses into a Micro USB dock The smartphone s super FOVE VR. AMOLED display serves as the screen for the user It. comes in handy for AR experiences if one can enable the 349 00. phone s camera to capture the real world Table 1 lists the. popular devices various devices currently in the market. or in the development stagealong with the market price. It can be seen from the table that the Google Cardboard. device is the most economical option As a smartphone. has become ubiquitous this work focused on exploring. the current and extensible capabilities of this platform in. providing AR experience for construction applications. Samsung Gear VR,Google Cardboard is a virtual reality VR and. augmented reality AR platform developed by Google, for use with a head mount for a mobile phone This is 99 00.
intended to be the low cost system to boost interest and. development in AR and VR applications Users can build. their own cardboard viewer by using low cost materials Google Cardboard. or purchase from third party with specifications issued by. While choosing the cheapest hardware enables, widespread application the challenges lie in developing. a suitable application that can provide a seamless AR. experience Open Source Software Development Kits The Vuforia platform supports both Android and iOS. SDK are available to extend and customize the smartphones and tablets as well as digital eyewear. capabilities of the platform A popular Augmented Developers can build Vuforia apps in Eclipse Xcode and. Reality Software Development Kit SDK which enables Unity cross platform game engine Unity 3D is one of the. the creation of AR applications for mobile devices is best professional multiplatform development engine It is. Vuforia In Vuforia Computer Vision technology is used used to develop video games for PC consoles mobile. to recognize and help in real time tracking of planar devices and websites There is also a SDK for Cardboard. images Image Targets and simple3D objects such as which helps in creation of VR application from scratch. boxes 13 It is this capability that enables developers to or conversion of existing application to VR or enabling. extend capabilities to enable positioning and changing switching of application in and out of VR Therefore. the orientation of virtual objects such as 3D models and importing Vuforia and Cardboard SDKs software. other media in relation to real world images when these development kit on Unity can help in the creation of. are viewed through the camera of a mobile device augmented reality system compatible with Google. Cardboard Taking advantage of this feature a low cost. augmented reality solution is presented in this paper. 33rd International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction ISARC 2016. 4 AR Mechanisms capability are aimed to be achieved For the purpose of. this discussion we stick to the 2D image target capability. Over the years the AR technologies have evolved on a smartphone with a Cardboard mount. rapidly and today we are in the age of smart glasses The The simple AR case is the user scans a target in the. likes of Google Glass and Microsoft HoloLens have real world and the virtual model is invoked and aligned. emerged which are ubiquitous computing devices that itself accordingly to give the augmented experience. project digital information directly onto the human eye There is a triggering event which occurs every time a. Figure 1 shows how AR technologies have evolved target is scanned This target can be an image or an object. throughout the years in various levels Image targets represent those images which the SDK. detects and tracks The Vuforia SDK usually detects and. tracks the features that are found in the image itself by. comparing these natural features against a known target. resource database Once the Image Target is recognized. from the database which contains correspondence,information i e the corresponding 3D model to a. particular image target the SDK will track the image as. long as the image lies in the camera s field of view. Object Targets are generated by creating a, digital representation of the features and geometry of a. real physical object They are different from image based. targets that require the use of a planar source image. Vuforia Object scanner generates object targets by. scanning physical 3D objects Object targets are ideal in. cases of building rich interactive experiences with rigid. 3D objects They can be augmentations on toys manuals. overlaid on consumer products or triggering of new. events on scanning a consumer product, For the application in construction site where one. would like to augment building models or information. onto their displays we have chosen image targets because. of its ease of implementation and a variety of images can. be created by the user to serve various purposes One can. use QR codes or floor or elevation plans or any other. specific purpose images as targets Figure 2 below shows. the buildings being augmented onto the real world once. the image a cover page lying on the desk is scanned. with the AR app,Figure 1 Road Map of AR Technologies.
With reference to Figure 1 Level 0 of AR is the, simple hyperlinking where we are directed to a particular. website upon scanning a barcode tagged with an URL. Level 1 comprises of the major area where our proposed. solution lies in A large number of applications both for. Hand held and Head mounted devices have been, developed for marker based tracking which then evolved. into Level 2 as tracking based on the natural features in. the environment and geo location The final level or. Level 3 is the currently most concentrated area for. development where even contact lenses with AR Figure 2 Difference between normal view and. augmented view,Augmented and Virtual Reality, 4 1 Extended Tracking 4 2 Gaze input user interface. Extended tracking is another powerful feature which Once the user places a smartphone in the Cardboard. can be used efficiently to position various models in the slot and mounts it for use he she cannot interact with the. real world It uses the features of the real world mobile with touchscreen So one has to depend on other. environment to improve tracking methods of input Gaze input user interface is a way of. performance and continue tracking even when the target interacting by looking at a certain point An onscreen. is no longer in view When the target goes out of view cursor appears in the user s view which moves with the. other information from the surrounding environment is head motions of the user. used by Vuforia to obtain the target position by visually Wherever the user points his head the onscreen cursor. tracking the environment 13 A map is built around the also points in the same direction So once this onscreen. target for this purpose and therefore assumes that the cursor is placed on the User Interface UI buttons a. target and environment are static Once a model is particular function which is preassigned to the UI. enabled for extended tracking even if it is not in the view buttons is performed. of the camera not only the model still stays but the Figure 4 illustrated how the user points his her. coordinate system still remains intact with respect to the smartphone at the image target QR code a menu pops. target up onto his her view In the menu shown there are three. UI buttons each associated with a specific function In. order to select the menu options the user has to tilt and. orient his her head such a way that the cursor lies on the. UI buttons Ray casting technique is used to determine. when the cursor overlaps with UI objects and the, resulting action is triggered Specific functions for each. UI buttons are attached using code scripts,Figure 3 Models in place even after respective.
image targets have been removed This is made Figure 4 UI buttons and on screen cursor on. possible by enabling extended tracking feature user s view. If extended tracking is enabled the AR application. remembers the reference frame of the first target for an 4 3 Integration with Cardboard. extended time even when the camera encounters a Cardboard SDK enables conversion of any. problem Also the subsequent images that are tracked application to VR mode Integrating both Vuforia and. after the first target maintain their positions with respect Cardboard SDK on Unity game engine can result in the. to the first target as well as with respect to the following output shown in the Figure 5 below It shows a. surrounding environment From Figure 3 it can be seen stereo output of the augmentations The image target in. that the models stay in their positions with respect to each the figure is TRACKER which when scanned gives a. other as well as the environment even after there are no 3d model augmentation But since the app had been. image targets Also for extended tracking to work better integrated with Cardboard for the viewer to get the. the environment should be feature rich and static This is immersive experience the stereo output of the. one of its limitations The more moving parts or features augmentation is intended This integration is done on. in an environment the lesser efficient is the positioning Unity 3D where the AR camera from Vuforia SDK is. of the model with respect to the environment bound to the Left and Right Cardboard Main cameras. imported from Cardboard SDK, 33rd International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction ISARC 2016. Figure 5 Stereo output of AR app,5 Construction Application Case. Illustrations,Figure 7 Building model augmented once the. When the user mounts the cardboard and starts user views the QR code. traversing along the site he she usually picks up the real. world camera input until he encounters the image targets. Here the image targets are the QR codes which are, specifically positioned at places to ensure the right. superimpositions,Figure 8 Extended Tracking shows the first.
image still in position while tracking the next one. In the modes discussed the models have been invoked. as soon as the image target is tracked But if a menu is. Figure 6 Plan view showing the user s head invoked instead of the model directly the user can decide. mounted with Cardboard while traversing the site what he wants to view As shown in Figure 9 a user can. use the menu to select whether to view just the 3D model. From the Figure 6 7 and 8 it can be seen that the user or the reinforcement being superimposed or MEP lines. traverses the path initially with no augmentations till he superimposed on the walls. encounters QR code 1 then he visualizes a building. which is scaled and located at a particular orientation and. position with respect to the image target Also the dotted. face in the Figure 7 shows that even when the image. target is out of view the model is seen Hence the first. model tracked here is extended tracked as discussed in. section 4 1 In an extended tracing system the, subsequent models can be as shown in Figure 8 where. model 1 stays referenced even though the user is viewing. another image target In this way the entire site can be. traversed while positioning the models with respect to the Figure 9 Menu options invoked from QR Code. initial image tracked,Consider the case where the user encounters a QR. code as shown in the Figure 10 Once the user mounts the. Augmented and Virtual Reality, cardboard and views the same image it appears that the. menu pops up first onto his view as shown in the Figure. 9 And then using the head movements the user has to. point the cursor on the desired menu option In the case. below first the user points the cursor onto the 3d Model. option to view the wall with two windows and an, entrance For example if the QR code to be printed and. erected on site is having a width of 30cm while, modelling itself the wall is scaled 10 times to the size of.
QR code image so that once 30cm QR code is scanned a. 3 meter model wall gets augmented Also the positioning. with respect to the image is done accurately otherwise the. slightest of the errors can be picked up by the eye if the. model doesn t overlap with the real world as expected Figure 12 Superimposed Reinforcement. Figure 10 Naked eye view of QR code,Figure 13 Superimposed Electrical Lines. 6 Discussion Conclusion, Investment in any kind of technology needs a detailed. assessment of the value and the potential return on. investment One might deem that implementing, advanced technology at construction site would simply. increase the cost of construction and early adopters of. new technology take a large risk Although AR is a, Figure 11 Cursor Invoked 3D model technology in its infant stage the projected utility is. enormous that no one can ignore it and preparing for its. Similarly the other options are selected by the user by adoption is a must. gazing the cursor on the corresponding menu options. Figures 12 and 13 show the super imposition of the. reinforcement and Electrical Lines onto the augmented Low investment efforts such as this enables decision. wall Also if there is an existing real wall one can invoke makers to experience and evaluate the benefits of AR. a reinforcement or other attribute display onto it The with minimal financial risk As full scale deployments. visualization of such details of elements helps in of AR technologies in construction becomes feasible the. understanding where the embedded lines run so that one impact on the productivity should be significant. can exactly pin point a location for maintenance or other. activities without actually cutting it open and without The cost effective AR platforms is also expected to. going through a large number of drawings contribute to the widespread adoption of the technology. While there is need for expensive and sophisticated. technologies such as the Microsoft HoloLens it is the. availability for inexpensive and familiar platforms which. will propel the widespread usage Though there are, certain limitations to this technology as a starter these.
33rd International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction ISARC 2016. technologies can be used for training workers on site 278 2011. visualization purposes that gives a clear understanding of 11 Shirazi A and Behzadan A Design and Assessment. the product they are working on From preliminary of a Mobile Augmented Reality Based Information. initiatives like these the technology can be taken to a full Delivery Tool for Construction and Civil. fledged adoption once it is observed that the results are Engineering Curriculum J Prof Issues Eng Educ. fruitful Pract 141 3 page 04014012 2015,12 Augmented Reality Online. References https en wikipedia org wiki Augmented reality. Accessed 01 03 2016, 1 Azuma R A Survey of Augmented Reality 13 Developer vuforia com Vuforia Developer Portal. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments Online http developer vuforia com Accessed. 6 4 pages 355 385 1997 01 03 2016,2 Webster A Feiner S MacIntyre B Massie W. and Krueger T Augmented reality in architectural,construction inspection and renovation. In Proceedings of ASCE Third Congress on,Computing in Civil Engineering pages 913 919.
3 Feiner S MacIntyre B Hollerer T and Webster,A A touring machine Prototyping 3d mobile. augmented reality systems for exploring the urban,environment ISWC 97 Proceedings of the 1st. IEEE International Symposium on Wearable,Computers strona 74 Washington DC USA IEEE. Computer Society 1997,4 Rankohi S and Waugh L Review and analysis of. augmented reality literature for construction,industry Vis Eng 1 1 page 9 2013.
5 Dong S and Kamat V SMART scalable and,modular augmented reality template for rapid. development of engineering visualization,applications Vis Eng 1 1 page 1 2013. 6 Wang X Dunston P S Proctor R Hou L and So,J Reflections on using a game engine to develop a. virtual training system for construction excavator. operators In Proceedings of the 28th International. Symposium on Automation and Robotics in,Construction ISARC 2011 Seoul Korea 2012. 7 Yeh K Tsai M and Kang S On Site Building,Information Retrieval by Using Projection Based.
Augmented Reality Journal of Computing in Civil,Engineering 26 3 pages 342 355 2012. 8 Wang X Using Augmented Reality to Plan Virtual,Construction Worksite Int J Adv Robotic Sy page1. 9 Park C Lee D Kwon O and Wang X A,framework for proactive construction defect. management using BIM augmented reality and,ontology based data collection template. Automation in Construction 33 pages 61 71 2013,10 Behzadan AH Kamat VR Integrated.
information modelling and visual simulation of,engineering operations using dynamic augmented. reality scene graphs Journal of Information,Technology in Construction ITcon 16 pages 259.

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