Linguistic Divergence Patterns In English To Marathi-Books Pdf

Linguistic Divergence Patterns in English to Marathi
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International Journal of Computer Applications 0975 8887 . Volume 87 No 4 February 2014, in the nominative case can be cited as a type of thematic Marathi as in 3 stab is mapped by overt use of both the. divergence 1 instrumental adjunct sura knife and verb bhoskne to insert . 1 John likes Mary 3 , i cora ne raam la suai bhOskun maaron takale. John Mary ACC like do be PR caaoranao ramala sura Baaosakuna maa NA Taklo. ja ana maorIlaa psant krtoa thief ERG Ram ACC knife insert CPP kill dropped . ii The thief stabbed Ram to death , The status of divergence in this example too depends on the. John DAT Mary like came choice of the lexical entry For instance for English to. ja analaa maorI psant pDlaaI Marathi MT the meaning of the verb stab can be entered in. iii the lexicon as suri bhOskun However for the reverse. John DAT Mary like be PR translation such a choice is quite restricted because suria. ja analaa maorI psant Aaho knife can be used in another sense also with the verb. However one can also observe that for English to Marathi bhOskun to insert Thus there is a need to examine such. MT there is a choice among three options in Marathi where cases in detail for their classification as translation divergence. the Marathi sentence in i presents no divergence the ones in in Marathi and English MT . ii iii present divergence It is also a question of lexical. choice as whether the English verb like is treated as a. 3 1 5 Categorial Divergence, Categotial divergences are located in the mismatch between. transitive active verb in Marathi with a lexical entry pasant. parts of speech of the pair of translation languages In case of. karane or like an inchoative verb with a lexical entry pasant. categorical divergence changes in category For example the. padane or a stative verb with a lexical entry pasant aasne . predicate is adjectival in one language but nominal in other. 3 1 2 Structural Divergence language Consider the example as. Structural divergences are examples where an NP argument in I am feeling hungry . one language is realized by a PP adjunct oblique NP in. another language The verb enter in an English sentence such . as malaa Buk laagalaI Aaho , In English hungry is adjective and but in Marahi bhukh .
he entered the room hunger becomes the noun , , tyanao KaolaImaQao p vaoSa kola . 3 1 6 Lexical Divergence, Lexical divergence arises out of the unavailability of an exact. he room in enter did , translation map for a construction in one language into. takes an NP argument the room whereas its Marathi, another language Consider countpart of an English phrasal. counterpart pravesh Kela takes a PP adjunct Kholi madhe. verb break into is realized not by a parallel phrasal verb but. room in 3 4 We notice that enter is an intransitive verb. by a different word The Marathi equivalent of this sentence. and takes a locative adjunct which in English is optionally an. presents an identical case, NP or PP and in Marathi it is obligatorily a PP .
John broke into the room, 3 1 3 Promotional and Demotional Divergence. Promotional and demotional divergences or Head swapping . divergences arise where the status lower or higher of a jaa na jabardstaInao Aat iSarlaa . syntactic constituent in one language is affected in another We notice that in Marathi the English phrasal verb break. language For instance when an adverbial element in one into is realized by a different verb shirne enter which takes. language is realized by a verbal element it constitutes a case an adverbial element jabardastiine by force The example. of promotional divergence and an opposite case will result in shows that the divergence pattern not only involves. demotional divergence In case of English to Marathi the differences in lexical mapping but also in structural mapping. example is between the two languages Besides the domain of this type. of translation divergence is far from clear Most of the. the play is on conflational and inflational as well as some other types of. divergences can also overlap with this category This shows. khel calu ahaa that this category of translation divergence is not well defined. KoL caalU Aaho in a sense to account for the relevant types of divergence in an. play on PROG be PR as an example of this type of exact way . translation divergence in English Marathi MT The status of. divergence with respect to this example too depends on the 3 2 Syntactic Divergence in English . choice of the lexical entry of on as it can be categorized Marathi Translation. either as an adverb or an adjective , 3 2 1 Constituent order Divergence. 3 1 4 Conflational and Inflational Divergence Constituent order divergence relates to the word order. A conflational divergence results when two or more words in distinctions between English and Marathii Essentially the. one language are translated by one word in another language constituent order describes where the specifier and the. The opposite case is referred to by inflational divergence The complements of a phrase are positioned For example in. English verb stab is generally cited as an example of this English the complement of a verb is placed after the verb and. class of divergence The verb stab incorporates the the specifier of the verb is placed before Thus English is an. instrumental adjunct which in other languages is realized by SVO language Marathi on the other hand is an SOV. overt use of the relevant instrumental adjunct For instance in. International Journal of Computer Applications 0975 8887 . Volume 87 No 4 February 2014, language Example I shows the constituent order divergence sentences is the respective positions of the subject NP and the. between English and Marathi place adverbial phrase This type of divergence is related to. more than one aspect of grammar such as the word order . I Ram is playing tennis lexical and structural gaps in languages etc and need to be. S V O examined in detail to categorize the type of divergence it. represents , RAM TENNIS PLAYING IS 4 COMMONLY FOUND DIVERGENCE. S O V, Also in Marathi the qualifier of the complement succeeds the.
IN ENGLISH AND MARATHI MACHINE, verb whereas in English it succeeds the complement consider TRANSLATION. example II We found some commonly found divergence patterns in. English and Marathi Language pair which are not considered. II He saw a girl whose eyes were blue in the earlier classification Some of them are given in the. S V O Q following section , 4 1 Replicative Words. HE ONE GIRL SAW WHOSE EYES BLUE WERE Marathi like most of the South Asian languages has. S O V Q replicative words for which it is difficult to find an exact. counterpart in European languages such as English Almost. 3 2 2 Adjunction Divergence all kinds of words can be replicated to denote a number of. Syntactic divergences associated with different types of different functions in Marathi A verb verb replication such. adjunct structures are classified as Adjunction divergence as pahata pahata see see can be used to denote different. Hindi and English differ in the possible positioning of the types of functions that are mapped onto English in various. adjective phrase In Marathi a PP can be placed between a ways depending on a number of factors For instance . verb and its object or before the object while in English it can. only be at the maximal level i e not between the verb and its . object I II pahta pahta skaL JaalaI , literally means It became morning while we were watching . I a He called me to his house , However this is not the right English translation of the. b He called to his house me Marathi sentence A closer translation will be In the. II a meanwhile it became morning , HE TO ME HIS HOUSE CALLED 4 2 Determiner System.
b English has articles that mark the in definiteness of the noun. phrase overtly Marathi lacks an overt article system and. HE HIS HOUSE TO ME CALLED different devices are used to realize the in definiteness of a. 3 2 3 Null subject Divergence noun phrase in Marathi For instance mapping of a bare NP in. In Marathi unlike in English the subject of the sentence can Marathi onto an NP with an article a an the in English is. be left implicit as in I for example dependent on a detailed syntactic and semantic analysis of the. noun phrases in both the languages for instance, I Long ago there was a king . , LONG AGO ONE KING WAS Maulagaa Aalaa , Marathi allows dropping of the subject where the subject is the a boy came . obvious as in I repeated here for convenience This gap in the systems of the grammar of these languages is. the cause of divergence that cannot be properly categorized. 3 2 4 Pleonastic Divergence within the existing classification of translation divergence . Another related point of divergence between Marathi and. English is regarding the mapping of there and it sentences in 4 3 Morphological Gaps. English In English there and it constructions are used to Another important area related to divergence that has not been. denote existential sentences besides others Marathi does not properly recognized in the existing literature is the strategies. have a pleonastic subject construction and the contrast the different natural languages adopt to denote different. between existential and nonexistential mostly definite modality and aspectual properties of the verb For instance . sentences is realized by several other ways such as the Marathi uses a certain type of passive construction that marks. movement of the noun phrase from its canonical position and a certain kind non volitionality of modality function The. the use of demonstrative elements English counterparts of such Marathi sentences are only. I partially able to express the exact meaning , forest in lion be PR I . There is a lion in the forest , Ram by glass break PASS . i The glass got broken by Ram , lion forest in be PR ii Ram broke the glass unintentionally .
The lion is in the forest II , We notice that the English interpretation of the Marathi. sentence in I is not possible for the Marathi sentence in II Ram by mistake happen PASS . However the only difference between these two Marathi i Ram made a mistake . International Journal of Computer Applications 0975 8887 . Volume 87 No 4 February 2014, ii The mistake got made by Ram syntactic divergence is shown in table 2 and the commonly. We notice that the Marathi sentences in 4 and 5 have found divergence patterns in English and Marathi language. identical structure but they cannot be realized identically in pair is summarized in Table3 We have considered the various. English The second English interpretation of 5 is not point of divergence between Marathi and English which have. possible whereas in 4 the second translation is closer to the not been directly or indirectly discussed in the existing. intended sense of the Marathi sentence The possible English literature on divergence To obtain correct translation we. counterpart of the Marathi sentence 5 is far from the actual need to examine the different grammatical as well as some of. sense in which the Marathi impersonal passive has been used the extra grammatical characteristics of both Marathi and. The literal sense will be somewhat like this Ram made a English to exhaustively identify the types of translation. mistake unintentionally Thus we notice that to capture the divergence in this pair of languages This will enable us to. exact meaning of an impersonal passive sentence in Marathi come up with strategies to handle these situations and coming. English not only uses an active sentence but also has to resort up with correct translation . to other devices such as lexical insertion to fill the gaps . Table 1 Lexico Symantic divergence, 4 4 Honorific Difference Divergence Type English Sentence Marathi. In Marathi honorific features are expressed by several Sentence. , linguistic markers including the use of plural pronoun and Thematic John likes Mary. plural verbal inflections This feature is not available in a Divergence. European language such as English in a similar way This . causes a complex topic of divergence in the sense that it Structural He entered the . interacts both with the grammatical and socio cultural aspects Divergence room. of the language , Promotional and The play is on .
6 Demotional, his father come be PR PL Divergence. His father has come Conflational and The thief stabbed . In 6 the subject vadil father is an honorific noun which is Inflational Ram to death . reflected by the use of plural inflectional elements on the Divergence . agreeing elements such as verb and the genitive noun In the . existing classification the translation divergences of this kind. have not been pointed out , Categorial I am feeling . , Divergence hungry , , 4 5 Word Order and its Implications. Although some of the word order related divergences can be Lexical John broke into the . Divergence room, handled within the existing classification in the form of . structural divergences we may notice that many other such. divergences need more exploration For instance the . interpretation of the question particle kaya in Marathi is . dependent of the word order facts of English and Marathi . kaya can be used both as a marker of interrogative pronoun in. content question sentences and as a question particle in yes no Table . behind English to Marathi translation In this paper the various divergence patterns between English Marathi language pair are considered This will enable us to come up with strategies to handle these situations and coming up with correct translation General Terms Natural Language Processing Machine Translation

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